The material of which type is composed. There are at present three classes, viz., ordinary metal, hard metal, and extra hard metal, the nature of which respectively will be found under the title of Type Founding. What is called “Patent Hard Metal,” is the invention of Mr. J. E. Johnson, an analytical chemist. In 1852, he patented a hard type alloy into which zinc entered largely, but had to abandon it on account of the tendency to rust or oxodise of alloys of that metal. In 1854 he patented another alloy, in which, by substituting tin ibr lead, wholly or in part, he obtained a series of alloys varying in hardness according to the amount of tin substituted. When all the lead a thus replaced, a metal nearly equalling brass in hardness results. The type with which this Dictionary is printed will cut the best old metal like a knife, and any letter of the fount may be driven into a similar letter of the old typo with a hammer like a steel punch into copper. A company, called the Patent Type Founding Company, was established in 1857, to supply the printing trade with book and newspaper founts manufactured of this description of metal, by patent automatic machinery. Its foundry is situated at No. 81, Red Lion-square, London, W.C.
The material of which the type is composed.