A proof is a single impression of type matter, produced for the purpose of being submitted to the reader or author for examination and correction, so that all errors and imperfections in the composition may be ascertained before the work is sent to press. There are various kinds of proofs, viz.: the first proof, which, as its name indicates, is the first impression taken from the composed matter; the revise, which is the second proof and is compared with the first proof in order to see that all the corrections therein marked have been properly made; the re-revise, which is pulled for a similar reason; the press proof, which is the last proof but one, and is read with the most minute care to detect every error and fault; and, finally, the press revise, which is compared with the press proof, after which the work goes to press. The foul proof is the first proof with its imperfections marked on it; the author’s proof is that which contains the author’s corrections or alterations. A clean proof is one taken from matter that is quite correct as far as workmanship is concerned.


A single impression of type matter taken for the purpose of examination and correction by the proof reader or author. The first impression taken for this purpose is called the first proof, the second the revise (q.v.). There are also the author’s proof, the revise, press proof, and foundry proof, each of which terms is explained elsewhere. See also Clean Proof and Foul Proof.

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