Iconographic Encyclopædia
Natural Sciences



Botany makes us acquainted with plants, or the vegetable kingdom.

Plants are organized productions of nature, possessing neither sensation nor voluntary motion. The vital actions of the plant have for their object, solely, the nourishment of the individual and the continuation of the species. In animals, on the other hand, life is exhibited in a more complicated manner: since we not only find actions occur which are directed to same special purpose, or produced by some inward impulse, but the faculty of sensation here presents itself for the first time; that is, the power of bringing home to consciousness by means of the senses, the impressions of the external world. Hence we term the animal animate, the plant inanimate; and for the same reason the functions of nutrition and reproduction possessed by both plants and animals are said to be expressions of the vegetable, while those of sensation and voluntary motion peculiar to the animal, belong to the animal life.

The motions of the so-called sensitive plants, as the clover (Hedysarum gyrans), venus Fly-trap (Dionæa musipula), various mimosas (Mimosa, pudica, sensitiva, and others), are not spontaneous or innate, but rather dependent on external influences, or else are the result of purely mechanical operations, as exemplified in the bursting of seed capsules. Even if in the above-mentioned movements of plants, as well as in the sleep of plants and similar phenomena, it be impossible to deny a certain sensibility to light, air, cold, heat, &c., yet we need never confound such manifestations of vitality with the conscious perceptions of the animal.

Striking as is the difference between a plant and an animal, as seen in the higher organizations of both kingdoms, yet individual cases do occur in which the line of distinction is very difficult to draw; where the entire structure is so simple, that the same object has been referred now to one kingdom, and now to another. It must also be noted, that this difficulty of separation lies not between the highest plant and the lowest animal, but between the lowest of these; the distinctions and distance widening between the two as we ascend in the scale of structure.

Essentials to the Existence of Plants

Plants in general require for their existence: 1, a soil into which they may root, and from which they may derive certain materials necessary to their growth; 2, water, through which, as a dissolving medium, all the substances derived from the soil are introduced into the plant; 3, atmospheric air, from which the plant absorbs carbonic acid by day, fixing its carbon, and exhaling the oxygen; 4, light, which facilitates the reception of nutriment, operates in respiration and in the coloration of the different parts of the plant, and in part causes the sleep of plants; 5, heat, co-operating with light in the last result, and in causing the inhibition of liquid food, and likewise influencing germination and the periodical growth of plants. Electricity has long been known as influencing the growth of plants, but the precise nature and extent of its action are not satisfactorily established, although numerous experiments have been made on the subject.

Elementary Organs of Plants

Cellular Tissue

Cellular Tissue is the elementary material found in all plants, and in all parts of the plant. As the name indicates, it is composed of an aggregation of cells of different shapes. The single cell, when isolated, is spherical or spheroidal, the shape, however, varying considerably when aggregated. Some special names for differently shaped aggregated cells, are as follows; 1. Parenchyma, cells of dodecahedral character, and whose transverse section is subhexagonal. The term has been applied to cellular tissue in general. 2. Sphærenchyma, spherical cells. 3. Merenchyma, spheroidal cells. 4. Ovenchyma, oval cells,—very common in herbaceous plants. 5. Conenchyma, conical cells, as in some hairs. 6. Columnar tissue, divided into Cylindrenchyma, where the cells are cylindrical, and Prismenchyma, where they are prismatic. This, when compressed, becomes Muriform, and when depressed, Pinenchyma. 7. Prosenchyma, fusiform, or spindle-shaped cells, as in bark and wood. 8. Colpenchyma, sinuous or waved cells. 9. Cladenchyma, branched cells, as in some hairs. 10. Actinenchyma. stellate or radiating cells. 11. Doedalenchyma, entangled, branched, and abular cells.

The size of cells varies greatly, not only in different plants, but in different parts of the same plant. The largest are about \(\frac{1}{30}\) of an inch in diameter; the more usual size, however, is \(\frac{1}{500}\), sometimes \(\frac{1}{1000}\). Each cell is originally isolated with a completely investing wall, which, however, in some rare instances, is observed to be perforated. The passage of liquids in and out of the single cell is performed by endosmosis. The anatomy of the cell itself and the probable mode of reproduction will be referred to hereafter. Although cells have each a distinct wall, so that when two come in contact they are separated by a double partition, yet this, on the one hand, may appear to be single, and on the other, may become entirely absorbed, so as to form a continuous cavity. There may, at times, be a lateral communication between contiguous series of cells. Single cells, such as the spores of certain aquatic plants, may have cilise or fine hairs, by means of which they can execute a progressive motion through the water. Under such circumstances, they have often been considered and described as infusorial animalcula.

Pitted Tissue (Bothrenchyma) is a modification of cellular tissue caused by the unequal deposit of the thickening matter in the wall of the cell leaving thinner portions, which, when viewed by transmitted light, appear like pores or pits. A spiral thread or fibre is sometimes found coiled up in the inside of the true cell wall, which, when the latter is dissolved, uncoils and exhibits itself in its true character. Such cells, called spiral cells (Inenchyma), are frequent in the orchidaceous and cactaceous plants. This fibre varies from \(\frac{1}{2000}\) to \(\frac{1}{10000}\) of an inch in diameter, and is solid, with a cross-section of various shape. The coils of the spire are sometimes broken up and recombined in various ways, so as to appear as rings, reticulations, bars, or dots, thus producing annular, reticulated, scalariform, or dotted cells.

Cells are sometimes aggregated so closely together as to leave no visible interspaces, the tissue being then termed perfect Parenchyma. Imperfect Parenchyma is where the cells touch at certain points only, leaving intervals, which, when regular and continuous, are called intercellular passages or canals: when irregular and limited, intercellidar spaces or Lacunæ. A division of cellular tissue is sometimes made into Parenchyma, where the cells fit together by plane faces, as in the pith and outer bark, and Prosenchyma, where the cells are fusiform, this being confined to the inner bark and wood. The mode in which the combination of cells is effected, varies under different circumstances; sometimes they are simply approximated and fused together, sometimes united by an intercellular matter which, in sea weeds, forms a considerable part of the bulk of the plant.

The external investment of the cell is composed of an unazotized primary matter, termed cellulose. This is lined by an originally mucilaginous matter containing nitrogen, called Protoplasm, and inside of this is the Cytoblastema. A weak solution of iodine applied to the young cell causes the protoplasm to turn brown and leave the cellulose. The tissue is further modified by the addition of various matters, the most important of which is Sclerogen or Lignine applied on the inside, the substance to which wood owes its hardness. This consists of C35, H24, O10, and may be dissolved by hot nitric acid. In all cell deposits there is a more or less tendency to a spiral arrangement.

Each cell will be found to contain, at one perod of its existence, a small body called a nucleus, this often embracing one or two minute dots called nucleoli. This nucleus may either lie free in the cell, or be attached by threads, or fastened directly to the cell wall. Some recent authorities of great weight, however, deny the existence of a primordial nucleus in every cell.

In addition to the carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, found universally as the constituents of the cell, there are other materials more variable in their appearance and amount, as Sulphur, Phosphorus, Potash, Soda, Lime, Alumina, Magnesia, Silica, and Iron; more rarely Iodine, Chlorine, Copper, Bromine, and Manganese. These will be subsequently referred to more at length. Starch is included in the cells of all plants at some period of their existence, and forms one of the most important distinctive characters between the animal and vegetable tissues. Crystals also, or Raphides of various shapes and characters are found in the interior of cells, either lying loose or suspended from the walls. Sometimes there will be a single large crystal in a cell, and again several may be inclosed together. They abound in certain plants, as Cacti, to such an extent, as to exceed in weight the other constituents of the tissue. The raphides are all formed by the action of organic acids, as phosphoric, oxalic, &c.

Jelly is another occasional element of cells. This is hard and horny when dry, slowly soluble in water, and unacted on by iodine. It sometimes fills particular cells, as in the stems of some Cacti. It is to this substance that carrageen moss and other plants owe their gelatinous properties. Chlorophylle, the green coloring matter of plants, and Chromule, the coloring matter not green, are additional contents of cells.

Various and quite conflicting opinions have been propounded by different eminent vegetable physiologists as to the development (Cytogenesis) and functions of cells. Perhaps the more generally received opinion is, that in the blastema, or primordial matter, the nucleus, which is itself a minute cell, is first formed, and exerting a directing influence upon the inclosing matter, causes it to assume a cell-shape. With the absorption of new matter from the blastema the nucleoli increase in size and finally separate, each one forming around itself new cells, which, enlarging, burst the original cell. The new cells contain nucleated nuclei, by means of which the same operation is repeated, the increase taking place in a determinate direction. This constitutes the endogenous theory of cell development. The exogenous theory supposes an influence to be exerted by a cell on the surrounding matter, resulting in the addition or aggregation of new matter. This view does not require the existence of a nucleus. According to others, again, the old cell becomes separated by a constriction, or a projecting partition, into two cells, each of which may or may not include a nucleus. This is the merismatic or fissiparous theory. Many attribute to electric currents, produced by the various chemical actions, the influences which cause the different cell phenomena. The development of cells sometimes takes place with extraordinary rapidity, especially in the Fungi. Thus, in Bovista gigantea, they have been supposed to be produced at the rate of sixty-six millions in a minute.

Vascular Tissue

Vascular Tissue, or Angienchyma, consists of tubes whose length greatly exceeds their breadth. They may be formed of membrane only, or of membrane variously modified. Woody fibre, or ligneous tissue (Pleurenchyma), consists of tubes or elongated cells, of a fusiform or spindle-shape, with the walls greatly thickened by sclerogenous deposits. These overlap each other, and are so combined as to give great strength and firmness to the phmt. It differs from simple cellular tissue in its cylindrical and elongated form. The term Prosenchyma is properly applied to short fusiform cellular tissue. Woody tissue is found in wood, in the inner bark, and in the skeleton of the leaf, and may be separated from the other portions of the plant by maceration. It is thus that flax, hemp, and linen (all of them forms of ligneous fibre) are obtained. Cotton, on the other hand, consists of elongated cells or hairs, which collapse on drying, and twist spirally, as seen under the microscope, this constituting an excellent test to distinguish the latter from the former. Common pleurenchyma presents no markings; in glandular, on the other hand, the tubes exhibit discoid depressions on the outside of the wall. The depressions of two contiguous tubes are generally opposite to each other, and thus inclose a doubly convex lenticular space. In some cases there is a secondary depression in the bottom of the primary, which, when viewed by transmitted light, appears as a light circle inside of a darker one. This glandular or punctated woody tissue is exhibited in all the Coniferse, and serves as an excellent microscopical character for fossil woods.

Fibro-vascular Tissue (Trachenchyma) consists of tapering membranous tubes, and having either a spiral fibre inclosed, or else markings of rings, dots, or bars, arranged in a more or less spiral form. This tissue occurs especially in the medullary sheath, and in the veins of the leaves. True Spiral Vessels (Spiroidea) exhibit themselves as elongated tubes, overlapping at the conical extremities, with a spiral fibre on the inside, not on the outside, as has been erroneously stated. The thin outer membrane consists of pure cellulose. The point where two successive spiral vessels overlap is sometimes absorbed, so as to present a free communication. The internal fibre is generally single; more rarely a greater number, as from two to twenty are combined, so as to present a band constituting Pleiotracheæ. The spiral generally turns from right to left. The coils may be separated or united: this union among each other, and to the sides of the vessel, may be so close as to constitute closed tracheae.

Spurious Tracheæ, or ducts, are vessels in which the internal spiral is broken up and variously modified. A principal variety is the annular, where the broken coils are combined into rings, which may be horizontal or oblique, simple or branched, contiguous or remote. In reticulated vessels separate fibres run into each other on the walls of the tube; when the fibre is broken up into short pieces which adhere to the walls, the vessel becomes dotted. In scalariform vessels the pieces of the fibre are shorter, and passing transversely, and nearly parallel across the vessel, present an appearance not unlike that of the rounds of a ladder. Such vessels are generally prismatic, as in Ferns, the angles being unmarked.

In Vasiform Tissue (Bothrenchyma, or Taphrenchyma), the vessels exhibit an appearance of pores on the surface. These vessels consist of cylinders, more or less elongated, in which the thickening matter is so deposited as to leave part of the membrane uncovered, thus causing the porous or pitted appearance.

Laticiferous Tissue, or Cinenchyma, consists of long homogeneous tubes, brandling and anastomosing like the blood-vessels of animals. Their walls exhibit no markings, but vary in thickness. They contain and conduct a granular liquid matter called latex, which, at first transparent, subsequently becomes variously colored. Physiologists differ as to the origin of these vessels, some supposing them to be formed by linearly arranged cells, whose walls are absorbed at the extremities, so as to form a continuous tube in which the latex subsequently flows; while others, again, maintain that the current is first established in the intercellular spaces, and that the inclosing wall is formed afterwards.

There are no elementary forms of tissue other than those already mentioned, the rest being simple modifications of the above. The various air vessels, cysts, reservoirs of secreted matter, &c., are either intercellular spaces, or cells filled with air or with peculiar secretions. The air cells are seen in peculiar modifications in the stems of many water plants and grasses.

Compound Organs of Plants

Organs of Nutrition or Vegetation

The General Integument

By the term General Integument, is meant the external cellular covering of the plant, composed, in most cases, of two layers, the cuticle and epidermis.

The Superficial Pellicle, or Cuticle, is a very thin continuous membrane spread over the epidermis, and investing all parts except the stoniata, down whose cavity, however, it sometimes dips, forming a very delicate lining. Some physiologists, with Mohl at their head, do not admit this as a separate membrane from the epidermis, supposing it to consist of the external coat of the cell thus separated from the protoplasm; others, again, suppose it to be a secretion from the cell, which, forming first on the inside, transudes to the outer surface. The epidermis, which lies subjacent to the cuticle, is found on all parts of the plant exposed to air excepting the stigma. In parts habitually submerged it is replaced by a simple cuticle. The epidermis is composed of cells, generally tabular, and arranged in a greater or less number of layers, these cells being bounded by flexuous or straight lines, containing either a colorless liquid or other substances, as resinous matter, wax, silica, carbonate of lime, &c. The stomata are openings between some of the cells of the epidermis, by which a communication is established between the air and the subjacent parts. They generally consist of two semilunar cells, surrounding an oval slit, as lips inclose the mouth. They open and close according to the greater or less amount of moisture in the atmosphere. The stomata communicate with intercellular spaces, lined by the above-mentioned prolongations of the cuticle, called cistomata.

Stomata occur on all portions of the plant, especially in the green parts. They rarely exist in the Cellulares or in pale parasites, and never in roots and etiolated plants. The number varies greatly in different portions of the same plant, being, however, greatest on the under side of leaves exposed to the air, and yet sometimes entirely wanting on the upper surfaces. In flouting leaves the stomata only occur on the upper surface. The following table exhibits the number of stomata to the square inch on the leaves of several plants:

Plants Upper Side Under Side
Mistletoe 200 200
Tradescantia 2000 2000
Rheum palmatum 1000 40,000
Crinum amabile 20,000 20,000
Aloe 25,000 20,000
Clove Pink 38,000 38,500
Yucca 40,000 40,000
Mezereon none 4000
Pæony none 13,000
Vine none 13,600
Lilac none 160,000
Holly none 63,000

Various processes are seen at times on the surface of the epidermis by the outward enlargement or projection of some cells. When these are more considerably elongated they constitute hairs (pili or villi), and are covered by the cuticle as by a sheath. They are either lymphatic or glandular, the latter distended at the base or apex, to receive certain secretions. In respect to position, hairs are erect or oblique, or else lie flat along the surface (ad-pressed); when attached by their middle, they are peltate. They may be composed of a single cell, which is either simple, forked, or branched; or else of several cells, which are either placed end to end, as in moniliform hairs, or united laterally into a compound cone, compound hairs, or branched. When several hairs proceed from a common centre, they are said to be stellate or radiated. These, when close pressed together, so as to form a discoid expansion, constitute a scale or scurf (lepis); the surface is then said to be lepidote. This character is well seen in Hippophae. A chaffy substance, surrounding the base of the leaves of ferns, consisting of elongated flattened cells, is constituted by ramenta or ramentaceous hairs: a similar substance in palms is called reticulum or mattula. Prickles (aculei) are hardened hairs, connected solely with the epidermis. These differ from thorns, which are stunted branches, and are connected with the wood. Setæ are bristles or stiff hairs; the surfaces on which they occur are said to be setose or setaceous.

Hairs, in regard to their form, are clavate, or club-shaped, when they expand gradually from the base to the apex, or are thickened at the apex; when there is a distinct rounded head, they are capitate; when they have slight projections on the surface, they are scabrous; hooked or uncinate, when with a hook at the apex turned downwards; barbed or glochidiate, with two or more hooks around the apex; peltate, when attached solely in the middle; ciliate, when surrounding the margin of leaves.

Hairs are found on various parts of plants, even in the interior, and different names are given to surfaces, according to the degree to which hairs are developed, as well as according to the nature of the hairs themselves. Thus, a surface is glabrous, when there are no hairs whatever; pilose or hairy, when such exist; villous, when the hairs are long, weak, and often oblique; sericeous, when the hairs are long and adpressed, with a silky lustre; hispid (hirtus), when the hairs are long and stiff, but not adpressed; hirsute, when they are long, but neither stiff nor adpressed, velvety (velutinus), when there is a dense covering of short down, like velvet; tomentose, when the surface is covered with crisp, rather rigid entangled hairs, like cotton, forming a kind of felt; woolly, when the hairs are long and matted, like wool; bearded or stupose, when the hair occurs in small tufts.

As glandular hairs differ in nothing but form from true glands, we shall consider both together. A gland is a cavity in the epidermis, with variously shaped walls, usually inclosing a peculiar secretion. When supported on a stem, glands are petiolate, stipitate, or stalked; when without this, they become sessile. Stalked glands, or glandular hairs, are composed either of a single cell, dilated at the apex, or of several combined. The gland is sometimes situated at the base of the hair, which is perforated to receive the secretion, as in the common nettle. Here the apex is closed by a solid cap, which breaks off at the slightest touch, leaving the poison to pass into the wound.

Glands sometimes occur as secreting cells surrounding a pit or depression. These communicate with the surface by means of a canal. Sometimes only the apex of the gland comes to the surface, at others it is entirely below; in this latter case the gland is vesicular. Warts (verrucæ) are collections of thickened cells on the surface of plants, containing various matters. Lenticels are cellular projections on the surface of bark, arising from its inner portion.

The [subject] of the epidermis and its appendages is to protect the plant from noxious influences, whether atmospheric, meteorological, or animal. Thus, in dry climates it is very thick, and coated with a waxy secretion, to prevent the loss of water. The stomata permit the escape of fluid from the interior, and exhibit a compensating contrivance, by which, when the plant is distended with liquid, they are opened to their utmost, closing more and more with the loss of moisture. A communication is kept up between the air and inner bark by means of lenticels, which thus perform the functions of stomata. The young roots are produced from them under certain circumstances. Some hairs occurring on the stile of flowers are called collecting hairs, from the office they possess in taking up the pollen. In many hairs, especially in those of Tradescantia or spider wort, a circulation of fluids may readily be seen to take place, called Cyclosis.

Descending Stem or Root

The truly compound organs of the plant are the axis and its appendages, the epidermis and its appendages being merely the general investment. The axis consists of a root and a stem, growing generally in diametrically opposite directions. The axis is produced by the development of a spore, an embryo, or a leaf-bud, in two opposite directions. A spore is a young plant produced in the interior of another, without any agency of sexes, and having no determinate point of growth. An embryo is a young plant produced by the agency of sexes, and situated within a seed, having a determinate point or points of growth. A leaf-bud is a young plant produced without the agency of sexes, inclosed within rudimentary leaves or scales, and developed on the outside of a stem. The spore and embryo propagate the species in the person of distinct individuals; the leaf-bud propagates the species in the form of an aggregation of individuals. When the vital action of either spore, embryo, or bud, is excited, development takes place upwards, downwards, and laterally or horizontally; in the first case causing an elongation of stem, in the second of root, in the third producing an increase in thickness.

The root, or descending axis, is distinguished from the stem by the absence of normal buds and of stomata; in exogens there is generally no pith, although a medullary system is present. The objects of the root are twofold: to fix the plant firmly in the earth, and to absorb nutritious substances from the soil. Although roots are generally subterranean, they may sometimes be aerial. Such roots occur in epiphytes, or air plants, as also in species of Ficus, well shown in the Indian Banyan. In this case they are called adventitious, or abnormal. Green-colored aerial roots contain stomata. In certain parasites, as the Dodder or Cuscuta, roots are sometimes produced in the form of suckers, which enter the cellular tissue of the plant preyed upon. Roots exposed for a long time to the air, sometimes lose their fibrils and develope abnormal buds.

The form of roots varies exceedingly with the manner in which the axis descends and branches. When this central axis goes deep into the ground, tapering towards the apex, and without dividing, a tap root is produced. When this tap root becomes somewhat shortened, and at the same time succulent, it constitutes the conical root, as in the carrot; when there is a slight rounding at both extremities, instead of a straight outline, the root is fusiform, as in the radish; when the axis is much shortened in proportion to the thickest diameter, we have the napiform root of the turnip; if the root end abruptly, as if bitten off, it is called præmorse; it may also be twisted.

When the descending axis is very short, and at once divides into a number of nearly equal thin fibrils, the root is fibrous, as in many grasses; when these fibrils are short and succulent, the root is fasciculated; when the fasciculi are uniform and arranged like coral, the root is coralline; when some of the fibrils are developed in the form of starchy tubercles, the root is tubercular; it is nodulose when the fibrils enlarge in certain parts only; moniliform when the enlargement is at regular intervals, and of nearly equal size, like a string of beads. The root may also be annulated, when divided by constrictions into partial rings; placentiform, when expanded like a cake; testiculate, when there are two large tuberoid roots of nearly equal size.

Ascending Axis, or the Stem

The stem is the part of the plant usually exposed above the ground, and bearing the leaves and flowers; it is produced by the successive development of leaf buds in a longitudinal and lateral direction. The stem bears different names, according to the character of the plant. Thus, in ordinary herbaceous plants, it is called caulis; in the case of trees, truncus; in shrubs, caudex; in grasses, culm; in palms and ferns, stipe. When a distinct stem is present, the plant is called caulescent, when it is absent, acaulescent. True stems are sometimes absent in certain plants, which consist merely of expansions of cellular tissue, in the form of aggregations of cells. Such are called Thallogens, or Thallophytes. and are represented by Chara, Conferva, and Alga.

Stems, although more generally firm and erect, are sometimes weak, and either lie prostrate (procumbent stems), or climb like the ivy by means of suckers (scandent), or twist round other plants (volubile). The direction of the twist may be either from right to left, as in Convolvulus, or from left to right, as in the Honeysuckle. Some plants exhibit both directions alternately. The twining plants have generally herbaceous stems; some, however, are woody, as the Clematis, Vine, Honeysuckle, (fee, whose stems are called Sarmenta. Woody climbers are very common in tropical climates, where they are called Lianas. In some cases, the lateral extension exceeds the longitudinal, as in Testudinaria and some Cacti.

There are certain points along the stems, at which leaf buds and branches appear; these are called nodes, and generally occur symmetrically. The spaces between the nodes are called internodes. A branch is but the development of a leaf bud from one of the nodes. Spines are abortive branches, and, in many cases, by change of culture, may be developed into leaf or fruit bearing branches.

When the stem is woody and continues to increase indefinitely, we have either trees or shrubs; trees when there is but one stem, shrubs when there are several stems, mostly of equal size, springing up together from the ground. A division of the shrub is sometimes made into the true shrub (frutex). where there is a short stem; under shrub (suffrutex). where this is hardly evident; and low shrub (dumus). where the whole plant is low and spreading, the branches springing up together as a multitude of stems at or near the ground. The equivalent terms are arborescent, fruticose, suffruticose, and dumose.

The transverse section of the stem, though generally circular, may be oval or even bounded by straight lines and angles. The various terms applied are, terets; half-terete; compressed; plano-compressed; two-edged; acute-angled; obtuse-angled; triangular; quadrangular; quinquangular; octangular; multangular; triquetrous, &c., whose significance is sufficiently evident, with the exception, perhaps, of the last, which refers to a stem with three concave faces.

The stem does not always stand in the air (aerial); it is sometimes below ground (subterranean). The hitter are sometimes called roots; true roots, however, differ from these, in never possessing scales (rudimentary leaves) or nodes, from which may be developed eyes (rudimentary buds). The crown of the root is a shortened stem, often partly subterranean, and remaining in some plants after the upper portions have withered. This it is which constitutes the persistent portion of the ascending axes of the perennial plant. Here the internodes are very short, and the nodes crowd so closely together that there appears to be no stem. A rhizome or root-stock is a stem running along the surface of the ground, partially covered with soil, and sending out leaf buds from the upper side, and roots from the lower. This is seen in ferns, iris, &c. A pseudo-bulb is an enlarged bulbose aerial stem, and is succulent, sometimes with numerous spiral cells and vessels, and a thick epidermis. A soboles is a creeping subterranean stem, sending roots from one part, and leaf buds from another. A tuber is produced by a swelling of the internodes, caused generally by a deposit of starchy matter, as in the potatoe. The eyes of the potatoe are the leaf buds on the abbreviated and highly expanded stem. A corm is a solid underground stem, which, of a roundish form, neither creeps nor roots, and is invested by series of imbricated scales, as in the tulip. It developes a second corm to one side, which feeds on the first and destroys it, itself to be devoured in turn by a successor.

Stems, with respect to their structure, are either exogenous, endogenous, or acrogenous. Exogenous stems (exogens) are those which increase indefinitely by layers applied to the outside. Stems are endogenous (endogens) when the bundles of vascular tissue are produced in definite fiisciculi, and converged towards the interior, all additions being made in the interior. In the acrogenous stem (acrogens) the vascular bundles are all developed simultaneously, and not in succession, the elongation of the stem depending on the union of the basis of the leaves or the petioles, and the extension of the growing point or summit. In addition to the above, we have thallogenous plants (thallogens) where there is simple elongation or dilatation, without leaf buds or leaves, and dictyogens, where the stem has the structure of endogens, and the roots nearly that of exogens, as in Smilax. We shall now refer to these more particularly; premising, however, that there are modifications of the embryo which run parallel to those of the stem, the exogen having a germ with two seed lobes or cotyledons (hence dicotyledonous); the endogen, one with but a single cotyledon (monocotyledonous); and no lobe whatever in the acrogen (acotyledonous).

In the exogenous or dicotyledonous stem, we have the type of most trees of temperate climates, embracing both a cellular and vascular system. The cellular system includes the outer bark, the medullary rays, and the pith; the vascular the inner bark, the woody layers, and the medullary sheath. In the earlier stages of growth the young exogen is almost entirely cellular; after a time, however, we perceive wedge-shaped bundles, edges of which point towards a common centre, arranged around a central cellular mass called pith, which is connected with the outer bark by means of cellular processes called medullary rays. At first the pith is large, and occupies a large proportion of the plant; the medullary rays, also, are of considerable thickness; subsequently, by the increase of the old wedges and the development of new ones between them, the medullary rays become more restricted. Such is the structure of a young shoot during the first year. At the end of the second year, the shoot is found to have increased in diameter by the formation of a zone of vessels consisting of porous and woody tissue, and a zone of fibrous bark, the medullary rays being continued from within outwards, the number of such zones increasing year after year.

Taking up the components of stem in proper succession, we begin with a more particular examination of the pith. This, the central portion, consists of cellular tissue, the cells, often hexagonal, diminishing towards the circumference. Pith is at first of a greenish color, and full of fluid; subsequently this disappears, leaving a light colored, spongy, dry mass. Sometimes, in drying, it separates into regular cavities, as in the Walnut and Jessamine; in this case it is said to be discoid or disciform. More frequently the cavities, when they exist at all, are of irregular shape. Occasionally there are vessels in the pith; sometimes, also, regular deposits. The elder exhibits an abundant pith; rice paper consists of sections of pith, the exact origin of which is, however, still undecided; some ascribe it, to a species of Æschymomene. The object of the pith is to furnish nourishment to the young buds, for which purpose it is often filled with dextrine or starch, convertible into sugar by the process of vegetation. When the woody circle of the first year is complete, the pith remains stationary as to size ever afterwards.

The medullary sheath consists of fibro-vascular or spiral vessels immediately including the pith, projections of which pass through this sheath into the medullary rays. A few woody fibres are usually intermingled with the spiral vessels. This sheath is in direct communication with the leaf buds and the veins of the leaves, and carries up oxygen liberated by the decomposition of carbonic acid or of water, conducting it into the leaves.

Woody Layers. During the first year, the vascular cylinder consists of an internal layer of spiral vessels forming the medullary sheath, and external bundles of porous and ligneous vessels. Subsequently, the layer of spiral vessels is not repeated, but concentric zones of porous vessels and of pleurenchyma are formed, constituting, in the tree, the woody circles. Exogenous plants are sometimes termed cyclogens, from their exhibiting these concentric circles. A transverse section of a branch or trunk of a tree usually shows these concentric circles very clearly, each one of which is generally supposed to represent the growth of a year. The circle of large pores usually seen to separate contiguous layers, is composed of the mouths of porous vessels. The distinctness, as well as the size of these circles, varies in different plants, and even in different parts of the same section. Neither is the number of rings in a cross-section to be taken as an indication of the true age of a tree, since there is good reason for supposing that two and even more rings may be formed in a single year, while one ring may occupy two years in its formation. The rule is liable to fewer exceptions in the trees of temperate climates, where there are well defined periods of heat and cold alternating once in the year. Not only the size but the texture of the woody layers varies in different parts of the same cross-section. The vessels, at first open and admitting a ready passage to the juices of the plant, ultimately become thickened and possibly entirely filled by the deposit of hard matter. It is this which constitutes the distinction between duramen or heart-wood, and alburnum or sap-wood, the latter being exterior to the former, lighter colored, and less compact. In some trees, as Tilia, the chestnut, and others, no such distinction is readily evident. The thicker the tree the greater is the proportion of heart-wood in the cross section. It is the heart-wood that constitutes the most useful portion of timber, owing to its greater strength and less tendency to decay.

The cambium is a layer of semifluid matter which marks the separation between the wood and the bark. This is an organizable mucilage, and from it new elementary organs are formed, whether these consist of vascular or of cellular tissue.

The bark (cortex) lies external to the wood, and like it, consists of several layers. At first it is cellular, like pith; subsequently it becomes more or less altered by secondary deposits. While composed of a cellular and vascular system, like the wood, the position and relative proportion of the elements vary in the two. In the bark the cellular system is external and much developed; in the wood it is internal and restricted. The cellular portion consists of an external layer of epidermis, already described, then one of epiphloeum, within which is the mesophloeum; the vascular portion of the internal layer is called liber, endophloeum, or true bark.

The endophloeum, or liber, is composed of pleurenchyma, mixed with laticiferous vessels and cellular tissue, resting on the alburnum. The tubes of the pleurenchyma are often thickened by deposits of secondary matter in concentric cylinders, thus acquiring a considerable degree of tenacity, as in the Lace tree, the Linden, the Paper mulberry, &c. The mesophloeum lies immediately outside of the liber, and consists of polyhedral cells, usually containing chlorophylle, sometimes raphides. The epiphloeum is the outer covering of the bark, the epidermis excepted, which is often absent, and consists of cubical or tabular cells, without chlorophylle; the elongation of these cells is horizontal, thus differing from the cells of mesophloeum. Usually of a single layer of cells, epiphloeum sometimes exhibits several, as in the bark of the cork tree, or the cork of commerce.

The increase of bark takes place in a manner directly opposite to that of the wood. In the latter, new layers are developed on the outside of the old ones; in the former, on the inside of the several portions. Thus the outer layers of bark become distended, and if elastic, retain their continuity, as in the beech; if not elastic, they either become fissured and crumbled off, or they exfoliate in patches, as in some species of Hickory, Birch, and Buttonwood. An incision in the wood of a tree is deepened with increasing age; if in the bark, it gradually becomes shallower and shallower, finally disappearing.

The medullary rays, or plates, or the silver grain of carpenters, keep up a communication between the bark and the pith, these being generally separated by vascular layers. They consist of cellular tissue, which has been gradually compressed, so as to give a muriform appearance to the cells. The space they occupy, at first large, is diminished more and more with increasing age. A transverse section of a woody stem presents the appearance of narrow lines running from the centre to the circumference. A longitudinal section shows that these rays are not laminae continuous from one end to the other, but are broken up by the intervention of woody fibres.

We have thus described the normal character of the exogenous stem. There are, however, certain anomalous appearances in certain plants, which are not readily reducible to rule. In place of the concentric arrangement of the vascular layers, there are sometimes only a few rows of wedge-shaped bundles, and additions made by the interposition of new bundles, just as in the young herbaceous normal stem; sometimes these vascular bundles are arranged in zones. Again, in some cases the separating layers are cellular, not fibrous; sometimes the woody layers are arranged in a very irregular manner. In some Bignonias the layers are divided into four wedge-shaped portions, probably by an introversion of the liber. In Paullinia a central woody mass is sometimes surrounded by others likewise cylindrical. In some Malpighiaceæ, the outer surface, instead of being cylindrical, exhibits very irregular lobes and indentations.

The stems of endogenous plants present many features different from those which we have found to exist in exogens, and especially in that there is no absolute or visible distinction into pith, medullary rays, wood, and bark. There is an intermixture of bundles of fibro-vascular tissue among a mass of cellular tissue, the whole overlaid by a zone of denser cellular and woody tissue, inseparable from the stem. In the young plant the centre of the stem is occupied entirely by cells, around which the vessels are grouped, increasing in number towards the circumference. The central cells are sometimes ruptured and absorbed, leaving a cavity; more generally, however, they are persistent, becoming gradually encroached upon by the increasing vascular system. The external layer of the endogenous plant occupying the place of bark, and known as false bark, is a dense layer of cellular tissue, into which the lower ends of the vascular fibres dip, losing their vascularity as soon as they reach it.

The opinion originally entertained that the new layers of vascular fibres were developed inside the old ones, and pushed these out towards the cortical envelope, appears not to be strictly correct, as, although at first they are thus internal, yet, subsequently, they curve outwards to run into the exterior, as already mentioned. After all, the true distinction between exogenous and endogenous stems consists in this: in the former, the woody or vascular layers increase indefinitely at their periphery; in the latter, they are arrested in lateral growth at a definite epoch. When it is one terminal bud alone of an endogen that developes, the stem may be truly cylindrical; when several develope, however, the stem will be conical. A single terminal bud, as that just referred to, an example of which is to be found in the Palm, is called a phyllophor, or phyllogen. From this bud are developed the leaves with which the vascular bundles are connected, forming, as it were, their roots; when the leaves of one bud decay another is produced in the centre, the bases of the leaves, as they die and fall off, leaving a scar on the stem. There is no way of determining the age of an endogen, a palm for instance, by examining a cross-section, since there are no rings of growth; an approximation may, however, be found from the known length of the tree, elongation proceeding pretty uniformly, and at a determinate rate for different species. Occasionally there are several terminal buds, which may cause a dichotomization or branching of the plant; in many, however, there is but a single one, whose decapitation is followed by the death of the tree.

The third kind of stem, the acrogenous, or acotyledonous is, in general appearance, not unlike that of most endogens, in being unbranched, of nearly uniform diameter, and bearing a tuft of leaves at the summit; the internal structure, however, always furnishes a ready means of distinction. Acrogens are rarely arborescent; a good illustration is, however, to be found in the Tree Fern, the stem of which is called a rachis or stipe. A transverse section exhibits a circle of vascular tissue, composed of masses of various forms and size, near the circumference; the centre is either hollow or formed of cellular tissue. On the outside of the vascular circle there are cells covered by a cellular integument, representing an epidermis, often very compact, and formed originally of the bases of the leaves. The vascular bundles are all formed simultaneously, and their number depends upon that of the individual leaves or petioles. Although the acrogen is said to grow only from the top, yet, strictly speaking, there is a slight increase in diameter, as is shown in the separation of the rhomboidal leaf-scars, which originally were in contact. These scars, or cicatrices, are generally arranged in spiral series around the stem, which always carries their traces.

In thallogens, which are simple expansions of cellular substance, sometimes in definite directions, sometimes in all directions, there is no axis whatever, nothing but threads woven together or separate, or else cells, lobes, plates, or enlargements of various kinds.

A few words as to the functions of the different parts of the stem must conclude this portion of our subject. The office of the pith, as already mentioned, is to convey nourishment to the young plant. By means of the medullary sheath a connexion is kept up between the central parts of the stem and the leaves, by means of spiral vessels, part of whose object may be the transmission of air. The medullary rays preserve a communication between the bark and the pith, and are directly connected with the formation of leaf buds and the matter of the cambium. The bark protects the tender wood, conveys the elaborated sap downwards from the leaves, and is the medium in which many of the secretions are deposited. By means of the vascular bundles the crude sap is conveyed from the roots to the leaves. In woody fibre these bundles become ultimately choked up by the secondary deposits.

Leaves and the Appendages

A leaf is a symmetrical lateral expansion of the bark, and is intimately connected with the internal part of the internal axis. Leaves, at first, are mere projections of cellular tissue, closely united to each other; subsequently they enlarge with the addition of vascular tissue, and finally assume a permanent form and position along the axis. Whenever a leaf-bud is formed, a leaf is also; this, if not entirely developed, is at least rudimentary. Two essential modifications of the leaf have been observed according as the medium of existence is air or water.

In aerial leaves we have a skeletal vascular tissue in the form of veins, ribs, or nerves, the interspaces filled up by cellular tissue in the shape of parenchyma, the whole invested by epidermis. The vascular system is continuous with that of the stem: the vessels from the interior of the stem spread out on the surface, the more external in the former appearing on the inferior face of the latter. This is well illustrated by the fact, that in the upper part of the leaf we find spiral vessels and woody fibre, in the lower there are laticiferous vessels and fibres like those of liber. The vascular system is distributed in the form of simple or branching veins.

The epidermis generally differs on the two sides of the leaf. Thus, it is on the under face that the stomata are found in largest quantity, sometimes exclusively; hairs also are of much more frequent occurrence. In leaves floating on the surface of water the stomata are superior. The parenchyma of the leaf is that cellular tissue filling up the interspaces of the vascular fibre. Other names are diachyma and mesophyllum. This parenchyma exhibits two series of cells, different in form and arrangement.

Submerged leaves, or those developed under water, exhibit many points of difference from aerial leaves. There is here no fibro-vascular system, but merely an aggregation of cells, which sometimes simulate veins. There is no true epidermis, nor are there any stomata. Sometimes there is only a net-work of filamentoid cells, the interspaces not filled with parenchyma. Such leaves are called fenestrate.

The ordinary leaf in its fullest form consists of an expanded flat portion, called the blade, or laminar merithal; of a narrower portion, called stalk, petiole, or petiolary merithal, which is continuous with. the midrib; and sometimes of a portion at the base of the petiole, forming a sheath or vagina; the latter, again, may be developed in the form of small leaves, called stipules. When a leaf has a distinct stalk, it is said to be petiolate; when there is no stalk, it is called sessile. When sessile leaves embrace the stem they are said to be amplexicaul. The portion of the leaves next to the stem is the base, the opposite extremity is the apex. The surfaces of the leaves are called the paginæ; the edges or margin, the circumscription. The usual position of the leaf is horizontal; sometimes it is vertical, or else between the two positions. The upper angle, formed by the petiole with the stem, is the axilla; anything arising from that part is axillary. The petiole is sometimes articulated with the stem, leaving a scar on the latter when it falls; in other cases it is continuous with the stem. When leaves fall off annually, or about the same time, they are called deciduous; when they remain for several years, or only fall singly through the year, they are evergreen.

By the venation or nervation of a leaf is meant the distribution of the fibro-vascular bundles in it. This may be traced in most cases, but instances occur, as in sea-weeds and other submerged plants, where true veins do not exist; such are said to be veinless. There is generally a more or less central vein larger than the rest, called the midrib, giving off lateral veins (primary veins), which either end within the margin, or else go entirely out to the edge. Smaller veins, given off by the midribs, are called costal, these giving origin to veinlets. Sometimes, instead of one central midrib, there are several large ribs diverging from the part where the petiole enters the blade. These give off secondary veins, which, in turn, furnish tertiary, all apparently anastomosing, and giving a reticulated appearance to the surface of the leaf. Such leaves are called reticulated, or net veined. Parallel veined leaves are those in which there is a central rib, giving off a single series of well defined veins, parallel to each other; or else there are several ribs which run from base to apex, nearly parallel to the edge of the leaf or to each other. Leaves of this kind are of usual occurrence in endogenous plants.

Leaves are either simple or compound. The simple leaf has but one articulation with the stem, and the incisions in the margin do not reach the midrib. The compound leaf has other articulations beyond that with the stem, or consists of leaflets separately attached to the petiole. All leaves at first are simple, and the nature of the compound character is intimately connected with the venation.

A simple leaf is equal or oblique, according as the midrib bisects the blade symmetrically or not. Should the margin be even, without divisions, the leaf is entire. When the projections are more or less irregular and pointed, the leaf is dentate; when arranged regularly, and like the teeth of a saw, we have a serrate leaf; crenate, when the serrations are rounded. Should the indentations of the margin extend about half-way to the midrib, the leaf is cleft (fidus), the segments are fissures. A continuation of the division to the midrib gives us a partite leaf, with partitions for the segments.

Should the divisions occur in a feather-veined leaf, this becomes pinnatifid when the divisions extend about to the middle, and are rather broad; pectinate, when they are narrow, like the teeth of a comb. Should the incisions extend to the midrib, the leaf becomes pinnatipartite. These primary divisions may again be subdivided, forming a bipinnatifid, or bipinnatipartite leaf; tripinnatifid indicates a still further subdivision. A pinnatifid leaf is runcinate when the divisions are sub-triangular, with the extremities pointed slightly backwards, as in the Dandelion. When the apex consists of a large rounded lobe, and the somewhat rounded divisions become gradually less and less towards the base, the leaf is lyrate. It is panduriform when, with a rounded apex, there is a concavity on each side, like that of a violin.

In a simple leaf, with radiating venation, we have lobes or clefts when the incisions extend about half-way to the base, a prefix being added to indicate the number, as three-lobed or trifid, many-lobed or multifid, &c. A leaf is palmate when the leaf is cleft only partly, so as to resemble a palm with short fingers; it is digitate when the divisions are deeper, and five in number, like long fingers; it is dissected when there are numerous narrow divisions extending nearly up to the base. A pedate, or pedatifid leaf, is one in which there are three primary divisions with two lateral, somewhat like the foot and toes of a bird.

In all the cases just considered the petiole is in the plane of the leaf. The petiole may, however, meet the leaf at an angle either right or acute. When the stalk is inserted into the middle of a tolerably entire leaf, this is orbicular in shape, and peltate in respect to the petiole; the term peltate is also applied to cases where the stalk is inserted within the continuous margin.

Various Forms of Leaves

When a leaf is very narrow, with the edges parallel, as in the Pines, it is acicidar or linear (fig. 1). When the veins diverge, those in the middle longest, and the margin tapering gently to either end, the leaf is lanceolate (fig. 2). Should the ends be rounded, we may have a rounded (fig. 3), elliptical (fig. 4), oval (fig. 5), or oblong (fig. 6) leaf. When the veins at the base are longest the leaf is ovate or egg-shaped (fig. 7), and obovate when those at the apex are longest. Leaves also are cuneate or wedge-shaped (fig. 8) spathulate (fig. 9), subulate (fig. 10); acuminate, or drawn out into a point of greater or less extent (fig. 11); mucronate, with the free extremity of the midrib projecting from the margin (fig. 12).

When the parenchyma is deficient at the apex, so as to form two rounded lobes, the leaf is obcordate; when the deficiency is very slight, it is emarginate; when the apex is merely flattened or slightly indented, the leaf is retuse (fig. 13). If the apex appear as if cut off, so that the margin is straight or obtusely angled, the leaf is truncate (fig. 14). A leaf is cordate when the petiole enters a base having a rounded emargination (fig. 15), and kidney-shaped or reniform, when the apex also is rounded (fig. 16). When the lobes are prolonged downwards and acutely, the leaf is sagittate (fig. 17); hastate, when they proceed at right angles. When the veins of leaves spread out in more than one plane, and by the development of parenchyma a succulent leaf is produced, we may have conical, ensiform or sword-like, prismatic, acinaciform or scymeter-shaped (fig. 18), and dolabriform or axe-shaped leaves (fig. 19). The margin of the leaf may be wavy, undulated, or crisped, when it is puckered from a superabundance of cellular tissue. There are numerous other shapes of leaves, although these and their binary combinations are the most important; the rest will readily suggest themselves.

Compound leaves are leaves in which the divisions pass down to the midrib, so as to subdivide the leaf into smaller and distinct leaves, called leaflets. The midrib or petiole thus appears like a branch with so many distinct leaves, each articulated to it. When the compound leaf dies, it is generally the primary petiole that falls off, carrying with it all those secondary to it. Leaflets, like leaves, may be either sessile or supported on a distinct stem, called a petiolule.

A feather-veined compound leaf is said to be pinnate (fig. 20) when each one of the prim.ary veins forms the midrib of a leaflet: bipinnate (fig. 21) when the secondary veins are midribs, and are articulated to the primary; tripinnate or decompound when the tertiary veins stand in the same relation to distinct leaflets: a leaf still further divided is supradecompound.

When a pinnate leaf has one pair of leaflets, it is unijugate; two, bijugate; many pairs. multijugate. When a pinnate leaf ends in a pair of pinnæ, it is equally or abruptly pinnate (pari-pinnate): a single terminal leaflet furnishes an unequally pinnate (impari-pinnate) leaf. When the leaflets are not directly opposite to each other, the leaf is alternately pinnate: it is impari-pinnate when the pinnæ are of unequal size.

In leaves with radiating venation, and in which each vein forms the midrib of a separate leaflet, we have a tennate leaf with three leaflets; quaternate with four; quinate with five, &c. Should the parenchyma connecting three ribs of a ternate leaf subdivide, so that each of these forms the midrib of a new leaflet, the compound leaf is biternate; another such subdivision gives a triternate leaf, &c.

The petiole, or that part of the leaf which unites the blade with the stem, consists of one or more bundles of vascular tissue, with a varying amount of parenchyma; the manner in which the vessels enter the leaf, and their connexion with the stem, has already been referred to. Where the petiole joins the stem, there is generally a constriction, and immediately external to this, a swelling out, of cellular tissue. At other times the petiole is not thus articulated, but either is a continuation of the stem or embraces it. When articulated leaves drop, there is left a cicatrix or scar, which in many cases is permanent. The petiole varies both in length and strength. A compressed petiole, as in the Aspen, renders a leaf more sensitive to slight currents of wind. A phyllodium is a petiole compressed and extended vertically, so as sometimes to supply the place of a leaf Sometimes the petiole of a leaf runs out into a tendril or cirrhus; more frequently there is no blade whatever to such a petiole.

A stipule is a membranous expansion or other process found on each side of the base of a petiole. When attached to a leaflet, it is called a stipel. Plants with stipules are stipulate; without them, exstipulate. No definite shape can be assigned to the stipule, its only characteristic being the position above mentioned.

Occasionally there are anomalous forms of petiole and leaf, which merit some special consideration. The true leaf is sometimes entirely absent, and its place supplied by phyllodia or by stipules. Scales frequently replace leaves, of which indeed they are to be considered as abortions. Several leaves sometimes unite together, forming a connate leaf; when the basal lobes of a leaf are united around the stem, it is perfoliate; when the laminæ of a leaf run down and are united to the stem, it is decurrent. The vascular bundles and parenchyma are sometimes separated or arranged so as to inclose cavities, as in the tubular or fistular leaf of the onion, as also in the ascidia or pitchers of such plants as Sarracenia or Nepenthes.

Leaves occupy definite situations on the plant, and have special names in different positions. When they arise from the crown of the root, they are radical; those on the stem are cauline; on the branches, ramal; on flower stalks, floral. The leaves first developed are seminal; those appearing subsequently, primordial.

The arrangement of the leaves on the axis follows in definite order, and is called phyllotaxis. Normally, the nodes from which the leaves spring are ranged in a regular spiral round the stem. The internode between several nodes may, however, be suppressed, so as to exhibit several nodes at the same height on the stem. When two leaves are thus produced, at the same level and on different sides of the stem, they are opposite; when more than two, verticillate or whorled. The imaginary line connecting the bases of one pair of opposite leaves often crosses rectangularly the corresponding line of the next pair; the pairs are then said to decussate.

When a single leaf is produced at a node, and each node is separated from the next by an internode, the leaves are alternate. When, in a spiral series of alternate leaves, one leaf is immediately below the third above it, the arrangement is distichous: when it is the fourth which stands in this relation, tristichous. In this spiral arrangement, there are two elements, the number of coils or turns of the spiral before one leaf is found to come immediately above another, and the number of leaves arranged along this interval of the spiral. The relation of the two is usually expressed by a fraction whose numerator indicates the number of turns, and the denominator the number of leaves. Thus, a phyllotaxis of \(\frac{2}{5}\) indicates that one leaf is immediately in a line below the 6th above it, or that there are 5 leaves in the series and 2 turns of the spiral. The generating spiral may run from left to right, or from right to left, both being occasionally found in the branches and stem of a plant; when it is the same throughout the plant, the arrangement is homodromous; when different in the branches from the stem, heterodromous. Sometimes the phenomena are such as to give rise to the supposition of two generating spirals at the same time, as in certain opposite and verticillate leaves. The final cause of this spiral arrangement is to enable all the leaves to have a nearly equal exposure to light, and thus prevent anything abnormal in the growth of the plant, this being in great measure determined by the leaves.

The buds which are seen to form at different parts of the stem are of two kinds, leaf buds and flower buds, the former producing leaves, the latter flowers. The leaf buds consist of rudimentary leaves inclosing a growing vital point, which lengthens upwards or from the point of attachment. The flower buds consist of rudimentary leaves inclosing a flxed or stationary vital point.

The leaf bud, to which we shall here confine our attention, is, in external appearance, a collection of scales (rudimentary leaves) arranged one above the other in an imbricated manner. The centre or grooving point which they inclose is cellular matter coated with a thin stratum of spiral vessels, the two answering to the pith and medullary sheath of exogens. By the growth of the leaf bud, branches are formed, such of the scales as are alive changing into leaves with the advancement of vegetation, and the evolution of the branch not slightly resembling the drawing out of the joints of a spy-glass. Leaf buds are formed in the axils of previously formed leaves; they may be terminal or lateral. The leaf buds may be made to grow on other plants than those from which they were originally developed, as in the process called budding. They may even detach themselves spontaneously from the axils of leaves, and germinate when planted in the ground. The tree may, in fact, be considered as an assemblage of leaf buds or phytons, which send out stems and leaves in one direction, and fibres in the other. In temperate climates the leaf buds are produced during autumn and winter, and protected from injury by the external scales (themselves rudimentary leaves), and occasionally by an additional downy or resinous investment.

The manner in which the leaves are arranged in the bud is called their vernation, gemmation, or præfoliation. This is constant for the same species. The leaves may be either placed in simple apposition, or folded or rolled up in various modes. In the accompanying figures, a–g represent vertical sections; h–n are horizontal. The dot represents the axis.

The vernation then may be reclinate (a); circinate (g); conduplicate (b); plicate or plaited (c); convolute or supervolute (d); involute (e); revolute (f). With regard to the combination of leaves in a bud, they may be valvate (h); imbricated, twisted, or spiral (i); induplicate (k, l); eqnitant (m); half-equitant or obvolute (n).

In some plants with a shortened axis, the lateral buds produce long branches. Such are the runners of the strawberry.

A leaf bud may be subterranean as well as aerial. Some plants, as asparagus, with a perennial subterranean stem, have this terminated by a bud, which, elongating, makes its appearance above the ground, and finally developes aerial branches, leaves, and flowers. The young shoot of this character is called a turio. The potatoe is a thickened stem with leaf buds which may develope both aerial and subterranean branches: the former decay annually; the latter, as tubers, remain in the soil. A bulb is a subterranean bud. A corm (see p. 11) is an elongated bud with the scales reduced to thin membranes. Bulbs and corms contain a supply of starch and other matters for the sustenance of the young plant.

Organs of Reproduction

The reproductive organs are to be found in the flower, the most important parts of which are the stamens and pistils. When these organs are conspicuous and definite, the plant is called phanerogamous; when they are concealed or unconspicuous, cryptogamous. Exogens and endogens belong to the former, acrogens and thallogens to the latter. The flower, however, in all its parts, is to be considered only as modified leaves.

The arrangement of the flowers in the axis is known as inflorescence or anthotaxis. The anatomical distinction between the leaf and the flower bud has already been referred to. The flower bud, like the leaf bud, is produced in the angle of leaves, here called bracts or floral leaves. The general axis along which the flowers or their buds are arranged is called the rachis; the stalk supporting a flower is the peduncle; peduncles lateral or secondary to this are called pedicels. A flower provided with a stalk is pedunculate or pedicellate; if without one, sessile. A more philosophical distinction is into primary floral axis (rachis), secondary axis (peduncles), tertiary axis (pedicels), &c.

The peduncle is variously formed, experiencing greater modifications than the petiole. Sometimes the axis is shortened, so as to exhibit a flattened form, with flowers scattered over the surface. Here it becomes a receptacle, phoranthium or climanthium. Sometimes the peduncle is abortive, and becomes converted into a tendril; at others, it is expanded and hollowed out at the apex. The extremity of the peduncle is the thalamas, or torus.

Inflorescence is of two kinds; one where the lower flowers on the stem are produced first, the other where they are last to appear. In the first kind of inflorescence, called indefinite, or axillary, the axis continues to grow and to develope new leaf buds, the upper being always less advanced than the lower; or, if the axis be shortened, so that the peduncles stand crowded together, the central flowers are less advanced than the external. The expansion of the flower is thus centripetal.

The simplest form of indefinite inflorescence is, where single flowers are produced in the axils of the ordinary leaves. The different subdivisions and their relative lengths give rise to a great variety of terms. When the primary peduncle is elongated, and gives off nearly equal pedicels, each bearing a flower, we have a raceme, as in the currant, and a panicle when the pedicels of the raceme are themselves branched. If the central peduncles of a dense panicle are longest, a thyrse is produced. A corymb is where the lower pedicels on a peduncle are elongated, so that all the flowers on the different pedicels are nearly in one plane; the corymb may be simple or compound, the secondary axis again subdividing in the latter case. When the pedicels are very short or absent, so as to render the flowers sessile, a spike is produced: this, when producing unsexual flowers, as in the willow, becomes an amentum, or catkin. It may also be succulent or pulpy, with the flowers invested by a sheathing bract or spathe, as in Arum; it is then called a spadix. A spike bearing female flowers only, and covered with scales, is either a strobilus, as in the hop, or a cone, as in the pine.

When the primary axis is depressed, instead of being elongated, other forms are exhibited. Should the pedicels all spring from nearly the same point on the axis, we have an umbel; when numerous flowers are placed on a nearly flat receptacle, and either sessile or nearly so, a capitidum, anthodium, or calathinm is formed, as in the dandelion; when the surface is more convex this is called a glomerule. A receptacle may be concave, and inclose the flowers, as it were; such an arrangement is called a hypanteodium, and is seen in the fig.

In definite inflorescence, where the flower buds are all terminal, the main axis is first terminated by a blossom which terminates its growth. This gives a solitary terminal flower, as in the Tulip. Further development can take place only by the production of axillary branches, which can spring from the primary peduncle only when it is furnished with bracts, from whose axils they may arise. The order of flowering is therefore from the apex downwards, or descending (the reverse of the indefinite forms); centrifugal, or from the centre outwards, if the blossoms are on a level centrifugally. The simplest form is that of a single terminal flower. We may suppose a leaf to be developed on each side of the flower, in each of whose axils a new bud is produced, which, in turn, may each form the centre of a tertiary development, &c. Each flower may be the centre of a system of three or more instead of two. If we suppose the leaves above-mentioned to be reduced to bracts, the whole forms a single inflorescence, called a cyme, this being called dichotomous or trichotomous, according to the character of the subdivisions. Occasionally, in dichotomous divisions, the flowers are developed on one side only, from which results a peculiar curvature of the cyme, which is here called helicoidal, or gyrate.

As already remarked, the flower, except when terminal, always arises in the axil of a leaf, called the bract. Leaves which arise along the floral axis are called bracteoles, or bractlets. The true bract may be variously modified as to color, shape, &c. At the base of the general umbel, in umbelliferous plants, there is a whorl of bracts, termed the general involucre, that at the base of the smaller umbels being called the partial involucre or involucel. The cup of the acorn is produced by the union of many whorls of bracts. A sheathing bract inclosing one or more flowers is called a spathe. The outer sterile bracts in grasses are called glumes.

The Flower and its Appendages

The flower consists of whorled leaves placed on an axis, the internodes of which are not developed. This shortened axis is the thalamus, or torus. There are usually four of such whorls: first, an outer one called the calyx; next, the corolla; then, the stamens; and innermost of all, the pistil or pistils. Each of these whorls consists, normally, of several parts. The plant is called dichlamydeous, when the two outer whorls or the floral envelopes are present; monochlamydeous, when one only exists; achlamydeous, when neither is present. In most instances the calyx and corolla, when present, are readily detected; in cases of doubt as to the true character of the envelope, or when there is no convenient distinction between the two, the term perianth, or perigone, may be employed. Should but one envelope be present, it is always the calyx.

The manner in which the floral envelopes are folded together is known as the æstivation, or præfloration. This is valvate, when the elements are so arranged as to constitute a circle without the overlapping of the edges. Should the edges of the parts be turned outwards, the æstivation is reduplicate; if inwards, induplicate. When each part of the whorl overlaps the one next to it on one side, and is in turn overlapped by the part on the other side, the æstivation is twisted or contorted. Sometimes the elements of the whorls, instead of being nearly in the same plane, stand at different heights, causing an imbricated æstivation. Should the parts envelope each other completely, a convolute æstivation is produced. Vexillary æstivation is where one part, the vexillum of a papilionaceous flower, envelopes all the rest; carinary, where the carina performs a similar office. Calyx and corolla sometimes exhibit different æstivation.

The Calyx is the external envelope of the flower, and consists of whorled leaves, called sepals. These may either be separate, forming a polysepalous calyx, or united, to constitute a gamosepalous, or monosepalous calyx. The sepals are usually green, sometimes colored, rarely stalked; in shape, they are generally oval or oblong. As to direction, they are erect, reflexed, patulous, or divergent (spreading outwards), and connivent or arched inwards. A trisepalous calyx has three divisions: a pentasepalous, five, &c.

In a gamosepalous calyx the degrees of adhesion between the elementary parts may vary from very slight to complete. The divisions may be simple teeth, or they may extend as fissures towards the base. A trifid calyx is one in which three parts are united by about the lower half of the margins; a tripartite is one where only the lower part of the edges is so united. The calyx may also be quadrifid, quadripartite, quinquifid, quinquepartite, &c. The adhesion is sometimes irregular, some parts uniting to a greater extent than others; in this manner may be formed a two-lipped or labiate calyx, which becomes ringent when the upper lip is arched. The part formed by the union of the sepals is called the tube; the free upper portion, the limb.

Occasionally a flower is provided with a double calyx, the outer of which is called epicalyx, or calicle. The calyx, again, may degenerate, so as to become dry, scaly, and glumaceous; or it may be obsolete or marginate, existing only as a mere rim. In some families, as Dipsaceæ, the tube of the calyx adheres to the pistil, and the limb is developed in the form of hairs, called pappus. The pappus is either simple (pilose) or feathery (plumose). When the calyx falls off before the flower expands, it is caducous; or if the corolla accompany it, deciduous. Sometimes the tube of the calyx is united to the pistil, and enlarges with it to form part of the fruit, as in the apple. A persistent calyx, which increases after flowering, is called accrescent; it may, again, remain withered or marcescent, or become inflated or vesicular.

Corolla. The corolla is that more or less colored inner floral envelope between the calyx and the stamens. The free subdivisions, which are generally disposed in one or more whorls, are called petals. A petal frequently exhibits two parts; a claw or unguis, a narrowed part by which attachment is made to the axis, and a broad expanded portion above this, called the lamina, or limb. When there is no claw the petal is sessile.

Petals, in their modifications, exhibit a considerable resemblance to ordinary leaves, in having the margin either entire or indented. A single petal may be bipartite or bifid, &c. When a petal is folded like a boat, it is cymbiform or navicular; cochleariform, when resembling the bowl of a spoon. When a petal is prolonged backwards, in the form of a spur, it is calcarate. When the spur is very short and rounded the petal is gibbous.

When but a single petal is present, the rest being abortive, the flower is unipetalous; two, three, four, five, &c., petals constitute a di-, tri-, tetra-, or penta-petalous corolla. A corolla; with more than one separate petal, is known generally as polypetalous; it is gamopetalous or monopetalous when the petals are united. The adhesion extends, in greater or less degree, from the base to the apex. When the petals are similar and equal in size, the corolla is regular; otherwise, irregular. In monopetalous corollæ, the claws or inferior parts of the petals are usually united into a tube, crowned by the limb, as in the calyx; the two portions are separated by the throat.

In regular polypetalous corollas we have the rosaceous, with five spreading petals, without claws, and arranged as in the strawberry; the caryophyllaceous, with five petals, with long, narrow, tapering claws, as in the pink; the alsinaceous, where the claws are broader, with distinct spaces between the petals; cruciform, having four, often unguiculate petals, placed opposite to each other, as in a cross (seen in the Cruciferæ).

Among irregular polypetalous corollas the most striking is the papilionaceous, usually with five petals, one superior (or posterior) and larger than the rest, called the vexillum; two lateral, called alæ; and two inferior (or anterior), partly or entirely covered by the alæ; often united into a single piece, called the carina, or keel.

Regular Gamopetalous Corollas. These are campanulate, or bellshaped; infundibuliform, or funnel-shaped; hypocrateriform, or salver-shaped, where there is a straight tube, surmounted by a flat spreading limb; tubular, with a long cylindrical tube, apparently continuous with the limb; rotate, where the tube is very short, and the limb spreading.

Irregular Gamopetalous Corollas. Conspicuous among these is the labiate corolla, having two divisions of the limb, in the form of labia or lips, the upper lip usually composed of two pieces, the lower of three, and separated by a hiatus. The parts of the calyx follow the reverse order. When the upper lip of a labiate corolla is much arched, and the lips separated by a distinct gap, it is called ringent. When the lower lip is pressed against the upper, so as to leave a mere rictus between them, the corolla is personate or masked; the projecting portion of the lower lip is called the palate. When a tubular corolla is split up, so as to form a strap-like process on one side, with several tooth-like projections at the apex, it becomes ligulate, or strap-shaped.

What are sometimes called nectaries in flowers, are most generally mere modifications of the corolla or stamens. Som.etimes they are constituted by the separation of a layer from the inner side of a petal, which may be known by their being opposite to the segments of the latter. This process is called unlining, or deduplication.

The calyx and corolla, as just considered, constitute merely the external envelopes of the flower, and may be absent without vitiating the fertility of the plant. The essential organs of reproduction are the stamens and the pistil. The latter, as the female organ, includes the ovary in which the seeds are to be produced, while the former, supplying the functions of a male, furnish a seminal matter to fertilize the ovules of the pistil. The production of a perfect and reproducing seed requires that both be present. When both organs are found in the same flower, this is hermaphrodite; it is unisexual, or diclinous, if but one of the two be present. A flower bearing stamens alone, is staminiferous; and pistilliferous, when only the pistil is present. The absence of one of the organs is due to abortion or non-development. When the same plant, with unisexual flowers, embraces both kinds, it is monœcious; if the two sets of organs are borne on different individuals, the species is diœcious.

The stamens which arise within the petals and in one or more whorls on the thalamus, constitute, when taken together, the androecium or male apparatus. Their normal position is below the whorl on the pistil; they are then hypogynous, and without adhesion to the walls of the calyx. When united to the petals, they are epipetalous. If attached to the sides of the calyx, they become perigynous; and if united both with the surface of the calyx and of the ovary, they are epigynous. These are important terms in classification. Plants bear the general title of thalamifloræ when the parts of the corolla and androecium are independent of each other, and all the whorls inserted directly upon the torus. They are calycifloræ when the petals are separate, and the stamens inserted directly on the calyx: corollifloræ when the united petals bear the stamens.

The number of stamens varies from one to many hundreds, arranged in a variable number of whorls. When there is but one wdiorl, the stamens are usually equal in number to the sepals or petals, and are arranged opposite to the former, and alternate with the latter; the flower is then isostemonous. When the stamens are unequal in number to the sepals or petals, the flower is anisostemonous. When there are twice as many stamens as sepals or petals, the flower is diplostemonous; if more than this, polystemonous. The number of stamens is generally an exact multiple of the number of floral envelopes. By an arrest of development in which the number of stamens is less than that of sepals or petals, the flower is meiostenionous.

When the number of stamens is less than 20, they are called definite, and the flower is oligandrous; over this number they are indefinite or polyandrous, and are marked 00. The number of definite stamens is indicated by prefixing the Greek numeral to androus: thus a flower with one stamen is monandrous; with two, diandrous; three, triandrous; four, tetandrous; five, pentandrous; six, hexandrous; seven, heptandrous; eight, octandrous; nine, enneandrous; ten, decandrous, &c.

A stamen consists of two parts, one contracted and thread-like, answering to the petiole of the leaf, and called the filament; the other, a broader portion, representing the blade of the leaf, and called the anther, which contains a powdery matter termed pollen. The anther is the essential male organ. When there is no filament, the anther is sessile. The filament may vary much from its usual thread-like form. It sometimes puts on a petaloid appearance; is occasionally subulate or awl-shaped, and again, clavate or club-shaped. When the filament is bent or jointed it is geniculate. Certain appendages are sometimes seen at the bases of filaments which are then said to be appendicidate or strumose. The filaments occasionally adhere to a greater or less extent; sometimes this takes between an entire whorl, so as to form a tube; the stamens are then monadelphous. They are diadelphous when forming two bundles, triadelphous when united into three, and polyadelphous when grouped into a greater number. Filaments are sometimes united with the pistil to form a columna or column, as in Asclepias. The column is called gynostemiurn, and the flowers are said to be gynandrous.

The Anther corresponds to the blade of the leaf, and consists of lobes with cavities inclosing a fine powder called pollen, which, when mature, is discharged by an aperture. The covering of the anther is double; the outer is called exothecium, the inner endothecium. The anther usually possesses two lobes, corresponding to the two halves of the leaf; in each lobe there are generally two cavities separated by the septum. The connective divides the two lobes. An anther with four persistent cavities is called quadrilocular or tetrathecal. When, as is more generally the case, the septa are absorbed, the anther becomes bilocular or dithecal. Sometimes there is but one cavity, constituting the unilocular or monothecal anther. The form of the anther lobes varies much in different plants; more usually they are oval or elliptical. The part of the anther to which the filament is attached is called the back, the opposite being the face. The division between the lobes is marked on the face of the anther by a groove or furrow, and on the face there is usually a suture, along which the pollen is discharged. When the filament appears to be continued along the back of the anther, this is adnate or adherent; innate or erect when it ends at the base. A versatile anther is one which is not fixed immovably to the filament. Sometimes the connective is more or less horizontal, and bears a lobe of the anther at each end; it is then said to be distractile. The opening of anthers to discharge the pollen is their dehiscence. This may be either longitudinal or transverse. In circumscissile dehiscence, the entire apex of the anther comes off to permit the escape of the pollen. An anther is introrse when it opens on the surface next to the centre of the flower, and extrorse when the contrary takes place. A stamen sometimes degenerates and becomes sterile from the absence of a proper anther; such are called staminodia, and may present various appearances, as scales, leaves, petals, &c.

We have already referred to the adhesion of the filaments of the stamen leaving the anthers free. These in turn may be attached without involving any connexion between the filaments. In this case the flower is said to be syngenesious or synantherous. Stamens whose length does not exceed that of the tube of the carolla are said to be included; they are exserted when of greater length.

Although the stamens are usually of the same length, yet it often happens that one or more is longer than the rest. Flowers are didynamons when, of four stamens, two are long and two are short. When there are two pairs of long stamens separated by a pair of shorter, the flower is tetradynamous. A stamen is said to be declinate when it bends to one side.

Pollen, or the powdery matter discharged from the anther, consists of small independent cells which have been developed in the anther by the fissiparous division of an original cell called the pollen utricle. The pollen grains fall out either singly or united in definite number: sometimes the entire mass is combined by viscid matter into conglomerations called pollinia. Such is the case in Orchidaceæ; here each mass has a prolongation or stalk called a caudicle, which sometimes adheres to a prolongation at the base of the anther called rostellum, by means of a viscid matter termed retinaculum. The part of the column in Orchids where the stamens are situated, is sometimes termed clinandrium.

The mature pollen grain has an external covering called extine, and one internal, intine. Within these coverings is contained a granular semifluid matter termed fovilla, and composed of small spherical granules sometimes \(\frac{1}{30000}\) of an inch in diameter, together with larger corpuscules which are said to exhibit apparently spontaneous movements. The pollen grains themselves vary from \(\frac{1}{300}\) to \(\frac{1}{700}\) of an inch in diameter, and exhibit highly diversified forms. This form is much altered by the application of moisture. This, when applied to one side, causes the intine to project outwards and form what is called a pollen tube.

Cryptogamic plants exhibit certain organs, supposed by some to represent stamens, and known as antheridia or pollinaria. These are closed sacs, developed in various parts of the plant, either at the surface or concealed in its tissue. The contents of antheridia consist of utricles inclosing peculiar bodies which have been termed phytozoa, and exhibit active movements at certain periods of existence, when they have been taken for infusorial animalcula.

The Disk. By this term is to be understood whatever intervenes between the stamens and the pistil. The forms under which it is presented are those of hairs, scales, glands, &c., often containing saccharine matter, and forming a so-called nectary. The disk may be formed by the degeneration and transformation of the stamens.

The Pistil occupies the centre of the flower, being surrounded by the stamens and floral envelopes. It constitutes the innermost whorl, and is the female organ of the plant, which, after flowering, is changed into the fruit, and contains the seeds. Sometimes it is called the gynœcium. It consists essentially of two parts, the ovary or germen, and the stigma, which is either sessile (seated immediately upon the ovary) or elevated on a stalk called the style. The pistil, like the other organs, consists of one or more modified leaves called carpels. A pistil consisting of a single carpel is simple; otherwise, compound. Each carpel has its special ovary, style (when present), and stigma, and is formed by a folded leaf whose upper surface is turned inwards towards the axis, the lower outwards; one or more buds called ovules being developed at the margin. The ovary then represents the limb or lamina of the leaf. The style is generally cylindrical in form, and is traversed by a narrow canal, in which there are some loose projecting cells forming the conducting tissue, as also elongated tubes at the period of fecundation. The stigma is a continuation of the cellular tissue in the centre of the style, and may be either terminal or lateral; in the Orchidaceæ it is placed on a part of the column called the gynizus. The individual carpels composing a pistil may be arranged like leaves, either in a whorl, or along a spiral. When they remain separate and distinct, the pistil is apocarpous; when the carpels are all united, the pistil is syncarpous; when the union of the carpels takes place by the ovaries alone, leaving the styles and stigmas free, the pistil is gamogastrous, and the ovary compound. The number of parts in a syncarpous pistil may be determined by the external venation, the grooves on the outside, and the internal divisions of the ovary. When the grooves between the carpels are deep, the ovary is said to be lobed. The carpels, although generally sessile, are sometimes petioled and elevated above the surrounding whorls. The union of these petioles constitutes a stipitate pistil; or when thickened and somewhat succulent, a gynophore, or thecaphore; when the axis is produced beyond the ovaries, and the styles are united to it, we have a carpophore.

The ovules are developed on the inner side of the carpel, where the two edges of the carpellary leaf unite. The attachment to the edge, according to some authors, but doubted by others, is effected by vascular tissue, which traverses the carpel and sends off a branch to each ovule. At the same place there is a development of cellular tissue connected with the conducting tissue of the style and with the stigma. The union of these two tissues constitutes the placenta or projection to which the ovules are attached; those who restrict this term to the individual branch of each ovule, style it the placentary, or the pistillary cord. The placenta marks the ventral or inner suture of the carpel, the outer or dorsal suture corresponding to the midrib of the carpellary leaf. The placenta is formed on each margin or edge of the carpel, and hence it is essentially double, although sometimes appearing single; in an apocarpous pistil there are generally separate placentas on each margin. In the syncarpous, however, the edges of contiguous carpels unite to form a septum or dissepiment. When the dissepiments extend to the centre or axis, the ovary is divided into cavities, cells, or loculaments; it may be bilocular, trilocular, quadrilocular, &c., as there are two, three, four, or more cells corresponding to as many carpels. In these cases the marginal placentas meet in the axis, and unite so as to form a central one. This kind of placentation is, perhaps improperly, termed axile. When the dissepiments do not extend to the centre, but merely form a projecting partition, the ovary is unilocidar, and the placentæ parietal. Sometimes the placentas are not connected with the walls of the ovary, but form a column, standing free in the centre: in this case we have a free central placenta. In some rare cases the phenomena of placentation are such as to lead us to suppose that the placentae are not marginal, or on the edges of the carpellary lea.ves, but rather axile, that is, prolongations of the axis, the ovules being lateral buds, and the carpels verticillate leaves united together around the axis.

Divisions in ovaries, not formed by the edges of contiguous carpels, are called spurious dissepiments. These, when horizontal, are termed phragmata. The prolongation of the edges of the placentæ in a replum sometimes subdivides the ovary.

The ovary may be either free in the centre of the flower, or it may be adherent, especially to the calyx. When this is united throughout it becomes superior, the ovary itself being inferior. When the union takes place but in part, the ovary is half inferior, and the calyx half superior.

The Style, which proceeds from the summit of the carpel, may be considered as the upward prolongation of this, and hence called apicilar. The carpellary leaf may be so folded that the style appears to proceed from the side of the ovary; in this case it is lateral, and basilar when proceeding from the base. When the ovaries are grouped around a central prolongation of the torus, continuous with a united columnar style, the arrangement is termed a gynobase. The style, although usually smooth, may be coated with hairs, termed collecting hairs, which aid in distributing the pollen. When the styles of a syncarpous pistil are united completely into a single one, this is said to be simple; when the union is only partial, the style is bifid, trifid, &c.; and bipartite, tripartite, &c., when the union extends but a short distance above the apex of the ovary. A style which falls off after fertilization is said to be deciduous, otherwise it is persistent.

The Stigma terminates the style, and is usually in direct communication with the placenta. Its position may be either terminal or lateral. It consists of loose cellular tissue, and secretes a viscid matter which retains the pollen, and causes it to protrude tubes. A stigma which is divided by one or more grooves may be bilobed, trilobed, &c., or bilamellar, trilamellar, &c., according as the partial divisions are rounded or flattened. The form of the stigma varies considerably.

In Cryptogamous Plants there are organs termed pistillidia, supposed to perform the functions of pistils, which consist of hollow cavities, termed sporangia, or thecæ, and containing the equivalents of ovules termed spores. The sporangia may be immersed in the body of the plant, or supported on stalks, termed setæ.

The Ovule is attached to the placenta, and is destined to produce the future plant. Although usually embraced within an ovary, in some cases it has no proper covering, then called naked. A partial inclosing by the carpellary leaves renders the ovules seminude. The ovule may be attached to the placenta, either directly, when it is sessile, or by the intervention of a prolongation of the latter, termed funiculus, umbilical cord, or podosperm. The placenta is sometimes called the trophosperm. The part by which the ovule is attached to the placenta is known as the base or hilum, the opposite extremity being the apex. The ovule consists of a cellular mass, termed the nucleus, inclosing a cavity in which the embryo is suspended by a thread-like cellular process, called suspensor, and attached to the summit of the nucleus. In some cases the cavity is lined by an epithelial membrane, which constitutes the embryo-sac, containing the amnios, a mucilaginous fluid in which the embryo forms. The nucleus itself may be either naked or enveloped in one or two coverings; when two are present the outer is called primine, the inner, secundine. These integuments leave an opening at the apex of the nucleus composed of two apertures; the one in the primine, called exostome, the other in the secundine, termed endostome. The foramen of the ovule is also called micropyle. The nucleus and integument are united at the base of the ovule by a cellulo-vascular membrane, called chalaza. The hilum indicates the organic base of the ovule, the foramen marking the apex. The primine, secundine, and nucleus, are always united together at some point of their surface. When this union takes place at the base of the ovule, as in its embryonic condition, this is said to be orthotropal, or atropal. When the ovule is curved downwards, so as to approach the placenta, it is camptotropal; when curved downwards, and grown to the lower half, anatropal; when attached by the middle, so that the foramen is at one end, and the base at the other, it is campylotropal, or amphitropal; when shaped like a horse-shoe, lycotropal; when anatropal, with the raphe half loose, semianatropal. By raphe is meant the vascular connexion between the base of the ovule and the base of the nucleus, in cases where these two bases do not coincide as they do in the orthotropal ovules.

An ovule is said to be ascending when attached to a parietal placenta, with the apex directed upwards. It may hang from an apicilar placenta at the summit of the ovary, and be inverted or pendulous; or it may be suspended from a parietal placenta near the summit. When two ovules in the same cell are placed side by side, they are collateral, and their relative positions may otherwise vary.


The fertilization of a flower usually results from the action of pollen upon the stigma, which in some manner causes the development of an embryo within the nucleus. Authors disagree as to the precise manner in which this action is exerted. The theory most generally adopted is, that the pollen grains falling on the stigma are detained there, and soon exhibit a protrusion of the inner coat, or intine, in the shape of a tube, which penetrates the stigmas, and passes down through the style, ultimately to reach the embryo. The result of this action is the formation of a vital point (a single cell), which ultimately becomes the embryo, and from which a new plant may be produced by exposure to the proper conditions. Sometimes more than one embryo may be developed in the same ovule. The embryo derives the material of its growth from the surrounding tissues, and the whole series of phenomena is attended by the evolution of heat, which sometimes is quite conspicuous. Authorities disagree as to whether or not the germinal vesicle exists in the embryo-sac before the application of the fovilla. In some cryptogamous plants the vital spores are discharged from their envelope without any apparent union of cells of two different sexual characters: in the Confervæ and Diatomaceæ, however, there is a union of the contents of two different cells, by means of tubes, which are protruded from one into the other. This process, called conjugation, results in the production of germinating bodies. When the pollen of one species of plant fertilizes the ovule of another species, the result is a hybrid. These, however, are of rare occurrence in nature.

The Fruit

Various changes occur in the flower after fertilization, the principal of which consist in the enlargement of the ovary, which becomes the pericarp, and within this the development of the ovules into seeds containing the embryo. The other portions of the flower generally dry up and fall off, although some may be persistent. The term fruit, in all strictness, only applies to the mature ovary, with its contents; although it sometimes includes other parts, as the bracts and floral envelopes. The anatomy of the fruit much resembles that of the ovary. The pericarp usually consists of three layers: the external or epicarp, the middle or mesocarp, and the internal or endocarp. In such fruits as the peach the mesocarp becomes much developed, forming the fleshy pulp, and hence called sarcocarp; while the endocarp, thickened by woody matter, constitutes the putamen, or stone. The part of the pericarp attached to the peduncle is termed the base, that where the style or stigma existed being the apex. When the style remains in a hardened form the fruit is apiculate. As in the carpel, so in the ripe fruit, the ventral suture consists of the edges united towards the axis, the dorsal suture corresponding to the midrib. When the sutures are united so firmly as not to give way when the fruit is ripe, this is said to be indehiscent; dehiscent, when either suture opens. Indehiscent fruits are either dry, as in the nut, or fleshy, as in the cherry and apple. When the pericarp is closely incorporated with the seed the fruit is pseudo-spermous. When fruits, composed of single carpels, open only by the sutures, the dehiscence is said to be sutural: when composed of several carpels, the valves may separate through the dissepiments, and give rise to a septicidal dehiscence. When the valves separate, so as to leave the placentæ in the centre, these may form a single column, called columella. When dehiscence takes place along the dorsal sutures, and the separating valves carry the septa with them, the dehiscence is locrdicidal; it is septifragal when the septa separate from the valves, and remain attached to the centre. The separation of the valves may take place from above downwards, or the reverse. In Umbelliferæ the two carpels separate from the lower part of the axis, but remain attached to a prolongation of it, called a carpophore, or podocarp. In the Siliqua, or fruit of the Cruciferæ, the valves separate from the base, leaving a central replum.

Fruits may also open transversely, the dehiscence, in this case, being circumscissile. Dehiscence, again, may be effected by partial openings in the pericarp, called pores, which may be variously situated.

Fruits may be formed by one flower, or by several combined. In the former case they are either apocarpous, with one mature carpel, or dialycarpous, with several separate free carpels. In the latter case they are said to be syncarpous. An anthocarpous or multiple fruit is formed when the bracts and floral envelopes are combined with the ovaries of a syncarpous fruit.

Apocarpous fruits, then, are formed of one or several free carpels, and may be either dry or succulent, according as the pericarp remains more or less foliaceous in structure, or becomes fleshy or pulpy. Fruits which open when ripe to discharge the seeds are dehiscent; otherwise they are indehiscent. An indehiscent apocarpous fruit may contain but one seed, and is then monospermous. The achænium is a dry monospermous fruit, the pericarp of which is closely applied to the fruit, but separable from it. It may be solitary (single) or aggregate (several achaenia placed on a common receptacle). The aggregate achaenia of the rose are known as the cynarrhodiun. Achænia are caudate when the styles remain attached. The fruit of Compositæ, sometimes called cypsela. is an achænium united to the tube of the calyx. When the pericarp is thin, and surrounds the seed like a bladder, the achænium becomes a utricle. When the pericarp is extended in the form of a winged appendage, the achænium becomes a samara. When the pericarp is inseparably united with the seed the fruit becomes a caryopsis. The nut is a one-celled fruit, with a hardened pericarp, surrounded by bracts at the base, as on the hazelnut, which, besides, is enveloped by leafy appendages, forming the husk or hull. The drupe is a succulent fruit, the pericarp consisting of epicarp, mesocarp, and endocarp, and when mature containing a single seed, as in the peach.

Dehiscent Apocarpous fruits may consist either of a few seeds only (oligospermous), or the seeds may be numerous (polyspermous). The first fruit to be mentioned under this head is the follicle, which is a mature carpel, containing several seeds, and opening by the ventral suture. The legume, or pod, is a solitary, simple carpel, dehiscing by the ventral and dorsal suture, the seeds being borne on the former. Sometimes the legume is contracted at intervals, including each seed in a separate cell, which separates from its neighbor when ripe. This constitutes the lomentum.

Indehiscent Syncarpous Fruits. The berry (bacca) is a succulent fruit, in which the seeds are immersed in a pulpy mass, formed by the placentas, as in the gooseberry. The pepo, or peponida, as in the pumpkin or melon, is composed of about three carpels, forming a three-celled indehiscent fruit with parietal placentae. The hesperidium, seen in the orange, is a berry having a pericarp separable into an epicarp, an endocarp, and a sarcocarp, the endocarp sending prolongations inwards, forming triangular divisions in which pulpy cells are developed, so as to surround the seeds. The balausta has the seeds arranged irregularly on the backs of the cells, with the carpels inclosed within a tough rind. The pome is a fleshy fruit, with the calyx adherent, and in connexion with the epicarp and mesocarp, forming a thick cellular edible mass; the endocarp forms separate horny cells, inclosing the seeds; e. g. the apple.

Dehiscent Syncarpous Fruits. By capsule is meant all dry syncarpous fruits opening by valves or pores. When the capsule opens by a lid it is called a pyxidium. The siliqita consists of two carpels fastened together, the placentæ of which are parietal and separate from the valves, remaining in the form of a replum, and connected by a membraneous expansion. When the fruit is long and narrow, it is called a siliqua; when short and broad, silicula. When the replum, which consists of two lamellæ, exhibits perforations, it is called fenestrate.

Multiple, or anthocarpous fruits, are those in which the floral envelopes, with the ovaries of several flowers, are united into one. Among these maybe mentioned the sorosis a multiple fruit, formed by an united spike of flowers which becomes succulent. Thus the pineapple is composed of numerous ovaries, floral envelopes, and bracts, united into one succulent mass. The synconus is an anthocarpous fruit, in which the axis or extremity of the peduncle is hollowed, so as to bear numerous flowers, as in the fig. The strobilus is a fruit-bearing spike, more or less elongated, covered with scales, each one representing separate flowers, with two seeds at the base. These scales may be thin and membraneous, as in the hop, or they may be thickened, as in the pine. In the juniper they become fleshy, and are so incorporated as to form a globular fruit, like a berry, sometimes termed a galbulus.

Of the Seed

The seed is the fertilized ovule arrived at maturity by the development of the embryo. Seeds are usually contained in a seed vessel, or pericarp, and hence called angiospermous; some few, however, are without any pericarpal covering, or are gymnospermous, and when the covering is only partial the seed is seminude. Each seed consists of several distinct elements, like the ovule, being composed of nucleus and integuments. It is only rarely that all the membranes of the ovule are visible in the seed, the embryo-sac often becoming absorbed or incorporated with the cellular tissue of the nucleus. More usually the seed consists of the embryo and two coverings. The general covering of the seed is termed spermoderm, consisting of two parts, an external membrane, called episperm, or testa, and an internal membrane, the endopleura. When the secundine remains distinct in the seed, it forms the mesoperm; or when fleshy, the sarcosperm, or sarcoderm. When the embryo-sac remains distinct from the neuclus in the seeds, it forms a covering to which the name of vitellus has been given. Sometimes there is an additional covering to the seed, resulting from an expansion of the funiculus or placenta after fertilization, and covering the foramen, termed the arillus; when the expansion proceeds from the uncovered foramen, we have an arillode, as seen in the bright scarlet coverings of the seeds of Euonymus. Certain cellular bodies produced on the testa at various points, and in no way connected with fertilization, are known as strophioles, or caruncles. As in the ovule, the point where the funiculus is attached to the seed is termed the hilum, or umbilicus. The foramen of the ovule becomes the micropyle of the seed with the exostome and endostome; it is to this part that the root of the embryo is directed. A small process or valve which overlies the micropyle of the bean is termed embryotega. The vessels from the placenta, after passing through the funiculus, enter the seed either at a point of the hilum, called the omphalode, or else pass under the external integument in the form of a raphe to the chalaza, when this is not coincident with the hilum. The terms, orthotropal, campylotropal, anatropal, face, back, &c., already explained under the head of the ovule, apply equally to the seed.

As the embryo increases in size, it causes an absorption of cellular matter from the embryo sac and nucleus, to such an extent as sometimes to reduce these to the condition of a thin integument, in which case the seed consists of embryo and integuments alone. A peculiar substance, termed albumen, is frequently formed around the embryo, which, when developed within the embryo-sac alone, is known as endospermic albumnen, or endosperm; and when within the cells of the nucleus alone, perispermic albumen, or perisperm. Sometimes both kinds occur in the same seed: when the embryo occupies the whole seed, this is exalbuminous; albuminous, when there is a separate deposit of albumen. The object of the albumen is to supply food to the embryo at the period of germination. It varies much in its nature, being farinaceous, or mealy, consisting of starchy cells, as in the grains; fleshy, or cartilaginous, as in the cocoa-nut; and horny, as in some palms, and in coffee. When the cellular tissue combines with the albuminous matter so completely as to form but one substance, the albumen is solid; ruminated, when a portion of the tissue remains unconverted, causing a mottled appearance, as in the nutmeg. The albumen consists, chemically, of oily matter, starch, and nitrogenized compounds.

The embryo consists of cotyledons, or rudimentary leaves; the plumule, or gemmule, which represents the ascending axis; the radicle, or the germ of the descending axis; and the point of union of the two, or the collum. The part intervening between the collar and cotyledons is the caulicule, or tigelle. The embryo varies in its structure in different divisions of the vegetable kingdom. Thus, in acrogens and thallogens it continues to be a cell or spore, with granular matter in the interior, without any cotyledons; hence such plants are said to be acotyledonous. In endogens and exogens, on the other hand, there is a distinct separation of parts in the embryo, the former having, however, but one cotyledon (monocotyledonous), the latter two (dicotyledonous). In the spore of the acotyledonous plant germination takes place in any part of the surface. Sometimes spores are united in definite numbers by a cellular covering, called perispore, or sporidium; the tetraspore of the Algæ consists of four spores thus united.

The first part formed in the embryo is the axis, having one of its extremities turned towards the suspensor, and indicating the point whence the radicle is to proceed; the other end pointing in the opposite direction, and answering to the stem. From the point where the cotyledons are united to the axis a bud is developed (as from the axils of leaves); this contains the rudiments of the true or primordial leaves of the plant, and is known as the gemmule, or plumule. This bud may usually be seen lying within the cotyledons. In the monocotyledon the gemmule is usually inclosed by the mostly cylindrical cotyledon at its lower portion. The form of the dicotyledonous embryo varies considerably, but is always distinguishable from the monocotyledonous by a division at the cotyledonary extremity. The cotyledons, however, are not always of the same size, and the union between the two may be so intimate as to give rise to the pseudomonocotyledonous embryo. Sometimes there are more than two cotyledons, and plants in which this occurs are sometimes termed polycotyledonous. Cotyledons are usually entire and sessile. Sometimes, however, they become lobed as in the walnut, petiolate, or auricidate. Like leaves in the buds, cotyledons may be either applied directly to each other, or else folded in various ways, becoming conduplicate, reclinate, convolute, circinate, &c.

The radicle may be either straight or curved, the difference in this respect characterizing certain divisions of plants. Thus, in Cruciferæ the division Pleurorhizeæ exhibits the cotyledons applied by their faces, with the radicle folded along their edges, so as to be lateral; the cotyledons are then accumhent. In Notorhizæ the dorsal radicle is folded on the back of the incumbent cotyledons, these being applied to each other by their face. In Orthoploceæ the cotyledons are conduplicate, and the radicle included between their folds.

With respect to the perisperm, the embryo is internal or intrarius when inclosed by this on all sides, excepting the radicular extremity; when lying outside of the perisperm, and only coming in contact with it at certain points, the embryo is external or extrarius. When the embryo follows the direction of the axis of the seed, it is axile or axial, and may be either internal or external. When the embryo is not in the direction of the axis, it is abaxial. When, as in some campylotropous ovules, the embryo is curved and external to the perisperm, it is peripherical.

Although the radicle is usually turned towards the micropyle, and the cotyledons to the chalaza, yet the former may be directed to one side of the nucleus, and the embryo is then excentric. The position of the embryo in different seeds varies. In an orthotropal seed the embryo is antitropal, the radicle pointing to the apex of the seed; if the nucleus be inverted or antitropal, the embryo will be erect or orthotropal. In curved seeds the embryo is folded, so that the extremities are approximated, hence called amphitropal.

When a seed begins to germinate, the embryo first lengthens its radicle, then its caulicle, and afterwards sends the plumule upwards, in the form of a stem and leaves. The radicle extends downwards, either directly from the base of the embryo, or after having previously ruptured the integument of the base. Plants with the first character are said to be exorhizal; with the second, endorhizal. The former is most common in dicotyledons; the latter, in monocotyledons. In most plants the cotyledons are gradually raised to the surface by the growth of the caulicle, after which they become green and act as leaves; sometimes, however, the cotyledons remain inclosed within the testa.

Reproductive Organs of Flowerless Plants

We have already adverted in brief terms to many of the peculiarities of, the reproductive organs of cryptogamous plants, and now propose to combine these under one general head, with the addition of some points hitherto omitted. In the case [of] Ferns, reproduction is effected by means of spores, inclosed in cases named thecæ, which often form in clusters or sori on the under side of the leaves, or beneath the epidermis. This latter, when including the thecæ, is called the indusium. The thecæ, or spore cases, have frequently a stalk passing up one side, and disappearing on the other; the point where this is attached is called the annulus.

Urn Mosses are increased by spores contained within an urn, placed at the apex of a seta or stalk, bearing on the summit a loose hood, called a calyptra, and closed by a lid or operculum. At the base of the spore case is sometimes found a tumor or struma, or an equal expansion, termed apophysis. The inside of the thecæ has a central axis, or columella; and the orifice beneath the operculum is closed by teeth-like processes, or a membrane called peristome.

Lichens are cellular expansions, consisting of a thallus, or combination of stems and leaves, upon which appear shields or apothecia. These are the reproductive organs, and consist of a margin inclosing a kernel or nucleus, in which are imbedded tubes containing sporules, and termed asci.

In the highest forms of Fungals there are two kinds of organs: one, cystidia, conical naked elevations; the other, basidia, also conical elevations, but bearing spores on their apex.

General Considerations with Respect to Plants

The Chemical Constituents of Plants

Plants are composed of certain chemical elements, which are combined in various ways, so as to form either organic or inorganic compounds. The former are composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, with a certain proportion of sulphur, or phosphorus; the latter consist of various metallic bases, combined with metalloids and acids. Water is a chief constituent of plants, the amount being determinable with approximate accuracy, by drying the plant at a heat slightly exceeding that of boiling water, and estimating the loss of weight. When the plant is burned the organic constituents disappear, and the inorganic are left in the form of binary or ternary compounds.

Carbon is the most abundant constituent of the plant, forming a greater proportion of its mass than any other. When vegetable matter is heated without exposure to air, the carbon is left in the form of charcoal, of a black color and porous texture, retaining much of the original volume and shape. It exists in great quantity in the soil, but requires to be converted into carbonic acid before it can be taken up by the plant. Most of the carbon of the plant is derived from the decomposition of the carbonic acid of the atmosphere by means of the leaves. Thus the plant decomposes carbonic acid, assimilates the carbon, and liberates the oxygen; an animal, on the other hand, deprives the air of its oxygen, and liberates carbonic acid. Oxygen is next in importance to carbon. It is usually found in combination with hydrogen, forming water. Nitrogen is less an universal constituent than the other, being chiefly found in the younger parts and the seeds. These four elements occur as binary compounds in water and oily matters; as ternary in starch, gum, sugar, and cellulose; and as quaternary in gluten, caseine, albumen, and fibrine. The latter compounds have for their base a substance known as proteine (C40, H31, N5, 012), with the addition of certain proportions of sulphur and phosphorus.

The principal inorganic constituents of plants are formed of combinations of chlorine, iodine, bromine, sulphur, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, iron, manganese, and copper.

Silica abounds in grasses, giving firmness to the stem. It is sometimes found aggregated in the joints of the bamboo as tabasheer. Lime is found in all plants, in some existing in large quantity. It occurs as a carbonate on the surface of some plants. Soda and Potash are also of constant occurrence. Plants growing near the sea exhibit a preponderance of soda, while those that are inland abound most in potash. Iron and Manganese are found in small quantity; Copper has been detected in coffee.

Products and Secretions of Plants

Having thus very briefly mentioned the principal elements found in plants, we proceed next to a summary of their most important compounds. The first to be mentioned is starch, which is stored up to serve as nourishment either to the developed plant or to the embryo. Its chemical composition is C12, H10, 010. Starch may be deposited in seeds, roots, stems, receptacles, &c. Sometimes starch is associated with poisonous or acrid juices. Inuline is a substance analogous to starch, and found in Elecampane and other plants; lichenine, another variety, is found in Cetraria islandica. or Iceland moss. The action of sulphuric acid, or of malt, on starch, or long-boiling in water, results in the production of a soluble substance, called dextrine, and is one of the stages through which starch passes to become sugar.

Gum (C12, H11, 011) is another substance found abundantly in the vegetable kingdom, and is one of the forms through which organic matter passes during the growth of plants. There are two forms of gum: one soluble in water (arabine or mucilage), the other only swelling up into a gelatinous mass (bassorine, cerasine, and pectine). Arabine is known familiarly as gum arable; combined with cerasine it is found in the gum of the cherry and plum tree. Mucilage is present in many plants, as in the mallows and in linseed. Bassorine forms the chief part of gum tragacanth. Pectine is obtained from pulpy fruits, as the apple and pear. It forms a jelly with water, and when dried resembles isinglass or gelatine.

Sugar occurs in many species of plants, and appears under three principal forms: cane sugar, grape sugar, and mannite. Cane sugar C12, H9, 09 + 2H0, is obtained from many plants, as sugar cane, beet root, sugar maple, birch, &c. It is soluble in about one third of its weight of water, and insoluble in pure alcohol. Grape sugar, or glucose, C12, H12, 012 + 2H0, is found in grape and other juices. It can be prepared from starch or cane sugar by boiling in dilute sulphuric acid. Mannite, C6, H7, 06, the chief ingredient of manna, a substance derived from several species of ash, differs from the others in not undergoing the vinous fermentation. It is also found in the juices of celery, mushrooms, &c.

Lignine occurs abundantly in woody fibre, and is distinguished from cellulose in being soluble in strong nitric acid, forming oxalic acid. Its formula is C35, H24, 020. All these substances are readily convertible into each other. Some other ternary compounds of this character are salicine, found in the willows, and phloridzine, obtained from the bark of the roots of the apple, &c.

There are other vegetable products which differ from these last in the presence of nitrogen. Thus gluten is that part of wheat flour which remains after the removal of the starch. Vegetable fibrine is obtained by treating the glutinous part of wheat with ether. Vegetable cascine, or legumine, is found in oily seeds, and in leguminous plants. Vegetable albumen occurs as a soluble substance with caseine. It coagulates at a temperature of 140° to 160° F., and is not precipitated by acetic acid. The base of all these substances is proteine (C40, H31, N5, 012) Fibrine is proteine + S + Ph. Albumen is proteine + S2 + Ph. Caseine is proteine + S. Emulsine, or synaptase, is found in almonds; and in bitter almonds is associated with a substance called amygdaline. Diastase is a modification of gluten, obtained from malt, and developed generally during the germination of plants. It facilitates the conversion of starch into dextrine, and thence into sugar.

Fixed Oils occur in the cells and intercellular spaces of various parts of the plant. They are known by their greasing paper permanently. The principal are linseed oil, olive oil, and certain solid oils, as palm oil, shea butter, and vegetable tallow. These all contain a large amount of stearine.

Vegetable Wax is a peculiar fatty matter found in the stem and fruit of some plants. On the exterior of fruits it constitutes their bloom, as in the grape and plums. Chlorophylle is alhed to wax in character, being soluble in ether and alcohol, and insoluble in water.

Volatile, or Essential Oils, are procured from such plants as contain them by distillation in water, and are known as essences; they do not grease paper permanently. Usually they are ready formed; sometimes, however, they are produced by a kind of fermentation. Some essential oils consist of carbon and hydrogen, as oil of turpentine, oil of juniper, oil of lemons, &c. A second set contain oxygen in addition, as oil of cinnamon, otto of roses, oils of peppermint, of caraway, and of cloves. Sulphur enters into the composition of a third set, which are distinguished by a peculiar pungent, and sometimes alliaceous smell, as oils of garlic, of onion, of assafœtida; &c. Camphor is a solid oil, consisting of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.

Resins. These arc either liquid or solid. The liquid or balsam of Tolu, of Peru, of copaiva, Canada balsam, &c. The solid are rosin, elemi, sandarac, guiacum, labdanum, dragon’s blood, storax, benzoin, copal, lac, &c.

Caoutchouc is found associated with essential oil and resins in the milky juices of plants. It is procured from various species of Ficus, Urceola, Siphonia, &c. Gutta Perch a is obtained from a species of Isonandra, found in Singapore and Borneo.

Organic Acids occur in great variety in vegetable juices. Thus citric acid is found in the fruit of the orange, the lemon, lime, &c.; tartaric, in the grape; malic, in the apple; tannic, in oak bark and nut-galls; gallic, in the seeds of mango; meconic, in the juice of the poppy; kinic, in Cinchona; hydrocyanic, in the laurel; oxalic, in Oxalis; &c.

Alkaloids, or vegetable alkalies, are nitrogenized compounds, found in living plants, and generally containing their active principles. They occur usually in combination with organic acids. Quinine and cinchonine are derived from Cinchona or Peruvian bark; morphine, narcotine, codeine, thebaine, and narceine, from the poppy; solanine, from the potato and other species of Solanum; veratrine, from hellebore; aconitine, from Aconitum; strychnine and brucine, from nux vomica; atropine, from belladonna; piperine, from Piper; emetine, from ipecacuanha; caffeine, from coffee, tea, and Paraguay tea; theobromine, from the cacao; &c.

Coloring Matters are obtained from plants, either directly or by means of a species of fermentation. Yellow coloring matters are procured from Curcuma longa as turmeric, from the gamboge plant as gamboge, from the stigmata of Crocus sativa as saffron, &c.; also from Reseda luteola (Weld) and from some lichens. The principal reds are alkanet from Anchusa; dragon’s blood from Dracæna; madder from Rubia tinctorum; logwood from Hæmatoxylon; Brazil wood from Cæsalpinia; carthamine from Carthamus; archil and litmus from Roccella tinctoria, one of the lichens. The principal blue is indigo, from various species of Indigofera.

The Circulation and Elaboration of Fluids in Plants

The entrance of liquid matter into the plant is effected mainly through the roots. The extremities of these are covered by a very delicate membrane, which permits the imbibition of liquids with great rapidity. The matter thus absorbed by the roots consists of water holding various matters, chiefly inorganic, in solution; and this is carried up, partly by capillary attraction, partly by endosmosis. This ascending sap passes up through the vessels and cells of the stem, and thence into the leaves, where it is elaborated and returned as descending sap through the bark, a small portion reaching the roots, there to be excreted, or else stored up for purposes of future nutrition. Gaseous matters are also taken up by the roots and circulated along with the sap; these consist mainly of air, oxygen, and carbonic acid. In the course of the ascent slight changes take place in the sap, the most important, however, being reserved for the leaves to effect. Here the sap is exposed to the influence of light and air, by means of which carbon and hydrogen are fixed, oxygen and watery vapor given off. The sap thus becomes denser and more fitted to the purposes for which it is destined. After this elaboration it commences its descent, passing through the bark, and transmitted laterally through the cells of the medullary rays. The descending sap, or latex, is sometimes clear and transparent, at other times it is milky or otherwise colored. In this are contained the peculiar products of the plant which are deposited in various situations. A mucilaginous deposit between the bark and the wood results in the formation of an external layer to the latter, and an internal to the former. Starch and gum are deposited in the cells of the new layer of alburnum or sap wood, which, in the spring of the year, may be converted into sugar, and by solution in the ascending sap impart to this its sweetness.

On the Geography of Plants

Plants are found distributed all over the surface of the earth, wherever heat, air, and moisture co-exist; and the warmer and moister the country, the more vigorous and varied the vegetation. The same soil, however, is not equally favorable to all plants; this is mainly owing to the fact, that different species require different inorganic ingredients, as well as different amounts of heat, light, and moisture. The mean temperature of a place exerts great influence upon its vegetation, and as this temperature is affected to a certain extent by the latitude and longitude, it becomes possible to establish an intimate relation between geographical localities and particular forms of plants. Besides the geographical arrangement of plants, we may also have a physical grouping, according to the physical features of the soil in which they are found. Thus plants may grow in water, salt or fresh, they may be found in sandy soils, in meadows, in vegetable mould, under trees, or on other plants, and even on animals. Recent discoveries of the highest interest, by Dr. Leidy of Philadelphia, have shown that the occurrence of entophyta in animals is perfectly normal. The following arrangement by Balfour, exhibits the general features of a division of plants, according to their station.

Plants Growing in Water, whether Salt or Fresh

  1. Marine Plants, such as sea-weeds, Lavers, &c., which are either buried in the ocean or float on its surface; also, such plants as Ruppia and Zostera. In the Sargasso Sea there are floating meadows of Sargassum bacciferum—gulf-weed. This sea extends from 22° to 36° north latitude, and from 25° to 45° west longitude from Greenwich, and extends over 40,000 square miles.
  2. Maritime, or Saline Plants. These are plants which grow on the border of the sea, or of salt lakes, and require salt for nourishment, as Salicornia, glasswort, Salsola, saltwort, Anabasis. Such plants are often called Halophytes. Under this head may be included littoral and shore plants, such as Armeria, sea-pink, Glaux, and Saniolus.
  3. Aquatic Plants, growing in fresh water, either stagnant or running, as Sagittaria, arrowhead, Nymphæa, water-lily, Potamogeton, pond-weed, Subularia, awlwort, Utricularia, bladderwort, Stratiotes, water-soldier, Lemna, duck-weed, Pistia, Confervæ, Oscillatoriæ, and Ranunculus fluviatilis. Some of these root in the soil, and appear above the surface of the water; others root in the soil, and remain submerged; while a few swim freely on the surface without rooting below.
  4. Amphibious Plants, living in ground which is generally submerged, but occasionally dry, as Ranunculus aquatilis and sceleratus, Polygonum amphibum, Nasturtium amphibium. The form of the plants varies according to the degree of moisture. Some of these, as Limosella aquatica, grow in places which are inundated at certain periods of the year; others, such as Rhizophoras, mangroves, and Avicennias, form forests at the mouths of muddy rivers in tropical countries.

Land Plants which Root in the Earth and Grow in the Atmosphere

  1. Sand Plants; as Carex arenaria, Ammophila arenaria, Elymus arenarius, and Calamagrostis arenaria, which tend to fix the lose sand. Plantago arenaria, Herniaria glabra, Sedum acre.
  2. Chalk Plants; plants growing in calcareous soils, as some species of Ophrys, Orchis, and Cypripedium.
  3. Meadow and Pasture Plants; as some species of Lotus, bird’s foot trefoil, a great number of grasses and trefoils, the daisy, dandelion, and buttercups.
  4. Plants Found in Cultivated Ground. In this division are included many plants which have been introduced by man along with grain, as Centaurea cyanus, corn blue-bottle. Sinapis arvensis, common wild mustard, Agrostemma, corncockle, several species of Veronica and Euphorbia, Lolium temulentum. Convolvulus arvensis, Cichorium intybus; also plants growing in fallow ground, as Rumex acetosella, Carduus nutans, Echium vulgare, Artemisia campestris, and Androsace septentrionalis. In this division garden weeds are included; such as Groundsel, Chickweed, Lamium amplexicaule, Chenopodium vulgare and viride.
  5. Rock or Wall Plants; Saxifrages, Wall-flower, Linaria cymbalaria, Draba muralis, species of Sisymbrium and Sedum, Asplenium, Ruta muraria, and some lichens and mosses.
  6. Plants Found on Rubbish Heaps, especially connected with old buildings. Some of these seem to select the habitations of man and animals, on account of certain nitrogenous and inorganic matters which enter into their composition. Among them may be noticed Nettles. Pellitory, Docks, Borage, Henbane, Xanthium. Here also have been placed some plants immediately connected with the habitation of man, such as Racodium cellare, a fungus found on wine casks; Conferva fenestralis, an alga produced on window-panes; and Conferva dendrita, one developed on paper. Some plants, as Sempervium tectorum, select the roofs of houses.
  7. Plants growing in Vegetable Mould, such as bog plants, or those growing on wet soil, so soft that it yields to the foot, but rises again; and marsh plants, growing in wet soil, which sinks under the foot and does not rise. To the former class belong such plants as Pinguicula alpina and Primida farinosa; to the latter, such as Menyanthes, Comarum, Bidens cernua.
  8. Forest Plants, including trees which live in society, as the Oak, the Beech, Firs, &c., and the plants which grow under their shelter, as the greater part of the European Orchises, some species of Carex and Orobanche. Some plants especially grow, in pine and fir-woods, as Linnæa horealis and some Pyrolas.
  9. Plants of Sterile Places, found in barren rocks, by road-sides. This is a heterogeneous class, and contains many plants of uncertain character. Under it are included the plants of uncultivated grounds, as those found on moors, where Calluna vulgaris, common heath, and various Heaths, Juniper, Andromeda, and some species of Polytrichum occur.
  10. Plants of the thickets or hedges, comprehending the small shrubs which constitute the hedge or thicket, as the Hawthorn and Sweet-brier; and the herbaceous plants which grow at the foot of these shrubs, as Adoxa, Wood Sorrel, Violets; and those which climb among their numerous branches, as Bryony, Black Bryony, Honeysuckle, Traveller’s Joy, and some species of Lathyrus.
  11. Plants of the Monntains. which De Candolle proposes to divide into two sections: 1. Those which grow on Alpine mountains, the summits of which are covered with perpetual snow, and where, during the heat of summer, there is a continual and abundant flow of moisture, as numerous Saxifrages, Gentians, Primroses, and Rhododendrons. 2. Those inhabiting mountains on which the snow disappears during summer, as several species of Snap-dragon, among others the Alpine Snap-dragon. Umbelliferous plants, chiefly belonging to the genus Sesseli, meadow Saxifrage, Labiate plants, &c.

Plants Growing in Special Localities

  1. Parasitic Plants, which derive their nourishment from other vegetables, and which, consequently, may be found in all the preceding situations; as the Mistletoe, species of Orobanche, Cuscuta (Dodder), Loranthus, Rafflesia, and numerous Fungi.
  2. Pseudo-parasitic Plants, or Epiphytes, which live upon dead vegetables, as Lichens, Mosses, &c., or upon the bark of living vegetables, but do not derive much nourishment from them, as Epidendrum, Aerides, and other orchids, as well as Tillandsia, Bromelia, Pothos, and other air plants.
  3. Subterranean Plants, or those which live under the ground, or in mines and caves almost entirely excluded from the light, as Byssus, Truffles, and some other cryptogamic plants.
  4. Plants which Vegetate in Hot Springs, the temperature of which ranges from 80° to 150° Fahrenheit’s thermometer, as Vitex Agnuscastus, and several cryptogamous plants, as Ulva thermalis, the hot-spring Laver.
  5. Plants which are Developed in Artificial Infusions or Liquors, as various kinds of Mucor, causing mouldiness.
  6. Plants Growing on Living Animals, as species of Sphæria and Sarcinula, and various other Fungi and Algæ.
  7. Plants growing on certain kinds of decaying animal matter, such as species of Onygena, found on the hoofs of horses, feathers of birds, &c., some species of Fungi, which grow only on the dung of animals, and certain species of Splachnum.

There are certain forms of plants which, while occurring within definite limits, impart a peculiar character. Meyen, in his Grundriss der Pflanzengeographie, establishes twenty groups as especially characteristic of the regions in which they occur. They are as follows:

  1. Gramineous, or Grassy Form. This is illustrated in northern countries by meadows and pastures. The cereal grains also have a great influence on the aspect of countries. Under this form are included Cyperacæ, Restiaceæ. and Juncaceæ. In the torrid zone some arborescent forms occur, as Bamboo; and along with these are associated Sugar-cane and Rice. Barley is an extra tropical form, while Carex extends to cold regions.
  2. Scitamineous Form. This includes the Ginger, Arrowroot, and Plantain family, some of which attain a large size. They contribute to give a character to the torrid zone.
  3. Pandanus, or Screio-pine Form. A tropical form illustrated by Screwpines and Dracænas.
  4. Pine-Apple Form. Illustrated by the Bromeliaceæ of warm climates.
  5. The Agave, or American Aloe Form. Chiefly tropical and subtropical.
  6. The Palm Form. Under this are included also the Cycadaceous family. They give a character to the hotter regions of the globe. Some of the palms are social, as the Date and Cocoa-nut. Chamærops humilis represents this form in Europe.
  7. Filical, or Fern Form. True Ferns, in an especial manner, affect the landscape in tropical and warm regions.
  8. Mimosa Form. This includes Leguminous plants in general. The finely cut foliage of some has a resemblance to Ferns. Modifications of this form occur both in warm and cold regions. Acacias, in New Holland, give a peculiar feature to the landscape.
  9. Coniferous Form. The Abietinas are cliaracteristic of northern regions, and Cupressinese of southern.
  10. The Protea, Epacris, and Erica Forms. These forms supply the place of Coniferæ in the southern hemisphere; the Protea and Epacris forms occurring in Australasia, and the Erica form at the cape of Good Hope.
  11. Myrtle Form. Some of these, such as Melaleuca and Eucalyptus, characterize New Holland Scenery; others, as Guavas, are tropical.
  12. Forms of Dicotyledonous Trees. Some, with broad and tender leaves, as Birch, Alder, Poplar, Oak, Lime, Elm, Beech, and Horse-chestnut, giving a character to the physiognomy of the colder half of temperate climates; while others, with thick, leathery, and showy leaves, as Olives and Laurels, are characteristic of warmer climates; and a third division, with large, beautiful leaves, Cecropia, Artocarpus, and Astrapsea, abound in the hottest climates.
  13. Cactus Form. This form is developed chiefly in America, especially in Brazil.
  14. Form of Succulent Plants. Seen in the Mesembryaceæ of South Africa.
  15. Lily Form. This includes Liliaceæ, Amaryllidaceæ, and Iridaceæ. Modifications of this form occur in warm and temperate climates.
  16. Formes of Lianas, or Climbing-Plants. These forms are chiefly tropical, and are illustrated by Passion-flowers, Paullinias, Aristolochias, and Bauhinias.
  17. Pothos Form. This is a tropical form, and is illustrated by various species of Araceæ.
  18. Orchideous Form. This is seen in the splendid Epiphytes of warm climates. Terrestrial species chiefly occur in cold zones.
  19. The Moss Form.
  20. The Lichen Form. Both these forms characterize cold regions chiefly.

In treating of the geographical arrangement of plants, we may consider them under two points of view: first, as respects the horizontal or latitude arrangement: and second, in respect to the vertical range. The mean temperature of the earth diminishes as we travel from the equator towards either pole, as also in ascending to the top of a high mountain from its base: so that there is a certain parallelism between the horizontal range of mean temperature and the vertical. The same is the case in plants, as we shall find that the same mean temperature, whether we attain this by a horizontal or by a vertical progression, is characterized by the same vegetable features.

Considering, in the first place, the horizontal range of vegetation, we find the following to be the divisions of Meyen, the latest authority on the subject:—

Horizontal Range of Vegetation

Torrid Zone
  1. Equatorial Zone. 0°– 15°. Mean annual temperature 78\(\frac{1}{2}\)°–82\(\frac{1}{2}\)° F., characterized by the greatest size and variety of forms, with the most brilliant colors and exquisite odors, primitive forests with gigantic trees, and climbing plants. The characteristic forms are Palms, Bananas, Arborescent Grasses, Pandanus, Scitamineæ, Orchids, Lianas, and Epiphytes; also, plants belonging to Cedrelaceæ, Sapindaceæ, Csesalpineæ, Malvaceæ, Anonaceæ, Anacardiæ, Artocarpeæ, Lecythidaceæ, Malpighiaceæ, &c.
  2. The Tropical Zone. 15°– 23°. Mean temperature 73\(\frac{1}{2}\)°–78\(\frac{3}{4}\)° F. Summer temperature 80\(\frac{1}{2}\)°–86°; winter temperature in the eastern coast countries 59°. Palms, Musaceæ, Scytamineæ, Meliaceæ. Arborescent Ferns, Orchidaceæ, Araceæ, and Lianas. Plains with Melastomaceæ and gentians in the New World. Forests of mangrove and figs in the Old World.
Temperate Zone
  1. Subtropical Zone. 23°–34°. Mean temperature 62\(\frac{1}{2}\)°–71\(\frac{1}{2}\)°; mean summer temperature 73\(\frac{1}{2}\)°–82\(\frac{1}{2}\)°: winters mild and vegetation green throughout the year.

    Northern hemisphere. Old World: Pancratia, Dracaenæ, Bananas, Palms (Crucifera thebaica, Phœnix dactylifera, Chamærops humilis), Ficus sycaniorus, Cordia, Cissus, Capparis. Melia, Camellia, Euphorbiaceæ, Pistacia, Bauhinia. New World: Arborescent grasses, Tillandsia on Pinus, Taxodium. Quercus, Populus, Laurus sassafras, Myrica, Diosphyros, Magnolia, Liriodendron, Calycanthus, and climbing Bignonias.

    Southern hemisphere. New Holland: Anthistiria australis and Polygonum junceum. Forests of Eucalyptus, Cycadese, Xanthorrhea, Callitris, Casuarina, Proteaceæ, Dilleniaceæ, Papilionaceæ and Mimosas, Terrestrial Orchideag, Stylidia and Goodenia. South Africa: Cycadeæ. Restiaceæ, Juncaceas, Irideæ, Compositae, Erica, Podocarpus elongatus, with Asclepiadeæ and Bryonia, Mesembryanthemum and Epiphytes. La Plata: shrubs with leathery leaves; woody Compositæ, Oestrum, Colletia, Fuchsia, Myrtles, and Papilionaceæ embraced by Mutisia, Bignoniaceæ, Cuscuta, and Loasaceæ. Abundant in Loranthaceæ, Cactaceæ, Liliaceæ, and arborescent grasses.

  2. Warmer Temperate Zone. 34°–45°. Mean temperature 53\(\frac{1}{2}\)°–62\(\frac{1}{2}\)°. Summer temperature in North America 77°; in Europe 75\(\frac{1}{4}\)°–68°; in eastern Asia, 82\(\frac{1}{4}\)°. Winter temperature in America 44\(\frac{1}{2}\)°–32\(\frac{1}{2}\)°; in Europe 50°–34\(\frac{3}{4}\)°; in eastern Asia 26\(\frac{1}{2}\)°.

    Northern hemisphere. Evergreen trees with vines, Bignonias, and spinous roses, Quercus, Fagus, Castanea, Platanus, Laurus, Fraxinus, Acer, Juglans, Myrtus, Gleditschia, Vaccinium, Viburnum tinus, Arbutus uredo and andrachne, Smilaceæ, Aster, Solidago, Labiatæ, Cistineæ, Caryophylleæ. Meadows are of rarer occurrence.

    Southern hemisphere. New Zealand: Cordyline australis, Phormium tenax, Areca sapida, &c. Van Diemen’s Land and New Holland: Proteaceæ, Epacrideæ, Leptospermeæ. Chili and Buenos Ayres: Fagus, Laurelia; Persea, Weinmannia, Coriaria, Myrtus, &c

  3. Colder Temperate Zone. 45°–58° of latitude. Mean temperature 43°–53\(\frac{1}{2}\)° F.; minimum summer temperature on the west coast 56\(\frac{1}{4}\)°; in the interior of the continent 68°; minimum winter temperature in theinterior of Europe 14°.

    Northern hemisphere; Europe: Corylus, Viburnum, extended green meadows; great heaths covered with Calluna vulgaris. Turf with Juniperus, Andromeda polifolia and Ledum palustre; rich in Umbelliferæ and Cruciferæ. Asia: Anabasis, Salsola, Chenopodium, Atriplex, Statice, Artemisia, Gentiana, Cucuhalus tatarica, Glycyrrhiza. America: Abietinese, Sisyrinchium, Dodecatheon. Panax horridnm, Rubus odoratns, and spectabilis, Sorbus and Cratægus.

    Southern hemisphere. Evergreen forests of Fagus antarctica and betuloides, with Wintera aromatica, Podocarpus. Here and there, no trees (Falkland Islands and east side of the Straits of Magellan), but instead, shrubby growths of considerable extent of Andromeda, Arbutus, Empetrum, and Rubus, 4–5 feet high. Extensive meadows of Agrostis magellanica and cæspitosa, Aira flexuosa, Avena redolens and phleoides, Festuca magellanica and erecta, Carex and Juncus. Moors of Sphagnum acutifolium, with Marchantia polymorpha, Azolla magellanica, Lomaria, Callitriche verna, Gunnera, Statica armeria, Galium aparine, Pinguicula alpina, Lysimachia repens, Ranunculus lapponicus, Caltha appendiculata and sagittata, with Fuchsia and Sanguisorba.

  4. The Subarctic Zone. 58°–66° of latitude. Mean temperature 39\(\frac{1}{4}\)°–43° F.; summer temperature in the New World 66\(\frac{1}{4}\)°; in the Old, 60\(\frac{3}{4}\)°–68°. Winter temperature of western Europe 14°; of the interior of Russia 14°–10\(\frac{1}{2}\)°. Vegetation very similar through Scandinavia, Siberia, Kamtschatka, Northern America, Iceland, and the Faroe Islands. Pines, Firs, Larches, Birches, and Willows predominate; characteristic growths are Cetraria islandica, Trichostomum lanuginosum and canescens. Meadows of Agrostis, Poa and Aira, Valeriana, Hieracium aurantiacum, Digitalis purpurea, Stachys, Swertia, Lysimachia, Trientalis, Calluna vulgaris, Erica cinerea, Bunium, Bibes, Chrysoplenium, Berberis, Hypericum, Prunus padua, Rosa, Trifolium.

    The South Subantarctic Zone (New Shetland) has the polar character.

Frigid Zone
  1. The Arctic Zone. This extends from the Arctic circle 66° to 72°. Mean temperature 28\(\frac{1}{2}\)°–32°, and towards the eastern and continental portions far below this. This constitutes the limit of arboreal vegetation and of cultivated plants. Characteristic growths common to both continents are Gyrophora, Cenomyce rangiferina, Polytrichum, Aira cæspitosa and flexuosa, Pinus sylvestris and abies, Betula nana and glandulosa, Alnus glutinosa, Populus tremula, Salix, Diapensia, Cornus suecica, Azalea, Andromeda, Vaccinura, Rubus chamcemorus and Sorbus aucuparia.
  2. The Polar Zone. This includes all lands from 72° to the pole. The mean temperature of one point in this zone, Melville Island, is 1\(\frac{1}{2}\)°. In the Old World the mean temperature is 16\(\frac{1}{2}\)°. Summer temperature of the New World 37\(\frac{1}{2}\)°, of the Old 38\(\frac{1}{4}\)°. Winter temperature 28° in the New and 2\(\frac{1}{4}\)° in the Old. Spitzbergen, Greenland, the coast of Baffin’s Bay, Melville Island, Northern Siberia, and Nova Zembla, exhibit the same species, with few exceptions. Trees and shrubs wanting. Small turfy plants with creeping roots. Poor in genera, species, and individuals. Characteristic genera are Phippsia, Colpodium, Dupontia, Pleuropogon, Eriophorum, Juncus. Salix, Pedicularis, Andromeda, Pyrola, Saxifraga, Cochlearia, Cardamine. Parrya, Platypetalum, Eutrema, Papaver, Ranunculus, Silene, Potentilla, and Dryas. Few Monocotyledons, and these not above the grass type. Almost total destitution of Apetala and Monopetala.

Vertical Range of Plants

I. Plates 73: Maps and Charts of Plant Distribution
Engraver: R. Schmidt
Glossary for plate 73
  1. Ægypten, Egypt.
  2. Aleiten, Aleutian Islands.
  3. Algerien, Algeria.
  4. Amazonenstrom, Amazon River.
  5. Anden Gebirge, the Andes.
  6. Arabien, Arabia.
  7. Aral S., Lake Aral.
  8. Asien, Asia.
  9. Atlantischer Ocean, Atlantic Ocean.
  10. Australien, Australia.
  11. Azorische In., the Azores.
  12. Bahama In., Bahama Islands.
  13. Baumwolle, Cotton.
  14. Bonin In., Bonin Islands.
  15. Brasilien, Brazil.
  16. Californien, California.
  17. Canarische In., Canaiy Islands.
  18. Cap der guten Hoffnung, Cape of Good Hope.
  19. Cap Horn, Cape Horn.
  20. Cap Verdiache In., Cape Verde Islands.
  21. Caraibisches M., Caribbean Sea.
  22. Carolinen In., Caroline Islands.
  23. Caspisches M., Caspian Sea.
  24. Chinawälder, Bathbark forests.
  25. Beutschland, Germany.
  26. Falklands In., Falkland Islands.
  27. Feuerland, Terra del Fuego.
  28. Frankreich, France.
  29. Freundschafts In., Friendly Islands.
  30. Gallopagos In., Gallopagos Islands.
  31. Gerste u. Hafer, barley and oats.
  32. Gewürznelken, cloves.
  33. Grönland, Greenland.
  34. Grossbritannien, Great Britain.
  35. Grouser oder Stiller Ocean, Pacific Ocean.
  36. Habesch, Habesh.
  37. Himmalya Geb., Himmalaya Mountains.
  38. I. Island, Iceland.
  39. I. Karafla oder Sackalin, Island of Karafta or Sachalin.
  40. Indisches Meer, Indian Ocean.
  41. Irland, Ireland.
  42. Kaffee, coffee.
  43. Kaschmir, Cashmere.
  44. Kurilen, Kurile Islands.
  45. Ladronen In., Marian Islands.
  46. Mais, Indian corn.
  47. Malediven In., Maldive Islands.
  48. Mandschurei, Manchooria.
  49. Marañon od. Amazonenstrom, Amazon River.
  50. Marianen od. Ladronen In., Marian Islands.
  51. Mb. v. Mexico, Gulf of Mexico.
  52. Mendana’s Arch., Mendana’s Archipelago.
  53. Mittel Anier, Central America.
  54. Mittelländisches Meer, Mediterranean Sea.
  55. Mongolei, Mongolia.
  56. Moskau, Moscow.
  57. Muscatbaum, nutmeg tree.
  58. N. Gran., New Grenada.
  59. Neufundland, Newfoundland.
  60. Neu Guinea, JSTew Guinea.
  61. Neu Seeland, New Zealand.
  62. Nord Amerika, North America.
  63. Norwegen, Norway.
  64. Nubien, Nubia.
  65. Ost Indien, East India.
  66. Patagonien, Patagonia.
  67. Pfeffer, pepper.
  68. Reis, rice.
  69. Roggen, rye.
  70. Russisches Amerika, Russian America.
  71. Russland, Russia.
  72. Sandwichs In., Sandwich Islands.
  73. Schiffer In., Navigators’ Islands.
  74. Schivarzes M., Black Sea.
  75. Schweden, Sweden.
  76. Sibirien, Siberia.
  77. Sklaven S., Slave Lake.
  78. Spanien, Spain.
  79. Süd Amerika, South America.
  80. Thee, tea.
  81. Toisen, toises, (1t. = 6 feet.)
  82. Türkei, Turkey.
  83. Vanille, vanilla.
  84. Vereinigte Staaten, United States.
  85. Vulc. V. Aconcagua, Volcano of Aconcagua,
  86. Weitzen, wheat.
  87. West Indien, West Indies.
  88. Wüste Sahara, Desert of Sahara.
  89. Wüste Schamo oder Gobi, Desert of Shamo or Gobi.
  90. Zeichenerklarung fur fig. 1, 2, u. 3, Explanation of the marks in figs. 1, 2, and 3.
  91. Zimmt, cinnamon.
  92. Zucker, sugar.

The relation between altitude and vegetation is best seen in ascending high mountains in tropical regions, where all gradations, from the heat of the Torrid Zone to the cold of the Arctic regions, may be passed through in regular succession. We quote a striking illustration of this circumstance from Humboldt:—

“In the burning plains, scarce raised above the level of the southern ocean, we find Bananas, Cycadaceae, and Palms, in the greatest luxuriance; after them, shaded by the lofty sides of the valleys in the Andes, Tree Ferns: next in succession, bedewed by cool misty clouds. Cinchonas appear. When lofty trees cease, we come to Aralias, Thibaudias, and myrtle-leaved Andromedas; these are succeeded by Bejarias abounding in resin, and forming a purple belt around the mountains. In the stormy regions of the Paramos, the more lofty plants and showy flowering herbs disappear, and are succeeded by large meadows covered with grasses, on which the Llama feeds. We now reach the bare trachyte rocks, on which the lowest tribes of plants flourish. Parmelias, Lecidias, and Leprarias, with their many-colored sporules, form the flora of this inhospitable zone. Patches of recently fallen snow now begin to cover the last efforts of vegetable life, and then the line of eternal snow begins.

“On the mountains of temperate regions the variety is rather less, but the change is not less striking. We begin to ascend the Alps, for instance, in the midst of warm vineyards, and pass through a succession of oaks, sweet chestnuts, and beeches, till we gain the elevation of the more hardy pines and stunted birches, and tread on pastures fringed by borders of perpetual snow. At the elevation of 1950 feet, the vine disappears: and 1000 feet higher, the sweet chestnuts cease to grow; 1000 feet further, and the oak is unable to maintain itself; the birch ceases to grow at an elevation of 4680, and the spruce fir at the height of 5900 feet, beyond which no tree appears. The Rhododendron ferrtigineum (the Rose of the Alps) then covers immense tracts to the height of 7480 feet, and Salix herbacea creeps 200 or 300 feet higher, accompanied by a few Saxifrages, Gentians, and Grasses, while Lichens and Mosses struggle up to the imperisha,ble barrier of perpetual snow.”

Some authors establish five regions of mountain vegetation, including 1, the region of Lowland cultivation; 2, Region of woods; 3, Region of shrubs; 4, Region of grasses; and 5, Region of Cryptogamous plants. A more elaborate classification by Meyen is as follows:

Region of Palms and Bananas

0 to 1900 feet high. Temperature 80\(\frac{3}{4}\)° to 86° F. Corresponds to the equatorial zone.

Forests of Mangrove at the sea coasts, and at the mouths of rivers. Arborescent grasses covering extensive tracts, dense forests of fig trees, Tournefortia, Dodonea, Barringtonia, Mimosa, &c., overtopped by palms, Musaceæ, and Scitamineæ.

Region of Tree Ferns and Ficus

1900 to 3800 feet high. Temperature 74° F. Corresponds to the tropic zone.

Arborescent ferns from 20 to 30 feet high, Cinchonaceæ, Artocarpus, and Ficus, with Reed Palms, and Passifloræ. The undergrowth of Acanthaceæ Tiliaceæ, Euphorbiaceæ, mixed with Aroideæ and Piperaceæ.

Region of the Myrtles and Laurels

3800 to 5700 feet high. 68° to 69.8° F. Corresponds to the subtropical zone.

Dicotyledonous trees, with glossy leaves, shrubby ferns, Quercus, Liquidambar, Laurineæ, Proteaceæ, Rubiaceæ, Erica, Styrax, Sapindaceæ, Malpighiaceæ, Melastoma, Myrtus, Eugenia, Eucalyptus, Acacia.

Region of Evergreen Dicotyledonous Trees

5700 to 7600 feet high. Temperature, 62.6° F. Corresponding to the warmer temperate zone.

Quercus, Laurineæ, Melastomaceæ, Myrtaceæ, Colletia, Cactaceæ.

Region of Deciduous Dicotyledonous Trees

7600 to 9500 feet high. Temperature, 57.2° F. Corresponding to the colder temperate zone.

Forests of Oak, Beech, and Maple, with Ternstroemia, Euphorbiaceæ, and Melastomaceæ, many Coniferaæ.

Region of Ahietinecæ

9500 to 11,400 feet high. Temperature, 51.8° F. Corresponds to the subarctic zone.

In the Peruvian Andes, instead of Coniferae there occur Escalloniæ, Wintera granatensis, and Andromedæ, with Swertia. In the Mexican plateaus, in addition to the Abietineæ, there are forests of Oak and Yucca, Tillandsia and Cactaceæ, with Stevia arenaria. Ranunculus, and Astragalus.

Region of Alpine Shrubs, or of Rhododendronna

11,400 to 13,300 feet high. Temperature 44.6° F. Corresponds to the arctic zone.

No trees, only shrubs; Rhododendrons, Astragalus, Befaria, Cactus, Calceolaria.

Region of Alpine Plants

13,300 to 15,200 feet high. Temperature, 37\(\frac{1}{2}\)° to 39\(\frac{1}{2}\)° F. Corresponds to the polar zone.

In the northern Cordilleras, Compositæ, Mimulus, Calceolaria, Sida, Lupinus; in the southern, Lecidea geographica, grasses, Plantago, Gentiana, Befaria, Mullinsia, Epilobium. In the mountains of Java, Valeriana, Gentiana, Viola, Ranunculus, Potentilla, Draba, Primula, Salix, Astragalus, Phyteuma, &c.

Pl. 73, fig. 1, presents a general view of those cultivated plants, which furnish the principal articles of food and medicine: the various Cerealia Cacao, Sugar, Coffee, Tea, Cinnamon, Pepper, Nutmeg, Vanilla, Clove, Cotton, and Peruvian Bark. Fig. 2 is a more detailed exhibition of the Chinese and East Indian region of cotton, tea-plant, cinnamon tree, pepper. &c. Fig. 3 is a special chart of the region of the sugar-cane, coffee, and cacao tree, of tea, vanilla, &c., in the West Indies and South America. The remaining four figures present to us the vertical distribution of plants. Fig. 4 represents this distribution in the temperate zone of Asia. From the foot of the Himalayas to the middle of the region, between 3 and 4, no snow occurs; and up to a point half-way between 4 and 5, the snow vanishes before the rainy season, and the tropical herbaceous plants cease to exist. Oaks are found at 4. Rhododendrons at 6, &c. At a height from 1 to a region between B and 4, we find first the dwarf palm, higher up the long-leaved fig, Shorea robusta, and finally oaks. Between C and D is the region of sugar plantations: between D and E, that of the Deodora Cedar; between E and F are found wheat, walnut, and almond trees, &c.; between F and G, the white Birch, Juniper, &c.; and above all. at G, there occurs Genista versicolor. Fig. 5 represents the distribution of American plants. Thus the palm is found up to A; arborescent ferns to B; the grape to C; cinnamon to D; oaks and the Mexican alder to E; Pinus occidentalis to F; maize to G (probable snow line of Aconcagua); barley to H. On the eastern side, Pinus occidentalis at F, and the Mexican alder and oaks at G. Fig. 6 illustrates the temperate zone of Europe; the grape, chestnut and walnut, up to A; to B, oaks, white birch, red birch; to C, Pinus picea and abies; to D, Alnus viridis and Rhododendron; to E, Salix herbacea; F to G, Pinus rubra; to H, oaks; and the chestnut, the grape, &c., down to the foot again. Fig. 7 refers to the Canary Islands: to A, Palms; to B, Cerealia and the grape; to C, Laurel trees; to D, Pinus canariensis; to E, Spartium rubiginosum; and to F, a species of Viola. Fig. 8 shows the distribution of plants in the frigid zone of Europe; Pinus sylvestris to A; the white birch to B; and to C, salix herbacea and lanata.

Systematic Botany, or the Classification of Plants

It does not come within the scope of the present work to give a history of the rise and progress of the science of Botany, nor to enumerate the various systems of classification which have been propounded. We will merely state that such systems are either artificial or natural. The most important artificial system is that of Linnæus, which, better perhaps than any other system affords an index to the genera. The objection to this and to other artificial systems is, that genera and species of very different character are necessarily brought together, while their affinities and truly essential characters may be wholly opposite. Up to a comparatively recent period the system of Linnæus almost exclusively prevailed; few botanists of the present day, however, make any other use of it than that of a key or index. In this system twenty-three classes are founded on the number, relative lengths, position, and connexion of the stamens; the orders in these classes depending on the number of styles, the nature of the fruit, occasionally the number of stamens, and the perfection of the flowers. The twenty-fourth class includes plants with inconspicuous flowers. The following is a tabular view of the system as analysed by Balfour.

Tabular View of the Classes of the Linnæan System

  1. Phanerogamia (Flowers present):
    1. Stamens and Pistil in every flower.
      1. Stamens free.
        1. Stamens of equal length, or not differing in certain proportions:
          1. Class I. Monandria with one stamen.
          2. Class II. Diandria with two stamens.
          3. Class III. Triandria with three stamens.
          4. Class IV. Tetrandria with four stamens.
          5. Class V. Pentandria with five stamens.
          6. Class VI. Hexandria with six stamens.
          7. Class VII. Heptandria with seven stamens.
          8. Class VIII. Octandria with eight stamens.
          9. Class IX. Ennandria with nine stamens.
          10. Class X. Decandria with ten stamens.
          11. Class XI. Dodecandria with 12 to 19 stamens.
          12. Class XII. Icosandria with 20 or more stamens inserted on calyx.
          13. Class XIII. Polyandria with 20 or more stamens inserted on receptacle.
        2. Stamens of different lengths:
          1. Class XIV. Didynamia with two short and two long stamens.
          2. Class XV. Tetradynamia with two short and four long.
      2. Stamens united
        1. By filaments
          1. Class XVI. Mondelphia with stamens in one bundle
          2. Class XVII. Diadelphia with stamesn in two bundles
          3. Class XVIII. Polyadelpha with stamens in more than two bundles.
        2. By anthers (compound flowers):
          1. Class XIX. Syngenesia with stamens united by anthers
          2. Class XX. Bynandria with stamens and pistil on a column.
    2. Stamens and pistil in different flowers.
      1. On the same plant:
        1. Class XXI. Monœcia.
      2. On different plants:
        1. Class XXII. Diœcia.
    3. Stamens and pistils in the same or in different flowers, on the same or on different plants:
      1. Class XXIII. Polygamia.
  2. Cryptogamia (flowers absent):
    1. Class XXIV. Cryptogamia.

Tabular View of the Orders of the Linnæan System

  1. Classes I to XIII. subdivide into:
    1. Order 1. Monogynia with one free style.
    2. Order 2. Digynia with two free styles.
    3. Order 3. Trigynia with three free styles.
    4. Order 4. Tetragynia with four free styles.
    5. Order 5. Pentagynia with five free styles.
    6. Order 6. Hexagynia with six free styles.
    7. Order 7. Heptagynia with seven free styles.
    8. Order 8. Octogynia with eight free styles.
    9. Order 9. Enneagynia with nine free styles.
    10. Order 10. Decagynia with ten free styles.
    11. Order 11. Dodecagynia with 12 to 19 free styles.
    12. Order 12. Polygynia with 20 or more free styles.
  2. Class XIV. subdivides into:
    1. Order 1. Gymnospermia with the fruit formed by four Achænia.
    2. Order 2. Angiospermia with the fruit a two-celled capsulre with many seeds.
  3. Class IV. subdivides into:
    1. Order 1. Siliculosa: fruit, a Silicula.
    2. Order 1. Siliquosa: fruit, a Siliqua.
  4. Classes XVI. to XVIII. subdivide into:
    1. Orders: Triandria, Tetrandria, Decandria, &c., according to the number of stamens.
  5. Class XIX. subdivides into:
    1. Order 1. Polygamia æqualis: florets all hermaphrodite.
    2. Order 2. Polygamia superflua: florets of the disk hermaphrodite, of those ray pistilliferous and fertile.
    3. Order 3. Polygamia frustrania: florets of the disk hermaphrodite, those of ray neuter.
    4. Order 4. Polygamia necessaria: florets of the disk staminiferous, those of the ray pistilliferous.
    5. Order 5. Polygamia segregata: each floret having a separate involucre.
    6. Order 6. Monogamia. Anthers united, flowers not compound.
  6. Classes XX. to XXII. subdivide into:
    1. Orders: Monandria, Diandria, &c., according to the number of stamens.
  7. Class XXIII. subdivides into:
    1. Order 1. Monœcia: Hermaphrodite, staminiferous, and pistilliferous flowers on the same plant.
    2. Order 2. Diœcia: the same on two plants.
    3. Order 3. Triœcia: the same on three plants.
  8. Class XXIV. subdivides into:
    1. Order 1. Filices: Ferns.
    2. Order 2. Musci: Mosses.
    3. Order 3. Hepaticæ: Liverworts.
    4. Order 4. Lichenes: Lichens.
    5. Order 5. Algæ: Seaweeds.
    6. Order 6. Fungi: Mushrooms.

The object in the natural system is to combine those plants which are allied in essential points of structure. Every natural method is, however, to a certain extent artificial, and it will be impossible to construct a perfect natural system until all the plants of the globe are known. The first natural system of much special value was that of Jussieu, published in 1789. This includes one hundred natural orders or groups of genera, the whole arranged under fifteen classes, as follows:

Natural System according to Jussieu

  • Acotyledones, Class I.
  • Monocotyledones,
    • Mono-hypogynæ (Stamens hypogynous), II.
    • Mono-perigynæ (Stamens perigynous), III.
    • Mono-epigynæ (Stamens epigynous), IV.
  • Dicotyledones,
    • Monoclines
      (flowers united)
      • Apetalæ
        (No petals)
        • Epistamineæ (Stamens epigynous), V.
        • Peristamineæ (Stamens perigynous), VI.
        • Hypostamineæ (Stamens hypogynous), VII.
      • Monobetalæ
        (Petals united)
        • Hypocorollæ (Corollahy pogynous), VIII.
        • Pericorollæ (Corollahy perigynous), IX.
        • Epicorollæ
          (Crolla epigynous)
          • Synantheræ (anthers united), X.
          • Corisantheræ (anthers free), XI.
      • Polypetalæ
        (Petals distinct)
        • Epipetalæ (petals epigynous), XII.
        • Peripetalæ (petals perigynous), XIII.
        • Hypopetalæ (petals hypogynous), XIV.
    • Declines (flowers unisexual or without a perianth) XV.

The philosophical system of Endlicher divides plants into two regions and five sections, as follows:

Natural System according to Endlicher

  1. Region I. Thallophyta (frond plant). No opposition of stem and root. No spiral vessels, and no sexual organs. Propagated by spores.
    1. Section 1. Protophyta. Developed without soil; deriving nourishment all around; fructification indefinite.
    2. Section 2. Hystcrophyta. Developed on decaydng organisms; nourished internally from a matrix; all the organs appearing at once, and perishing in a definite manner.
  2. Region II. Cormophyta. Opposition of stem and root. Spiral vessels and sexual organs distinct in the more perfect.
    1. Section 3. Acrohrya. Stem increasing by the apex, the lower part being unchanged, and only conveying fluids.
      1. Cohort 1. Anophyta. No spiral vessels. Both sexes present. Spores free within spore-cases.
      2. Cohort 2. Protophyta. Bundles of vessels more or less perfect. No male organs. Spores free within one or many-celled spore-cases.
      3. Cohort 3. Hysterophyta. Both sexes perfect. Seeds without an embryo, consisting of many spores. Parasitic.
    2. Section 4. Amphibrya. Stem increasing at the circumference. Vegetation peripherical.
    3. Section 5. Acramphibrya. Stem increasing both by apex and circumference. Vegetation peripherico-terminal.
      1. Cohort 1. Gymnospermæ. Ovules naked, receiving the fecundating matter directly at the micropyle.
      2. Cohort 2. Apetalæ. Perigone either wanting or rudimentary or simple, calycine or colored, free or adherent to the ovary.
      3. Cohort 3. Gamopetalæ. Perigone double; outer calycine, inner corolline; gamopctalous, rarely wanting by abortion.
      4. Cohort 4. Dialypetalæ. Perigone double; outer calycine, parts distinct or united, free or attached to the ovary; inner coralline, parts distinct or very rarely cohering by means of the base of the stamens; insertion hypogynous, perigynous, or epigynous; sometimes abortive.

Under these sections are enumerated 279 natural orders, grouped under sixty-one classes.

The arrangement which we have selected to be the basis of our classification is that of De Candolle, as modified by certain more recent authors.

Natural System according to De Candole

A. Cryptogamus or Cellular Flowerless Plants

Class 1. Acotyledons or Acrogence
  1. Sub-Class 1. Amphigamæ, Thallogenæ, or Cellulares: entirely cellular.
  2. Sub-Class 2. Ætheogamæ, or Cormogenæ: having vascular tissue.

B. Phanerogamous or Vascular Flowering Plants

Class 2. Monocotyledons, or Endogenæ
  1. Sub-Class 1. Glumaceæ. Floral envelopes imbricated, leaves parallelveined.
  2. Sub-Class 2. Petaloideæ or Florideæ. Floral envelopes, verticillate leaves, parallel veined.
    1. Unisexual, often acblamydeous.
    2. Hermapbrodite, ovary free.
    3. Hermapbrodite, ovary adberent.
  3. Sub-Class 3. Dictyogenæ. Floral envelopes verticillate, leaves reticulated.
Class 3. Dicotyledones or Exogence

Before proceeding to the more particular consideration of the orders of the system, we shall make a brief reference to the more usual symbols and abbreviations as used in botanical descriptions.

The authorities for genera and species are given by adding the abbreviated name of the botanist who described them. Thus, Veronica L. is the genus Veronica as defined by Linnæus; Veronica arvensis L. is a certain species of Veronica, defined by the same author; Oxytropis DC. is the genus as defined by De Candolle. It is usual in descriptive works to give a list of the authors, and the symbols for their names. The abbreviation v. s. sp., means vidi siccam spontaneam, or that the author has seen a dried wild specimen of the plant; v. s. c. means vidi siccam cultarn, or that he has seen a dried cultivated specimen; v. v. s. means vidi vivam spontaneam, or that he has seen a living wild specimen; while v. v. c. means vidi vivam cultam, or that the author has seen a living cultivated specimen. The asterisk prefixed to a name (*L), indicates that there is a good description at the reference given to the work; while the dagger (†L), implies some doubt or uncertainty. The point of admiration (!DC), marks that an authentic specimen has been seen, from the author named; and the point of interrogation (?) indicates doubts as to the correctness of genus, species, &c., according as it is placed after the name of the one or other. ☉, ○, ①. or A, annual; $, ☉☉, ②, or B, biennial; ♃, △, or P, perennial; ♄, or Sh., shrub; ), twining to the left; (, twining to the right; ☿, hermaphrodite; ♁, male; ♀, female: ♁–♀, monœcious, or the male and female on one plant; ♁: ♀, diœcious, or the male and female on different plants; 00 or ∞, means indefinite in number.

Section A. Cryptogamous Plants

Class 1. Acotyledones, Juss. Acrogens and Thallogens, Lindl.

The plants belonging to this class are in some instances composed entirely of cellular tissue; in other instances, both cells and vessels are present. The vascular tissue in the higher orders consists partly of closed spiral and scalariform vessels. Many of them have no true stem nor leaves. The woody stem, when present, consists of vascular bundles, which increase in an acrogenous manner. The stem of tree-ferns (which illustrates this class) is unbranched, more or less uniformly cylindrical, hollow in the interior, and marked by the scars of the leaves. Stomata occur in the epidermis of the higher divisions. Leaves, when present, have frequently no true venation; at other times the venation is forked. There are no flowers, and no distinct stamens nor pistils. Reproduction takes place in some cases apparently by the union of cells of different kinds (antheridia and pistillidia), by means of which germinating bodies called spores are formed. In other cases it is difficult to trace this process of fertilization. The spore may be considered as a cellular embryo which has no cotyledons, and germinates from any part of its surface, being heterorhizal.

Sub-class 1. Amphigamæ, Thallogenes, or Cellulares
I. Plate 54: Representatives of the Algae, Fungi, Bryophyta, Polypodiophyta and Other Nonflowering Plants
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Acotyledons composed entirely of cellular tissue, having no distinct axis, nor leaves, nor stomata, propagated by means of spores which are often inclosed in asci.

Order 1. Algæ, the Sea-weed Family. Cellular plants found both in salt and in fresh water. Fronds composed of variously formed, often elongated cells, which are either simple or branched filaments, continuous or articulated, separate or combined in different ways, so as to constitute fronds of different kinds. Growth takes place by the division of cells, or by cellular prolongations, in the form of lateral branches. Reproductive organs consist of spores, which are contained in mother-cells or perispores, or sporocarps. These are sometimes congregated together in receptacles of different sorts. The spores occasionally divide into three or four cells, constituting tetraspores. In addition to spores or sporocarps, there are sometimes round, or clavate, or filamentous cellular bodies present, to which some give the name of antheridia. In some of the simplest Algæ, the whole plant is concerned in producing new individuals by division of the parent cells into two or four. In others there is a union of two filaments, and a passage of certain granular particles (endochrome) from the one to the other, ending in the formation of the spore. This process is termed conjugation, and is one of great interest. It has been observed in some of the Confervaceæ and Diatomaceæ. In certain cases, the terminal cell of the filament is that in which a spore is formed without any conjugation, and in these cases the spore is frequently provided with ciliary processes, which exhibit for a time spontaneous movements; hence called zoospores. In the higher Algæ, the sporocarps containing two, four, or more reproductive cellules, are united together in conceptacles along with filaments containing phytozoa, and called antheridia. In Characeæ. there are two distinct organs of reproduction.

Sub-order 1. Diatomaceæ: inhabiting still waters and moist places; fronds consistino; of frustula or fragments, which are either angular or cylindrical, often silicious and brittle (non-silicious in Desmidieae) united by a gelatinous sort of substance; propagated by the division of parent cells into two halves, which become more or less completely detached, and form new individuals. Conjugation also takes place in some instances, in the same way as in the Confervaceæ.

Sub-order 2. Confervaceæ: aquatic plants often of a green color, consisting of one or more cells of a rounded or cylindrical form, united together So as to form an articulated or flat frond. They increase by the merismatic division of cells. Reproduction effected by spores which are formed in the interior of the cells by a change in the arrangement of the granular matter, or by the union of filaments of different plants, a process of conjugation by which granular matter passes from one to the other. Pl. 54, fig. 34, a–d; a,
Conferva bombycina; b, C. rivularis in various states: c, C. flaccida and d, C. glomerata.

Sub-order 3. Floridecs, or Ceramiacece: rose or purple-colored sea-weeds, with fronds formed of a single row of articulated cells, or of several rows of cells combined into a flat expansion; organs of reproduction consist of sporocarps or perispores, intermixed with clavate filaments called antheridia. The sporocarps contain cells or spores often divided into four (tetraspores), and inclosed in conceptacles of various kinds.

Sub-order 4. Fucaceæ, or sea-weeds, the sea-wrack tribe: usually growing in salt water: frond consisting of cells which are often united by gelatinous matter, and which sometimes form a broad expansion (a membranous thallus), supported on a stalk; organs of reproduction consist of sporocarps and antheridia, contained in conceptacles opening externally, which are united in club-shaped expansions or receptacles, situated at the end or margins of the fronds. In germinating, the nucleus bursts the epispore or outer covering of the spore, and sends out filamentous processes. Pl. 54, fig. 36, Laminaria digitata; fig. 37, L. saccharina with cellular tissue and fruit. Fucus vesiculosus (fig. 38).

Sub-order 5. Characeæ: water plants formed of parallel tubes, which are sometimes incrusted with carbonate of lime; reproductive organs are of two kinds: a, a round red globule consisting of eight valves which inclose cells of diiferent kinds, containing granular matter and peculiar spiral filaments or phytozoa; b, an oval nucule formed by a large central cell or spore, with five elongated cells wound spirally round it, surmounted by five teeth. Some consider the globule as an antheridium, and as equivalent to an anther.

Order 2. Fungi, the Mushroom Family The plants belonging to this order consist of cells, sometimes round, sometimes elongated, in the form of filaments, either placed closely together, or separated. They are variable in their consistence, being soft or hard, fibrous or gelatinous, fleshy or leathery. They never contain green gonidia, like Lichens, and they rarely grow in water. There exists a vegetative System, called spawn or mycelium, formed of elongated, simple, or articulated filaments, concealed within the matrix, or expanded over its surface, from which varied forms of fructification proceed. The mycelium occurs either in a filamentous, a membranous, a tubercular, or a pulpy form. The reproductive organs consist of spores or spherical cells (usually four, or some multiple of four), which are either attached to the cellular tissue, and supported often on simple or branched filamentous processes, called sporophores or basidia; or are contained in thecæ, cystidia, or asci, accompanied by bodies called antheridia, or paraphyses: in the latter case the term sporidia is sometimes applied to the spores. The sporophores sometimes end in delicate cells, bearing the spores, and called sterigmata. In the Agarics, or Mushrooms, which are among the best known fungi, there is observed first a roundish protuberance on the mycelium. This swelling is called the volva, or wrapper, and it gradually enlarges, containing in its interior what appears afterwards as the agaric, with its reproductive bodies. When the volva is ruptured the fully-formed agaric is seen, consisting of an upper rounded portion, called the pileus, or cap, supported on a stalk or stipes. On its under surface is situated the hymenium, or the part where the spores are produced, covered at first by a thin membrane, called a veil (indusium or velum), which is ultimately ruptured; and when the rupture takes place at the edge of the pileus, an annulus or ring is left on the stipes. The hymenium, or the part on which the organs of reproduction are placed, consists in the agaric of cellular plates, lamellæ, or gills, radiating from the centre. In other genera of fungi it consists of tubes or solid columns, or fleshy or gelatinous matter. Sometimes the hymenium is on the upper surface of the fungus. Cellular plants, often growing on decaying organic matter, generally very transient, and presenting various colors, and found in all parts of the world.

The plants of this order are remarkable as esculents, as poisonous substances, and as causing great injury to animal and vegetable tissues. It is among these that we find the various mushrooms, some known as furnishing an excellent article of food, others as highly poisonous. It is difficult to indicate any good character by which to distinguish the former from the latter, other than that they generally grow solitary in dry pastures, are rarely high colored, generally white or brownish, seldom show scales, and have brittle flesh. The various moulds which occur on animal or vegetable substances belong to this order. Some fungi are produced on living animals.

Sub-order 1. Phycomycetes: Thallus floccose, spores surrounded by a vesicular veil, or sporangium. The principal genera are Phycomyces and Mucor.

Sub-order 2. Ascomycetes: Sporidia (spores), contained often in sets of eight in asci or tubes. This sub-order includes the Truffle, Tuber cibarium (pl. 54,fig. 18).

Sub-order 3. Hyphomycetes: Thallus floccose, spores naked, often septate.

Sub-order 4. Coniomycetes: Flocci of the fruit obsolete or mere peduncles, spores single, often partitioned, and on more or less distinct sporophores. The principal genera in this sub-order are Ustilago and Uredo, the latter causing the well-known smut and brand. Pl. 54, fig. 16, Ustilago segetum; fig. 17, Uredo phaseoli.

Sub-order 5. Gasteromycetes: Hymenium inclosed in a membrane (peridium), spores as in the next sub-order. A species of Bovista one of the principal genera. B. gigantea (pl. 54, fig. 19) is remarkable for its great size and for the rapidity of its growth; having been known to increase in a single night from the size of a pea to that of a melon. Pl. 54, fig. 20, represents Morchella esculenta, an edible fungus which is prepared in large quantities in some parts of Europe, by cutting into pieces and drying in ovens.

Sub-order 6. Hymenomycetes: Hymenium naked, spores in sets of four, and borne on distinct sporophores. Hydnum auriscalpium and squamatum (pl. 54, fig. 23). Polyporus perennis (pl. 54, fig. 21). A species of Polyporus, P. destructor, is one of those Fungi which cause the dry rot. Boletus umbellatus (pl. 54, fig. 22a); B. edulis (fig. 22b); Cantharellus cibarius (fig. 24); Agaricus fimetarius (fig. 25); A. campestris and squarrosus (fig. 26); A. procerus (fig. 27); and A. muscarius (fig. 28). The genus Agaricus contains a great number of species, and includes some that are highly poisonous, as well as others that are perfectly harmless. The common mushroom belongs here.

Order 3. Lichenes, the Lichen Family. Plants forming a thallus, which is either foliaceous, crustaceous, or pulverulent, these different forms depending on the mode in which the cells are developed and combined. The reproductive organs appear on the frond in the form of protuberances of various kinds, consisting of an outer layer of thick-walled roundish cells, more dense than the tissue of the thallus, and of a different color; and of an internal medullary layer of paraphyses and sporangia, lying perpendicularly to the outer layer. The fructification gradually projects more and more from the surface, and either remains covered with the outer layer, or bursts through it. When it remains closed, there is a nucleus in the centre. When the fructification bursts through the cortical or outer layer, it expands in the form of shield-like disks, called apothecia or patellæ, or linear expansions called lirellæ. Sometimes the cortical matter forms a border round the fructification, at other times it grows up in the form of a stalk, so as to give rise to the podetium. The young thecae (asci) contain spores, varying from four to eight, or from twelve to sixteen. Occasionally, the spores are in sets of two. Separated cells of the medullary layer, of a green color, called gonidia, or gongyli, are considered as another kind of reproductive organ. There is much uncertainty as to the real character of the spherical or sub-spherical green bodies called gonidia, which are characteristic of true lichens. When separated from the parent structure, they are capable of forming new plants. Lichens are found in all quarters of the globe, adhering to stones, rocks, trees, &c. During their entire growth, they appear to be capable of deriving most of their nourishment from the atmosphere. They have the power of acting on hard rocks, so as to disintegrate them in process of time, and many of them contain much inorganic matter in their composition. They all grow in the air; none are found submersed.

Sub-order 1. Coniothalameæ: pulverulent lichens; shields open, without a nucleus, cavity filled with free spores.

Sub-order 2. Idiothalameæ: shields closed at first, opening afterwards, containing free spores in a nucleus composed of the gelatinous remains of the paraphytes and sporangia.

Sub-order 3. Gasterothalameæ: shields either closed always, or opening by bursting through the cortical layer of the thallus, the nucleus containing the deliquescing or shrivelled sporangia.

Sub-order 4. Hymenothalameæ: shields open, discoid permanent, nucleus bearing the sporangia on its surface.

The economical value of some lichens is considerable. Cetraria islandica (pl. 54, fig. 31), or Iceland Moss, contains a nutritious substance called lichenin. Cladonia rangiferina furnishes the principal winter food of the Reindeer. Fig. 29 represents Cladonia pyxidata and verticillata. Parmelia parietina (pl. 54, fig. 30) contains a yellow coloring matter called parietin. Rocella tinctoria (fig. 32) furnishes part of the archil of commerce. Fig. 33 represents Usnea florida. The tripe de roche, a nutritious lichen found in the Arctic regions of America, belongs to the genus Gyrophora.

Sub-class 2. Ætheogamæ or Cormogenæ

Order 4. Hepaticæ, the Liverwort Family. Plants having an axis which either bears cellular leaves or is leafless, and is bordered by a membranous expansion or thallus. Stomata are found in the epidermis of some. The reproductive organs are: 1. Antheridia, which are either imbedded in the frond, or situated on rounded, sessile, and stalked receptacles. 2. Pistillidia, either inclosed in involucres and solitary, or occurring at the edge of the frond, or on the lower side of stalked peltate expansions. Thecas or developed pistillidia, having no operculum, opening irregularly, or by four valves. Spores often mixed with spiral filaments called elaters. Heterorhizal in germination. Terrestrial plants found in damp places, or inhabiting water; some having a moss-like appearance. They are natives both of cold and warm climates, and are generally distributed over the globe.

Sub-order 1. Jungermannieæ, or scale mosses. Frondose or foliaceous plants, terrestrial or on trees. Capsule dehiscent lengthwise into four valves. Jungermannia, the principal genus, is represented by many species: Gymnoscyphus, one of the true Jungermannieæ, is represented in pl. 54, fig. 43, by G. repens.

Sub-order 2. Marchantieæ. Frondose and terrestrial; perennial, growing in wet places, with the fertile receptacle raised on a peduncle, capitate or radiate, bearing pendent calyptrate capsules from the under side, which open variously, not four-valved. Elaters with two spiral fibres. Ex. Marchantia polymorpha (pl. 54, fig. 44), very common shaded, moist places.

Sub-order 3. Anihoceroteæ. Terrestrial frondose annuals with the fruit protruded from the upper side of the frond; perianth none. Capsule pod-like, single or double-valved, with a free central columella. Elaters none or I imperfect. Ex. Anthoceros punctatus (pl. 54, fig. 42), found on wet slopes and the sides of ditches throughout the United States.

Sub-order 4. Riccieæ. Mostly frondose floating little annuals, with both kinds of flowers, and the fruit immersed in the frond. No involucre, perianth, nor elaters. Capsule bursting irregularly. Ex. Riccia.

Sub-order 5. Monocleæ. Fruit, solitary capsular, opening laterally by a longitudinal slit. Elaters, mixed with spores. Vegetation, foliaceous or frondiform. Ex. Monoclea.

Order 5. Musci, Mosses. Plants having a distinct axis of growth, often giving ofi" branches or innovations; no vascular system. Leaves minute and imbricated, entire or serrated, sometimes with condensed cells, in the form of ribs or nerves. Reproductive organs of two kinds: 1. Antheridia, cylindrical or fusiform stalked bags, containing powdery matter and phytozoa, and mixed with empty jointed filaments or paraphyses. 2. Urnshaped pistillidia, inclosed at first within a calyptra. which is ultimately carried up with them, leaving often a sheath round the bottom of the fruit stalk. These pistillidia finally become the thecæ, or spore-cases, supported on a stalk or seta, which has leaves at its base, called perichaetial leaves; on removal of the calyptra the theca is found to consist of a case with an operculum or lid, which, when it falls off, shows the mouth of the urn, either naked or crowned with a peristome, consisting of one or more rows of teeth (in number four, or a multiple of four), distinct or united in various ways. In the centre of the theca is a columella, and the bag formed between it and the parietes of the theca contains spherical cells, called spores, each of which divides into four small spores, or sporules, the germinating bodies. In some cases the operculum remains persistent, and the theca opens by four valves. At the base of the theca there is occasionally a fleshy protuberance at one side, called a struma; or a swelling of the seta, called an apophysis. The calyptra is sometimes split on one side (dimidiate), at other times it is entire or split into short clefts all around its base (mitriform). Between the teeth of the peristome and the edge of the theca an elastic ring or annulus is formed, and occasionally a horizontal septum or epiphragm extends across the mouth of the thecæ. The setae are sometimes twisted, and so are the teeth of the peristome. Mosses are either erect or creeping, terrestrial or aquatic plants, found in all moist countries, extending from the Arctic to the Antarctic regions. They abound most in temperate climates. They are among the first plants which appear on newly formed islands.

Mosses have been divided into Pleurocarpi, those in which the fruit is lateral, and Acrocarpi, whese the fruit is terminal. The principal North American sub-orders are: Fontitialeæ, Hypnacecæ, Leskeaceæ, Neckeraceæ, Pterogonaceæ, Bryacecæ Meesiaceæ, Bartramiaceæ, Buxbaumiaceæ, Polytrichaceæ, Fissidenteræ, Leucohryaceæ, Dicranaceæ, Trichostomaceæ, Tetraphideæ, Orthotriceaceæ, Encalypteæ. Grimmiaceæ, Weissiaceæ, Splachnaceæ, Funariaceæ, Pottiaceæ, Gymnostomaceæ, Sphagnaceæ, Andrccaceæ, and Phascaceæ. Illustrations of one or two species of these sub-orders are furnished by our figures. Pl. 54, fig. 41, represents Climacium dendroides, one of the Hypnaceæ found in woods on the ground. Sphagnum acutifolium, or Peat-moss (fig. 39). This genus furnishes most of the peat found in peat bogs, and employed for various purposes.

Order 6. Lycopodiaceæ, the Club Moss Family. Stems creeping, or corms; annular vessels in the axis. Leaves imbricated, more or less setaceous, sometimes subulate. Thecae axillary and sessile, one to three celled, opening by valves or indehiscent; often of two kinds, one round, reniform, or crescentic, containing minute powdery matter, and called by some antheridia, though perhaps erroneously; the other of a roundish tetrahedal fbrm, inclosing a cell which produces four spores capable of germinating; the spores are considered by some as equivalent to ovules, and the mother-cell as an ovary or oophoridium. In Isoetes, the two kinds of reproductive bodies are imbedded in the substance of the base of the leaf. They are moss-like plants, intermediate between ferns and mosses, and in some respect allied to coniferous plants. They abound in warm, moist, insular climates. There are six genera, and about 200 species. Examples: Lycopodium, Selaginella, Isoetes.

Some of the Lycopodiums are emetic and cathartic. The powdery matter in the thecas is inflammable, and has been used as a substitute for sulphur, under the name of Lycopode, or vegetable brimstone. It is also employed to cover pills, so as to prevent their being acted upon by moisture. Lycopodium squamatum, a Brazilian, and L. lepidophyllum, a Mexican species, coil up into a ball during the dry season, and unroll during the wet season. Lycopodium clavatum, or common club-moss (pl. 54, fig. 58.)

Order 7. Marsileaceæ, or Rhizocarpeæ, the Pepperwort Family. Stem wanting, or a rhizome. Leaves often stalked, with the lamina divided into three or more wedge-shaped pieces. Sometimes the lamina is abortive; vernation circinate. Reproductive organs near the root, or along the petiole, inclosed in an involucre; these organs are of two kinds: 1. Stalked or sessile clustered membranous sacs, containing minute granules, which some consider as pollen: hence the bodies are called anthers. 2. Membranous sacs, containing cells which divide into four, one only of which is developed as a germinating body; the sacs have been called ovule-sacs, and the single developed cell is considered by some as an ovule which is impregnated by the so-called pollen. The thecae are the bodies from which germination proceeds, creeping or floating plants, found in ditches and pools in various parts of the world, more especially in temperate climates. They are not put to any important use. There are four genera, and upwards of twenty species. Examples: Marsilea, Pilularia, Salvinia. Marsilea quadrifolia (pl. 54, fig. 47); Pilularia globulifera (fig. 45); Sahdnia natans (pl. 54, fig. 46).

Order 8. Filices, or Ferns. Stem a rhizome, which creeps along or under the surface of the ground, emitting descending roots and ascending fronds (leaves), or which rises into the air so as to form an acrogenous trunk. This trunk (stipe) is of nearly uniform diameter, is hollow in the interior, marked on the hard outer rind by the scars (cicatrices) of the leaves, and contains vascular bundles of woody, dotted, and scalariform vessels, which are inclosed in hard plates, and are arranged in an irregular manner. Sometimes the trunk is dichotomous. The outer fibrous covering is formed by the bases of the leaves, and is thicker at the lower than at the upper part of the stem. The leaves (fronds) have a circinate (gyrate) vernation; their veins are generally of equal thickness, and either simple or dividing in a forked manner, or somewhat reticulated, and occasionally stomata occur. Reproductive organs consisting of spore-cases (thecae, sporangia), which arise from the veins on the under surface of the fronds, or from their margin. Spore-cases either stalked, with the pedicel passing round them in the form of an elastic ring, or sessile and destitute of a ring. The thecae sometimes arise from the surface of the frond, while at other times they spring from below, having a cuticular covering in the form of an indusium or involucre. The clusters of thecas are called sori. The margin of the frond sometimes is folded so as to cover the thecae, and at times the whole frond is converted into clusters of thecae. Certain cellular papillae, on the margin or upper surface of the fronds, have been considered by some as antheridia, each of the cells containing a spiral fibre. Link and others state, that among the young thecae (pistillidia) filamentous bodies occur, which are equivalent to stamens. Ferns are elegant, leafy plants, occurring chiefly in moist insular climates, and abounding in the tropical islands. In mild and warm climates they occur in the form of large tree-ferns, fifty to sixty feet high, which give a peculiar character to the landscape. The theca of ferns has been looked upon as a modified leaf, having the same gyrate or circinate development as the frond. Leaves have occasionally been produced in place of thecæ. Ferns having the thecae on the back of the frond, and furnished with an elastic ring or band, are called dorsiferous and annulate; while those having no thecal ring are exannulate.

Few of the ferns are used medicinally. They are in general demulcent and astringent. Some yield food. The rhizome of Lastrea Filix mas, Male-shield-fern, has been used as a vermifuge, especially in cases of tape-worm. It contains starch, gum, saccharine matter, tannin, green fixed oil, and resin. Its properties are ascribed to the fixed oil. The rhizome has been used for tanning, and its ashes contain much carbonate of potash. The syrup called capillaire, and certain pectoral mixtures, are prepared from Adiantiim pedatimi and A. Capillus Veneris. The rhizome of Pteris esculenta is used as food in Australia, and that of Marattia alata in the Sandwich Islands. Many other species of Ferns are esculent. The stems and leaf-stalks of Ferns are often covered with scales and with woody matter. One (Davalia canariensis) is called Hare’s-foot Fern on this account; and another (Aspidium Baromez) receives the name of Scythian, or Tartarian-lamb, because, when prepared in a particular way, it resembles that animal.

Sub-order 1. Doncæeæ. Thecre united in masses, exannulate, opening irregularly by a central cleft. Ex. Danæa.

Sub-order 2. Ophioglosseæ. Thecæ collected into a spike, formed at the edges of an altered frond, distinct, exannulate, two-valved. Examples, Ophioglossum, Botrychium. Ophioglossum vulgatum (pl. 54, fig. 57), very rare in the United States, Botrychium lunaria (fig. 56).

Sub-order 3. Osmundeæ. Thecae dorsal, or forming a separate stalked mass (an altered frond), distinct, with a terminal or dorsal ring, more or less incomplete, bursting lengthwise by a regular slit. Examples: Osmunda, or flowering fern, O. regalis (pl. 54, fig. 55).

Sub-order 4. Hytnenophylleæ. Thecæ marginal or dorsal, nearly sessile, distinct, annulate, ring horizontal, complete, sometimes oblique, bursting lengthwise. Examples: Hymenophyllum, Trichomanes, Lygodium.

Sub-order 5. Polypodineæ, or true Ferns. Thecae on the back of the frond, pedicellate, or sessile, distinct, annulate, ring vertical, usually incomplete, bursting irregularly and transversely. Aspidium filix mas (pl. 54, fig. 50): a, a frond; b, rhizoma; c, part of a frond, with sori; d, the indusium; e and f, closed and open thecæ. Adiantum capillus veneris (fig. 54 a); b, portion of the frond with sori; c, opened theæ. Lomaria spicans (pl. 54, fig. 53); a, a fertile, and b, a sterile frond; c, a portion of a frond, with sori; d and e thecæ. Asplenium trichomanes (fig. 51 a); b an opened theca. Scolopendrium officinarum (fig. 52); a, a frond; b, a section magnified, showing two longitudinal sori; c, an opened theca. This species is found in the western part of New York. Polypodium vulgare (fig. 49a); a, frond; b, rhizoma, with a frond stalk; c, portion of frond magnified; d, magnified sorus; e, theca; f, the same burst open. This species is common in the United States. Ceterach officinarum (fig. 49b); C leptophylla (fig. 48.)

Order 9. Equisetaceæ, Horse tails. Stem striated, hollow, usually branched, containing much silica in its composition, articulated, the joints being separate, and surrounded by a membranous toothed sheath. There are no true leaves, green-colored branches having a straight vernation, occupying their place. The cuticle exhibits a longitudinal series of stomata. A spiral structure is observed in some of the vessels. Reproductive organs collected into cones; spore-cases (thecæ or sporangia) attached to the lower surface of peltate polygonal scales, and opening by an internal longitudinal fissure; spores in the form of rounded cells, surrounded by two elastic club-shaped, hygrometric filaments, or elaters. Plants, with simple or branched stems, the branches being jointed and placed in whorls at the articulations of the stem, each whorl consisting of as many branches as there are teeth in the sheath. Found in ditches, lakes, and rivers, in various parts of the world.

From the quantity of silicic acid contained in them, some of the species of Equisetum are used in polishing woods and in scouring utensils. The spiral filaments which surround their spores are interesting objects under the microscope, exhibiting marked movements according to the moisture or dryness of the atmosphere around them. The stomata are arranged in lines on the cuticle. In Equisetum hyemale, often called Dutch rushes, the silicious stomatic apparatus is well seen after the action of nitric acid on the stem. There are regular rows of tubercles of a silicious nature, in each of which is a transverse fissure, and at the bottom of the fissure a stoma is placed, with its opening at right angles to that of the tubercle. Each portion of the stoma has a pectinated (comb-like) appearance. The distinctions between the species of Equisetum are founded on the nature of the fertile and barren stems, the number of striae or furrows, and the number of teeth at the articulations.

There is but a single genus Equisetum, represented in North America by numerous species. One of these is Equisetum hyemale; another is E. limosum (pl. 54, fig. 59).

Section B. Phanerogamous Plants

Class 2. Monocotyledones, Juss. Endogenæ, D. C. Amphibrya, Endl.

In this great class the plants have a cellular and vascular system, the latter consisting partly of elastic spiral vessels. The woody stem is usually more or less cylindrical, simple, and unbranched. There is no true separable bark, no concentric zones, and no true pith. The wood is endogenous, i. e. increases by additions which first tend towards the centre, and then curve outwards in an interlacing manner towards the circumference, where much hard ligneous matter is deposited, so as to make the exterior the hardest part. The development of the stem usually takes place by a single central and terminal bud; occasionally lateral buds are produced, and at times the stem is hollow. The leaves are parallel-veined, except in the sub-class Dictyogens, where a kind of reticulation is visible. The parts of the flower are arranged in a ternary manner, and they are often petaloid. sometimes scaly or glumaceous. The ovules are contained in an ovary, and are fertilized by the application of the pollen to the stigma. The embryo has one cotyledon, and the germination is endorhizal.

Sub-class 1. Glumaceæ
I. Plate 55: Fig Trees, Aquatic Flowering Plants, and Representatives of the Families Gramineæ and Cyperaceæ
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Flowers glumaceous, consisting of bracts or scales, which are imbricated, and not arranged in true whorls. Leaves with parallel veins.

Order 10. Gramineæ, the grass family. Flowers usually ☿, sometimes unisexual or polygamous; one, two, or more (some occasionally abortive) are attached to a common axis, and inclosed within bracts, the whole together forming a locusta or spikelet. The outer imbricated bracts are called glumes; they are usually two, sometimes one, rarely wanting, and often unequal. They are either awned (aristate) or awnless (muticous). The bracts inclosed within the glumes are called palese or glumellæ; they immediately inclose the stamens, are usually two, the lower being simple, and the upper being formed of two, united by their margins. The innermost set of bracts consist of two or three hypogynous scales (squamulæ, glumellulæ, or lodiculæ), which are either distinct or combined, and are sometimes wanting. Stamens hypogynous, from one to six, or more; anthers dithecal, versatile. Ovary simple; ovule ascending, anatropal; styles, two or three, sometimes united; stigmas feathery or hairy. Fruit a caryopsis. Seed incorporated with the pericarp; embryo lenticular, lying on one side of the farinaceous albumen, near its base; endorhizal in germination. Herbaceous plants, with cylindrical, hollow, and jointed stems, called culms; alternate leaves, with a split sheath and a membranous expansion at the junction of the petiole and blade, called a ligule, the collection of flowers (locustag) being arranged in spikes, racems, or panicles.

Grasses are found in all quarters of the globe, and are said to form about \(\frac{1}{22}\) part of known plants. In tropical regions they sometimes assume the appearance of trees. They generally grow in great quantity together, so as to receive the name of social plants. The order has been divided into numerous sections, founded on the number of flowers in a spikelet, their hermaphrodite, unisexual, or polygamous nature, the number and form of the different sets of bracts, and the nature of their fruit.

This is one of the most important orders in the vegetable kingdom, whether we regard it as supplying food for man, or herbage for animals. To the former division belong the nutritious cereal grains, as wheat (Triticum) Oats (Avena) Barley (Hordeum), Rye (Secale), Rice (Oryza), Maize (Zea) Guinea-corn and Millet (Sorghum and Panicum); to the latter the various pasture grasses, as Rye-grass (Lolium), Timothy-grass (Phleum), Meadow-grass (Poa), Cock’s-foot-grass (Dactylis), Sweet-vernal-grass (Anthoxanthum), Fescue (Festuca), Dog’s-tail-grass (Cynosurus), &c. The grains of many other grasses are used for food. Zizania aquatica supplies a kind of rice, in the North-western States; Setaria gernianica yields Grerman millet; Panicum iniliaceum gives a kind of millet in India, and Andropogon sorghum is known as Durra, an Indian grain. Phalaris canariensis is the source of the common canary-seed. The cereal grains have been so extensively distributed by man. that all traces of their native country are lost. They seem to be in many instances examples of permanent varieties or races kept up by cultivation. Their grain, or caryopsis, contains a large amount of starch and gluten. Their grasses used for fodder in some parts of the world attain a large size, such as Anthistria australis, the Kangaroo-grass of New Holland, Tripsacum dactyloides, the Gama-grass of Mexico, and Dactylis cæspitosa, the Tussac-grass of the Falkland Islands. Some of these are five or six feet in height, and are, nevertheless, sufficiently delicate to be used as food for animals. The Tussac has been introduced into England, and thrives well in peaty soils within the influence of the sea-spray. It promises to be a valuable grass in the Hebrides of Scotland.

Sugar is a valuable product obtained from many grasses. It has been produced in Italy from Sorghum saccharatum, Sweet Sorgho; in China, from Saccharum sinense; in Brazil, from Gynerium saccharoides; in the West Indies, from Saccharum violaceum; and in many other parts of the world, from S. officinarum. The two last are commonly known as sugar-cane, and they are generally considered as varieties of a single species, Saccharum officinarum, which is now widely spread over various parts of the world. Six or eight pounds of the saccharine juice of the plant furnish one pound of raw sugar. The recent discoveries of Melsens and others, however, promise a much greater yield than this.

Tribe 1. Andropogoneæ. Spikelets bifloral: inferior flowers always incomplete. Paleæ more delicate than the glumes, most often transparent.

This tribe is of great interest from containing the genus Saccharum, or sugar-cane, the principal species of which, S. officinale, is shown on pl. 55, fig. 8. Here the figures, a to c, represent the entire plant in various stages: d to g, pieces of the stalk; and h, the flowers; [8]h, three spikelets with a single flower below. Species of Sorghum furnish broom corn (S. saccharatum), guinea corn (S. cernuum), and Indian millet (S. vidgare).

Tribe 2. Rotboslliaceæ. Spikelets, uni- or bi-floral, rarely trifloral, lodged in an excavation of the axis or rachis, sometimes solitary, sometimes geminate; the one pedicillate, the other subsessile. One flower in all the bifloral spikelets (either superior or inferior) very often incomplete. Olumes one or two, occasionally none, most generally coriaceous. Paleæ membranaceous, rarely bearded. Styles one or two, sometimes very short, or none. Rachis more generally articulated.

Tribe 3. Hordeaceæ. Spikelets, several- (rarely one-) flowered, sessile on opposite sides of a zig-zag, channelled and toothed, sometimes jointed rachis, forming a solitary spike. Glumes horizontal, often side by side in the same plane, sometimes deficient. Paleæ, either pointless or the lower sometimes tipped with a straight awn or bristle.

The principal genera are Hordeum, Secale, Triticum. Hordeum vulgare and disticum constitute common barley. Rye is Secale cereale, and the common wheat is Triticum vulgare.

Tribe 4. Festiccaceæ. Spikelets several- (few- or many-) flowered, panicled, the uppermost flower often imperfect or abortive. Paleag pointless, or the lower sometimes tipped with a straight (not twisted nor deeply dorsal) awn or bristle. Stamens one to three. Squamulæ two.

The common cheat, or chess, Bromus secalinus, belongs to this tribe. Also, the orchard-grass, Dactylis glomerata; Rattlesnake-grass, Glyceria canadensis: meadow or spear grass, Poa annua and pratensis; Blue grass, or Wire grass, Poa compressa. False red-top grass, Poa serotina; Fescue grass, Festuca elatior and pratensis. The bamboo, Bambusa arundinacea, is represented in pl. 55, fig. 10.

Tribe 5. Avenaceæ. Spikelets two, several-flowered, panicled, the terminal flower mostly imperfect. Glumes and palese, thin and membranaceous, or chartaceous, the lower palea bearing a twisted or bent awn on the back. Stamens three. Squamulæ two.

The common oat, Avena sativa, the skinless oat, A. nuda, and the Hair-grass, Aira csespitosa and flexuosa, belong to this tribe.

Tribe 6. Chlorideæ. Spikelets (rarely one-flowered) usually several-flowered, with the upper flowers imperfect, disposed in one-sided spikes. Glumes persistent, the upper one looking outward. Rachis or axis jointless. Spikes usually racemed or digitate. Stamens two or three.

Here belong the Cord grass, Spartina cynosuroides, and other well-known species of Spartina; the crab grass, Eleusine indica, and the Bermuda grass, Cymodon dactylon.

Tribe 7. Pappophoreæ. Spikelets two, many-flowered. Superior flowers abortive. Two glumes and two palese, membranaceo-herbaceous. Lower palea, three, meltifid, the divisions subulate awned. The principal genera are Amphipogon, Diplopogon, Triraphis, Pappophorum, Cottea, &c.

Tribe 8. Arimdinaceæ. Spikelets sometimes unifloral with or without the pedicel of a superior flower, sometimes multifloral. Flowers most frequently covered or surrounded at their base with long, soft hairs, two glumes and two membranaceo-herbaceous paleae, the glumes often equal or superior to the flowers in length, the inferior palea awned or pointless. Plants generally elevated.

Tribe 9. Agrostideæ. Spikelets flowered, perfect, sometimes with the abortive pedicel or rudiment of a second flower above, panicled, or the panicle sometimes contracted into a dense cylindrical spike or head. Stamens not more than three.

Here belong the fox-tail grasses, Alopecurus; Timothy grass, or Herds’ grass of New England, Phleum pratense; Rush grass, Vilfa; Bent grass, Agrostis; Red-top, or Herds’ grass of Pennsylvania, A. vulgaris; &c.

Tribe 10. Paniceæ. Spikelets two-flowered; inferior flower incomplete. Glumes more delicate than the palese, paleae more or less coriaceous or chartaceous, most frequently awnless; the lower concave. Caryopsis compressed parallel with the embryo.

Tribe 11. Phalaridecæ (of Kunth). Spikelets hermaphrodite, polygamous, rarely monoecious, sometimes one-flowered, with or without the rudiment of another superior flower; sometimes two-flowered, the two flowers hermaphrodite or male; sometimes two- or three-flowered, terminal flower fertile, the others incomplete. Grlumes most generally equal. Paleæ or glumelles often lustrous, and hardened with the fruit. Styles or stigmata most generally elongated.

The principal genera are Alopecurus, Phleum, Holcus, Phalaris, Anthoxanthus, Crypsis, &c. Zea mays or Indian corn likewise belongs to this tribe.

Tribe 12. Oryzeæ: the Rice Tribe. Spikelets unifloral, glumes frequently wanting, or two to three floral; one or two lower flowers unipaleaceous, neutral; the terminal flower fertile. Paleæ stiffly chartaceous; stamens one to six.

It is in this tribe that we find the genus Oryza, one species of which, O. sativa, furnishes the rice of commerce. This is represented in pl. 55, fig. 9, where a to c exhibit an entire plant cut into three parts; d is the mountain rice, by some considered as a separate species under the name of O. montana; e, the flower; f, two grains of the mountain rice; g; a caryopsis of the common rice; h to k, hulled grains; l, a caryopsis of the common rice. The original abode of the rice plant is to be found in Southern Asia, thence having been transplanted to various parts of the globe. There are three varieties of rice known in commerce: 1, the Egyptian rice, white and coarse grained, often mixed with salt to keep off insects; 2, the American rice, principally from the Carolinas, like the preceding, but clearer, and preferred above all the other varieties; 3, the Italian rice, generally shorter and thicker than the rest, with furrowed grains. Other genera are Leersia and Zizania, the latter furnishing the wild rice of the northern lakes (L. aquatica).

Order 2. Cyperaceæ, the Sedge Family. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, generally without a perianth. Each flower furnished with a solitary bract (glume or scale). These bracts are imbricated upon a common axis, and the lowermost are often empty. Occasionally they inclose two or three opposite membranous bracts or glumes. (In the female flower of Carex, the two inner bracts receive the name of Perigynium.) Stamens hypogynous, definite, one to twelve; anthers dithecal, innate. Ovary one-celled, often surrounded by hypogynous bristles (setæ), which are probably abortive filaments; ovule erect, anatropal; style single, two- to three-cleft; stigmas undivided, sometimes bifid. Fruit a crustaceous or bony achænium or nut; embryo lenticular, inclosed within the base of fleshy or farinaceous albumen; plumule inconspicuous. Grass-like herbs with fibrous roots. Their stems are solid, often without joints, sometimes creeping, frequently angular. The leaves are narrow, and their sheaths are entire, not slit. They are found in all quarters of the globe, and in various localities, from the sand on the sea-shore to the tops of the mountain. Many of them occur in marshy ground.

None of the plants of the order possess important medicinal qualities. The creeping stems of Carex arenaria, disticha, and hirta, are diaphoretic and demulcent, and have been used in medicine under the name of German Sarsaparilla. Papyrus antiquorum is the Papyrus of the Nile, the cellular tissue of which was used in the manufacture of paper. The species of Eriophorum are called cotton-grass, on account of the woolly-like substance which is attached to the base of the ovary. Some species of Cyperus have tubers at the lower part of their stems, which are used as food. The roots of Cyperus longus have been used as bitter and tonic remedies, while those of C. odoratus are aromatic. Some species of Scirpus are used for making chair bottoms. Some of the Carices, with their creeping stems, tend to bind together the loose sand on the sea-shore.

Tribe 1. Cariceæ. Flowers monoecious in the same (androgynous) or separate spikes, sometimes dioecious; proper perianth none. Achenium inclosed in a sac (composed of two united inner scales, perigynium), lenticular or triangular. The most important genus in this tribe is Carex, represented by a vast number of species.

Tribe 2. Elyneæ. Flowers mono-diclinous, perigone, none or multisetaceous, setae glabrous or soft; caryopsis trigonal, bearing on its summit the base of the style which there forms a kind of rostrum or beak. Examples: Trilepis, Elyna, Kobresia.

Tribe 3. Sclerieæ. Flowers monoecious; the fertile spikes one-flowered, the staminate several-flowered. Example: Scleria or nut rush.

Tribe 4. Rhynchosporeæ. Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous, few or one-flowered: perigone provided with stiff setæ, ciliated or plumose; caryopsis cartilaginous or crustaceous. There are two sub-tribes, one of which has Rhynchospora for its type, the other Schœnus.

Tribe 5 Cladieæ. Flowers hermaphrodite, perigone none; caryopsis bony, thick, very hard, often expanded at the summit, naked or surmounted by the base of the style. Ex. Cladium, Lamprocarya, &c.

Tribe 6. Chrysitricheæ. Flowers androgynous, monocarpous: perigone proper, without a disk; caryopsis crustaceous, globular, wrinkled at the summit. Ex. Chrysithrix and Lepironia.

Tribe 7. Hypolytreæ. Flowers perfect: the scales, many-ranked, each covering a flower provided with its own (one to four) proper scale-like bractlets. True perianth none. Examples: Lipocarpha, Platylepis, Hemicarpha, Diplasia.

Tribe 8. Fuireneæ. Flowers perfect: the scales many-ranked (regularly imbricated on all sides), each covering a naked flower. Perianth, chiefly double, viz., of three ovate scale-like sepals on claws, alternating with three small bristles. There are three sub-tribes: 1. Melanocranideæ; 2. Hemichlaeneæ; and 3. Ficinieæ. Fuirena is the type of the latter.

Tribe 9. Scirpeæ. Flowers perfect: the scales regularly several-ranked, all, or all but the lowest, covering a naked flower. Perianth of bristles, or hairs, or none. Ex. Isolepis, Scirpus, Eriophorum; Eriophorum angustifolium (pl. 55, fig. 6), a, flower, b, fruit.

Tribe 10. Cypereæ. Flowers hermaphrodite, few or many: generally from one- to three-flowored; perigone rarely present, setaceous; caryopsis crustaceous, compressed, sometimes mucronate, rarely cuspidate. The most celebrated species of this tribe is the Papyrus antiquorum, or the plant furnishing the papyrus of the ancients (pl. 56, fig. 9). Another well-known genus is Cyperus. C. officinalis (pl. 55, fig. 7) a, the lower part of the stalk; b, the upper part; c, a scale; d, the reproductive apparatus.

Sub-class 2. Petaloideæ
I. Plate 56: Habitat Grouping and Reproductive Parts of Various Woody Monocots, Especially Palms and Cycads
Engraver: R. Schmidt
I. Plate 57: Representatives of the Monocot Order Liliales
Engraver: Henry Winkles
I. Plates 58 & 59: Aromatic Plants
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Flowers having usually a perianth consisting either of verticillate leaves, which may sometimes be separated into calyx and corolla, and are often colored (petaloid), or of a few whorled scales. Occasionally the perianth is abortive.

Flowers Incomplete, often Unisexual, without a Proper Perianth, or with a Few Verticillate Scales

Order 12. Restiaceæ, or Eriocaulonacæ, the Restia, or Cord-Rush Family. Flowers frequently unisexual, perianth glumaceous, sometimes none. Stamens definite, perigynous when two or three in number opposite the inner glumes; anthers usually one-celled. Ovary one or more celled, sometimes composed of several carpels; ovules solitary, pendulous; styles and stigmas two or more. Fruit capsular, or nucumentaceous. Seeds pendulous: embryo lenticular, outside mealy albumen, remote from the hilum. Herbs or under-shrubs, with narrow, simple leaves, or none, naked or sheathed columns, and spiked or capitate bracteated flowers. They are found chiefly in America and New Holland. They have few properties of importance. The tough, wiry stems of Willdenovla teres, and some Restias, are used for making baskets and brooms. Eriocaulon septangulare is a native of Britain and of North America.

Order 13. Naiadaceæ, or Potameæ, the Naias, or Pondweed Family. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual. Perianth of two or four herbaceous or scaly pieces, often deciduous, sometimes none. Stamens definite, hypogynous. Ovary free, of one or more carpels; ovule solitary; style one or none; stigma entire, rarely two- to three-parted. Fruit dry, one-celled, usually indehiscent. Seed solitary, erect, or pendulous, exalbuminous: embryo straight or curved, usually with a lateral slit for the plumule; radicle large. Plants living in fresh and in salt water, having cellular leaves with parallel veins and inconspicuous flowers. They are found in various parts of the world. They have no properties of importance. Zostera marina is used in the dried state for stuffing mattresses, and has been recommended for hospitals. There are nineteen known genera, and upwards of seventy species. Ex. Naias, Zannichellia, Potamogeton, Ruppla, Zostera, all of which have North American representatives.

Potamogeton natans, or common pondweed, is abundant along the shores of still waters (pl. 55, fig. 1), a, the plant; b, a flower; c, a sepal seen from behind; d, the same with the stamen from the inside; e, the four pistils; f, a fruit; g, longitudinal section of the same, Zostcra marina (fig. 3), a, a plant reduced; b, the upper part of a fertile branch; c, an opened spatha with the inclosed spadix; d, the lower part of a fruit-bearing spadix in the spatha; e, an anther from behind; f, ovary; g, ovary opened, showing the seed; h, the seed; i, section of the seed showing the embryo.

Order 14. Aroideæ, the Arum Family. Flowers generally miisexual, rarely bisexual, inclosed within a spatha, and usually on a spadix, having male flowers at its upper part, female below, and abortive flowers between them. Perianth either 0, or in the ☿ flowers rudimentary and scaly. Stamens definite or 00, hypogynous; anthers extrorse. Ovary free, one- to three- or more-celled; ovules solitary or numerous; style short or; stigma simple. Fruit succulent or dry, indehiscent, uni- or pluri-locular: seeds one or several; embryo in the axis of fleshy or mealy albumen, sometimes with a lateral cleft for the plumule; radicle usually next the hilum. Herbaceous or shrubby plants, often with, tubes or creeping rhizomes, leaves sheathing at the base, and having parallel or branching veins. They occur in dry and marshy places, and in lakes in various parts of the world, abounding in the tropics.

This order has been variously subdivided; the most convenient division for our purpose, however, is into four sub-orders.

Sub-order 1. Pistieæ (Leinnaceæ) or Duckweeds. Flowers ♁ ♀ naked, inclosed in a spatha without a spadix, ovary one-celled, ovules two or more, fruit membranous or capsular. Examples: Pistia, and Lemna or duck-weed.

Sub-order 2. Acoreæ. Flowers ☿ having usually a scaly perianth, arranged on a spathaceous spadix, ovules one or more, fruit a berry. Examples: Symplocarpus (S. fœtidus or skunk cabbage); Orontium (O. aquaticum, never wet, or Golden club); and Acorus. A species of this latter genus, Acorus calamus, found both in Europe and America, furnishes the calamus or sweet flag, so much sought after by boys, and a favorite food of the muskrat (Fiber zibethicus). This specious of Acorus is shown in pl. 55. fig. 4; a, an entire plant; b, a spadix; c, a flower from above; d, the same from below; e, an unripe fruit; f, the same in vertical and g in transverse section; h, a leaf cut across (right hand of the plate).

Sub-order 3. Typhirieæ. (Typhaceae). Bulrushes or Cat-tails. Marsh herbs, with nerved and linear sessile leaves, and monœcious flowers on a spadix or in heads, destitute of proper floral envelopes. Fruit nut-like when ripe, one-seeded. Seed suspended, anatropous; the embryo straight in copious albumen. There are but two genera, Sparganium and Typha. Typha latifolia is the common cat-tail of the swamps (pl. 55, fig. 5); a, the spadix with its spatha; b, a cross-section of the male spadix; c, a male flower.

Sub-order 4. Arineæ. Naked flowers with a spadix and spatha, ♁ ♀; anthers sessile, ovules several, fruit succulent, seeds pulpy, Arum triphyllum is the well known Indian Turnip; A. maculatum, or the European Wake Robin, is represented in pl. 55, fig. 2; a, the entire plant, b, the spadix with its flowers; c, anther; d, the disk; e, an ovary; f, the lower part of the spadix with fruit; g, one of the fruit cut transversely; h, a seed in longitudinal section. Other genera are Peltandra, Calla, Collocasia, Calladium.

Order 15. Pandanacæ or Screw Pines. Flowers unisexual or polygamous, covering the whole of the spadix. Perianth 0, or a few scales. Male flowers: stamens numerous: filaments with single anthers, which are two- to four-celled. Female flowers: Ovaries one-celled, united in parcels; ovules solitary or numerous, anatropal; stigmas sessile, equal to the carpels in number. Fruit either fibrous drupes collected into parcels, or berries. Seeds solitary in the drupes, numerous in the berries; embryo at the base of fleshy albumen; radicle next the hilum. Trees or bushes, sometimes with adventitious roots, long, imbricated, amplexicaul leaves, usually with spiny margins and backs. Natives of tropical regions.

The flowers of some of the plants are fragrant, and their seeds are sometimes used as food. The juice has in some instances astringent properties. The species of Pandanus are remarkable for their aerial roots, with large cup-like spongioles. These roots are sent out regularly from all parts of their stems, and appear like artificial props. Their spermoderm has numerous raphides. Their leaves are arranged in a spiral manner in three rows, and in their aspect they have some resemblance to those of the pine-apple, hence the name screw-pine. Pandanus candelabra is the chandelier-tree of Guinea, and is so called on account of its mode of branching.

This order is divisible into two sub-orders.

Sub-order 1. Cydantheæ. with fan-shaped or pinnate leaves. Flowers most generally provided with a perianth. Examples: Carludovica, Cyclanthus, Nipa, Wettinia.

Sub-order 2. Eupandaneæ. Leaves simple or undivided, perianth none. Examples: Pandanus, Freycinetia.

Perianth free, Ovary superior, Flowers usually hermaphrodite

Order 16. Butomaceæ, the Flowering-rush Family. Perianth of six parts, in two verticils; outer usually herbaceous; inner petaloid. Stamens definite, or 00, hypogynous. Ovaries three, six, or more, distinct or united, one-celled; ovules 00; stigmas simple, as many as the carpels. Fruit consisting of several follicles, which are either distinct and beaked, or combined. Seeds 00, minute, attached to the whole inner surface of the pericarp, exalbuminous; embryo often curved like a horse-shoe; radicle next the hilum. Aquatic plants, often lactescent, with parallel-veined leaves, and frequently umbellate flowers. They are chiefly found in northern countries, and some of them have acrid and bitter properties. The principal genera are Butomus, Limnocharis, and Hydrocleis.

Order 17. Alismaceæ, the Water plantain Family. Perianth in six divisions and two verticils; outer whorl usually herbaceous; inner usually petaloid; sometimes the perianth is wanting. Stamens definite or 00, hypogynous; anthers introrse or extrorse. Ovaries, three, six, or more, distinct or united; ovules erect or ascending, solitary or in pairs. Styles and stigmas equal to the number of carpels. Fruit of several dry, indehiscent carpidia. Seeds from one to two in each carpel, exalbuminous, embryo straight, or curved like a horse-shoe; radicle next the hilum. Plants growing in flowing or stagnant water, usually with a creeping rhizome, parallel-veined leaves, and hermaphrodite or unisexual flowers. Natives both of tropical and temperate regions.

Sub-0rder 1. Juncagineæ. Calyx and corolla colored alike (greenish). Seed anatropous, with a stright embryo. Leaves petiole-like, without a blade. Examples: Triglochin, Scheuchzeria.

Sub-order 2. Alismeæ. Calix green and persistent. Corolla white and deciduous. Seed campylotropous; embryo bent double, or hook-shaped. Leaves commonly furnished with a blade. Examples: Alisma, or water-plantain, Echinidorus, and Sagittaria. Sagittaria variabilis (sagittifolia) is distributed throughout North America; the rhizomes are used as food by the Oregon Indians.

Order 18. Commelynaceæ, the Spider-wort Family. Perianth in two verticils; outer (calyx) herbaceous and tripartite; inner (corolla) petaloid, tripartite, or trifid. Stamens six or fewer hypogynous, some of them occasionally abortive or deformed; anthers introrse. Ovary three-celled; ovules few in each cell; style one; stigma one. Fruit a two- or three-celled, two- or three-valved capsule, with loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds often in pairs, with a lateral or linear hilum; embryo pulley-shaped, antitropal in a cavity of fleshy albumen, remote from the hilum. Herbs with flat narrow leaves, which are usually sheathing at the base. Natives chiefly of warm climates. Some have fleshy rhizomes, which are used for food.

Examples: Mayaca, Tradescantia (T. virginica, or spider-wort), and Commelyna. C. tuberosa, from Mexico (pl. 57, fig. 3), a, the stalk with leaves and flowers; b, the tuberous root; c, the calyx with the stamens and pistil; d and e, stamens; f, the pistil; g, the stigma.

Order 19. Palmæ, the Palm Family. Flowers bisexual, or unisexual, or polygamous. Perianth six-parted, in a double row; three outer (calyx) fleshy, or leathery and persistent; three inner (corolla) often larger, and sometimes deeply connate. Stamens six, rarely three, sometimes 00. inserted into the base of the perianth. Ovary free, one- or three-celled, usually composed of three carpels, which are more or less completely united; ovules from one to three. Fruit drupaceous, or nut-like, or baccate, often with a fibrous covering. Seed with cartilaginous or horny albumen, which is often ruminate, or furnished with a central or lateral cavity; embryo small, cylindrical, or flat in the cavity of the albumen, remote from the hilum. Arborescent plants, with simple, rarely branched trunks, marked with the scars of the leaves, which are terminal, pinnate, or fan-shaped, with plicate vernation, and parallel simple veins, and often spiny petioles. Flowers on a terminal, often branched spadix, inclosed in a one- or many-valved spatha. Natives of tropical regions chiefly, and imparting to them much of their botanical physiognomy. Most of thena have unbranched stems, attaining sometimes a height of 180 feet, and sending out clusters of large leaves, from the axils of which bunches of flowers proceed. Although the flowers are small, still the inflorescence, taken collectively, has often a most imposing aspect. Humboldt describes their effect on the landscape in glowing colors, and Martins has illustrated the order by splendid delineations. Linnæus called them the Princes of the vegetable kingdom. Lindley states that there are seventy-three known genera, and four hundred species; but this estimate probably falls short of the total amount, for much still remains to be done in the elucidation of the species. They have been divided by Martins into various tribes, depending chiefly on the nature of the ovary, ovules, and fruit; and sections are formed according as the leaves are pinnate or flabelliform, and the stems are spiny or not.

The species of this order are eminent not only for their beauty but for their utility. Distributed over the tropical portions of the entire globe, they in many cases form the entire dependence of whole tribes. Every portion of these plants is applied to some important end; water-pipes are made of the hollow trunks, while those that are more solid furnish an excellent building material of great strength. Canes, umbrella and fan handles, and numerous other articles, are made of palm-wood. The density of palm-wood varies greatly, the lightest being that of the Date Palm (0.3963), and the heaviest that of Astrocaryum murumuru (1.1380). The progress of age causes the deposit of large quantities of starch in the form of fine powder in the trunks of some palms. This, the sago of commerce, is obtained chiefly from the species of Metroxylon, as also of Caryota, Borassus, Arenga, Phœnix, &c. The juice of many Palms contains a large quantity of sugar (Jagery) which may be collected for economical purposes, or else used in the manufacture of various arracks and other intoxicating liquors. A substance called Toddy is obtained from the spathes of Cocos nucifera, of medicinal value in tropical constipation.

The leaves of the large palms are used in covering houses, the petioles for various purposes. The fruit of various species is an important article of alimentation; the date is derived from Phœnix dactylifera; the common cocoa-nut from Cocos nucifera; the double cocoa-nut from Lodoicea seychellarum. The fruit of certain species furnishes palm oil, that from Elais guineensis being distinguished from the rest by the presence of palmic acid. Medicinal substances are, catechu from the betel nut or fruit of Areca catechu (to be distinguished from the true catechu, which is derived from a species of Mimosa); dragon’s blood from Calamus draco: bdellium from Hyphsene thebaica. Wax also is furnished by several species, occurring in the form of a thin coating on the leaves or trunk. The principal wax producing palm is Copernica cerifera, a Brazilian species yielding the carnauba wax. Others are Ceroxylon andicola, Ceratolobus glaucescens, &c. Finally, the fibres of some species yield valuable textile materials, and the hard albumen of the fruit of Phytelephas macrocarpa, known as vegetable ivory, is used for the same purposes as true ivory.

The tribes into which the Family of Palmæ) is divided are: 1. Arecineæ. Examples: Euterpe, Oreodoxa, Areca, Morenia, Iriartia, Caryota, &c. 2. Lepidocaryineæ, of two subdivisions, one with pinnate leaves embracing Calamus, Sagus, Metroxylon, &c, the other with the leaves fan-shaped, Mauritia and Lepidocarjmm. 3. Borassineæ; (a, Leaves pinnate) Borassus, Lodoicea, Latania, Douma, &c.; (b, leaves flabelliform) Vouay, Iguanura, Geonoma, &c. 4. Coryphineæ; sub-tribe a. Sabaluieæ, Corypha, Brahea, Copernicia, Sabal, Chamaerops, &c.; sub-tribe b. Phænicineæ. Examples: Phoenix. 5. Cocoineæ. Examples: Desmoncus, Guilielma, Acrocomia, Astrocaryum, Attalea, Elæis, Cocos, Maximiliana, Syagrus, &c.

Pl. 56, fig. 2. Phoenix dactylifera or date palm: a, spadix; b, male flowers; c, female flowers; d (e in the plate), a single female flower; e, anther; f, a male flower; g, the three pistils; h, the fruit; i, a section of fruit.

Pl. 56, fig. 1. Cocos nucifera or cocoa-nut; a, pinnula; b, portion of the spadix in its spatha; c, portion of the spadix; d, the nut; e, the same in longitudinal sections excepting the nucleus; f, g, h, various parts of the fruit; i, the germ; k–s, various parts of the flowers.

Pl. 56, fig. 7. Areca catechu, or areca palm. Fig. 3. The sago palm, Sagus farinifera: a, a portion of the spadix; b, a fruit in its natural position: c and d, the fruit in transverse and longitudinal sections; e and f, male flowers; gm, female flowers.

Order 20. Juncaceæ, the Rushes. Perianth six-parted, more or less glumaceous. Stamens six, inserted into the base of the segments, sometimes three, and opposite the outer segments; anthers two-celled, introrse. Ovary one- to three-celled; ovules 1, 3, or many in each cell, anatropal; style one; stigmas generally three, sometimes one. Fruit a three-valved capsule, with loculicidal dehiscence, sometimes indehiscent. Seeds with the testa neither black nor crustaceous; embryo very minute, near the hilum, within fleshy or cartilaginous albumen. Herbs with fasciculated or fibrous roots, hollow, grooved, or flat leaves, with parallel veins. They are natives chiefly of the colder regions of the globe. Many species of Juncus are used for making the bottoms of chairs, mats, &c., and the central cellular tissue forms the wicks of candles. There are fourteen known genera, and upwards of two hundred species. Examples: Juncus, Luzula, Narthecium, Astelia.

Luzula pilosa or wood rush (pl. 57, fig. 2), an American species; a, the plant in two pieces; b, an open, flower; c, the fruit; d, the fruit opened showing the seeds; e, a single seed.

Order 21. Xyridaceæ, the Yellow-eyed Grass Family. Perianth six-parted, in two verticils; the outer glumaceous, the inner petaloid. Stamens six, three fertile, inserted into the claws of the inner perianth; anthers extrorse. Ovary single, one-celled; ovules 00, orthotropal, attached to parietal placentas; style trifid; stigmas obtuse, multifid or undivided. Fruit a one-celled, three-valved capsule. Seeds numerous; embryo on the outside of mealy albumen, remote from the hilum. Herbs, having a sedge-like aspect, with radical leaves, equitant and sheathing at the base, and scaly heads of flowers. Natives chiefly of tropical regions, having no important properties. There are about six genera and seventy species. Examples: Xyris, Abolboda, Philydrum. Four or five species of the typical germs Xyris are known in the United States.

Order 22. Pontederiaceæ, the Pond-weed Family. Perianth tubular, colored, six-parted, more or less irregular; estivation circinate. Stamens three to six, perigynous; anthers introrse; ovary free, or slightly adherent, three-celled; ovules numerous, anatropal; style one; stigma simple. Fruit a three-celled, three-valved capsule, with loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds 00, attached to a central axis; testa membranous; hilum small; embryo straight, in the axis of somewhat mealy albumen; radicle next the hilum. Aquatic or marsh plants with sheathing, parallel-veined leaves, which are sometimes cordate or sagittate, and have inflated petioles. The flowers are spathaceous. They are natives of North and South America, East Indies, and Africa. Their properties are unimportant. There are six genera, according to Lindley, and thirty species. The principal genera of the United States are Pontederia, Heteranthera, Schollera, and Syena.

Order 23. Gilliesiaceæ, the Gilliesia Family. Perianth six-parted, sometimes five-parted by cohesion of two of the pieces, in a double row; the outer, petaloid and herbaceous; the inner, smaller and more colored; æstivation twisted. Stamens in a double series; outer whorl sterile, in the form of a six-toothed urceolate body, or of scale-like bodies, one of which forms a sort of labellum; inner whorl of six stamens, of which three are sometimes sterile. Ovary superior, three-celled; style one; stigma simple. Fruit a three-celled, three-valved capsule, with loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds numerous, attached to the axis; spermoderm black and brittle; embryo curved in the midst of fleshy albumen. Herbs with tunicated bulbs, grass-like leaves, and umbellate spathaceous flowers. Natives of Chili. Examples: Gilliesia, Miersia.

Order 24. Melanthaceæ, the Colchicum Family. Perianth petaloid, in six pieces, which are sometimes slightly coherent, usually involute in estivation. Stamens six; anthers extrorse. Ovary three-celled; ovules numerous; style three-parted; stigmas three, undivided. Fruit a three-celled capsule, with septicidal or loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds with a membranous spermoderm; albumen dense, fleshy; embryo very minute. Plants with bulbs, tubers, or fibrous roots, having parallel-veined leaves, sheathing at the base. The flowers are sometimes polygamous. They are natives of various parts of the globe, but are most abundant in northern countries.

Sub-order 1. Uvularieæ, Bellworts. Perianth early deciduous, sepals distinct, petaloid. Styles united into one at the base or throughout. Fruit a three-celled few-seeded berry or loculicidal pod. Stems from small perennial root stocks and fibrous roots, forking, bearing ovate or lanceolate, membranaceous, sessile or clasping leaves, and perfect flowers; peduncles solitary or one-flowered. Examples: Uvularia, Prosartes, Streptopus.

Sub-order 2. Colchiceæ. Rhizome bulbous, dehiscence of pod septicidal. Of the typical genus Colchicum, the European species, C. autumnale (pl. 57, fig. 4), known as Meadow saffron or autumnal crocus, has important medicinal properties. The various parts of the plant referred to by the letters will be readily intelligible.

Sub-order 3. Melanthleæ. Perianth mostly persistent or withering away; the sepals distinct, or the claws rarely united. Styles three, separate. Fruit a three-celled, three-partible or septicidal pod. Flowers frequently unisexual. Rhizome fibrous. The most important genera are Melanthium, Veratrum, Helonias, Tofieldia, &c. Cevadilla, an important medicinal substance, is obtained from Helonias officinalis, and Veratrum sabadilla. Veratrum album furnishes the white hellebore of the ancients; this, with some other species of Veratrum, yields veratrine. Pl. 57, fig. 5, Veratrum album.

Order 25. Liliaceæ, the Lily Family. Flowers usually bisexual. Perianth colored, in two rows, regular, with six divisions. Stamens six, perigynous, inserted into the segments of the perianth; anthers introrse. Ovary free, three-celled; ovules 00; style one; stigma simple or three-lobed. Fruit three-celled, either succulent or dry and capsular. Seeds numerous, packed one above the other in one or two rows; embryo in the axis of fleshy albumen. Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with bulbs, or tubers, or arborescent stems, or rhizomes; leaves not articulated, usually narrow, with parallel veins. They are found both in temperate and tropical climates. In warm regions some of them are arborescent, as in the case of Dracsena; others are very succulent, as species of Aloe.

Sub-order 1. Aphyllantheæ. Habit rush-like; with membranous imbricated bracts. The species of the sub-order characterize the vegetation of New South Wales.

Sub-order 2. Aloineæ or Aloes tribe. Stem usually developed, arborescent, leaves succulent. Examples: Sanseviera, Aloe, and Yucca, The drug called Aloes, is the thickened juice of various species of Aloe, as A. vulgaris, spicata. socotrina, &c. Pl. 56, fig. 6, ad, Aloe arborescens.

Sub-order 3. Asparageæ. Fruit a few-seeded berry, two-to three-celled; seeds amphitropous, orthotropous, or anatropous. Stem usually fully developed, arborescent, in some cases branched, leaves often coriaceous and permanent. Examples: Asparagus, Dracaena, Smilacina, Clintonia, &c. Pl. 57, fig. 1, Dracaena draco, a species of Dracaena from the East Indies, from which dragon’s blood is obtained; a, a very old tree; b, extremity of a branch with flowers; c, a flower on a larger scale; d, expanded flowers; e, a stamen; f, pistil; g, branch with fruit; h, a seed; i, vertical section of do. A species from Brazil, D. brasiliensis, is figured on pl. 56, fig. 5, ae.

Sub-order 4. Convallarieæ, Lily of the valley tribe. Stem developed as a rhizome or tuber. Ex. Convallaria.

Sub-order 5. Anthericeæ. Not bulbous, roots fascicled, or fibrous, leaves not coriaceous, nor persistent. Examples: Asphodelus, Anthericum.

Sub-order 6. Scilleæ. Bulbous, with the testa black and brittle. Scape simple. Perianth six-sepalled or six-parted. Examples: Ornithogalum, Scilla, Allium. The bulb of Scilla esculenta or Squamash, is eaten by the Western Indians. Allium sativum is garlic; A. cepa the onion.

Sub-order 7. Hermerocallideæ. Bulbous plants, with a tubular perianth; testa pale and soft. Examples: Hemerocallis and Phormium. A species of this latter genus, P. tenax, furnishes the New Zealand flax, eminent for its strength of fibre (pl. 57, fig. 9, ad).

Sab-order 8. Tulipeæ. Fruit a many-seeded, three-celled, loculicidal pod. Seeds anatropous. Perianth six-leaved; segments scarcely adherent in a tube; testa pale and soft. Examples: Tulipa, Lilium, Erythronium, Methonica, Fritillaria. Many species of this sub-order are remarkable for their beauty, as the Tulip, the Lily, Crown Imperial, &c. Erythronium dens-canis a European species (pl. 57, fig. 7, a to e). Fritillaria imperialis or Crown Imperial (pl. 57, fig. 6, ag).

Perianth Adherent; Ovary Inferior; Flowers usually Hermaphrodite

Order 26. Bromeliaceæ, the Pineapple Family. Perianth tubular, six-divided, in two verticils; outer whorl (calyx) persistent, more or less adherent to the ovary; inner petaloid, marcescent or deciduous, with imbricated aestivation. Stamens six, inserted into the base of the segments of the perianth; anthers introrse. Ovary either free or partially adherent, three-celled; ovules 00, anatropal; style single; stigma three-lobed or entire, often twisted. Fruit capsular or succulent, three-celled. Seeds 00; embryo minute, curved or straight, lying in the base of mealy albumen; radicle next the hilum, Stemless or short-stemmed plants, with rigid, channelled leaves, which are often spiny at the margin, and are covered with scurfy matter. Natives chiefly of the warm parts of America.

The plants of this order are all more or less epiphytic, or able to grow without attachment to the soil. Tillandsia usneoides, or Spanish moss, is found along the southern coast of the United States, growing or suspended from trees, in large quantities. T. utriculata collects water in the hollowed bases of its leaves. The well-known Pineapple (Ananassa sativa) belongs here. The tribes are four.

Tribe 1. Ananasseæ. Ovary inferior, fruit fleshy, stamens six. Examples: Ananassa, Bromelia, Æchmea, Billbergia, Hohenbergia.

Tribe 2. Vellozieæ. Ovary inferior, fruit capsular, stamens six or more. Examples: Barbacenia, Yellosia.

Tribe 3. Pitcairnieæ. Ovary semi-inferior. Examples: Brocchinia, Pitcairnia.

Tribe 4. Tillandsieæ. Ovary free. Examples: Tillandsia, Bonapartea, Navia, Pourretia, Cottenorfia, &c.

Order 27. Hypoxidaceæ, the Hypoxis Family. Perianth petaloid, superior; usually six-parted, regular; stamens six, inserted into the base of the segments of the perianth; filaments distinct; anthers introrse. Ovary inferior; three-celled; ovules numerous, amphitropal; style simple; stigma three-lobed. Fruit indehiscent, sometimes succulent, one-, two-, three-celled. Seeds 00, with a lateral hilum and a beaked caruncle; testa black and crustaceous; embryo straight, in the axis of fleshy albumen; radicle remote from the hilum. Herbaceous and usually stemless plants, with tuberous and fibrous roots, radical plaited leaves, and simple or branched scapes. Natives of warm countries. Some have bitter roots, others have edible tubers. There are four known genera, including sixty species. Examples: Hypoxis, Curculigo.

The common American Hypoxis erecta belongs to this order, which is not retained by Dr. Gray.

Order 28. Amaryllidaceæ, the Amaryllis Family. Perianth petaloid, regular, six-cleft, the outer segment overlapping the inner. Stamens six. inserted in the perianth, sometimes cohering by the dilated bases, and forming a kind of cup; occasionally there are additional sterile stamens, which sometimes form a corona above the tube of the perianth; anthers introrse. Ovary inferior, three-celled; ovules 00, anatropal; style one; stigma three- lobed. Fruit either a three-celled, three-valved capsule, with loculicidal dehiscence, or baccate. Seed with a thin or thick, or black and brittle spermoderm; albumen fleshy; embryo nearly straight: radicle next to hilum. Usually bulbous plants, sometimes with fibrous roots; leaves ensiform, with parallel veins; flowers spathaceous; stem sometimes woody and tall. Natives chiefly of the Cape of Good Hope. But species are found in Europe, East and West Indies, America, and Australia.

Tribe 1. Agaveæ. with fibrous roots, both segments of the perianth alike. Examples: Fourcroya, Agave, Doryanthes, Bravoa, &c. The most remarkable species of Agavese, is Agave americana (hundred year aloe, century plant. &c). The trivial name is derived from the old idea that inflorescence took place but once in a century. This species found wild in warmer America, furnishes the pulque of the Mexicans. A small species, A. virginica, is found in the Southern States.

Agave americana (pl. 57, fig. 8, ad). Fig. 8, e, represents the fruit of A. lurida.

Tribe 2. Alstrœmerieæ. Fibrous roots, outer segment of the perianth different in form from the inner. Example: Alstroemeria.

Tribe 3. Narcisseæ. Bulbous: flowers with a corona. Ex. Narcissus. The dafibdil, a prominent species of Narcissus (N. pseudo-narcissus), is represented in pl. 58, 59, fig. 2, ac. Other species are N. poeticus. the narcissus; N. jonquilla, the jonquil; &c.

Tribe 4. Amarylleæ. Bulbous: flowers without a corona. Ex. Amaryllis, A. atamasca is a North American species; A. formosissima, a South American (pl. 58, 59, fig. 1.)

Order 29. Hæmodoraceæ, the Bloodwort Family. Herbs with fibrous roots, usually equitant leaves, and perfect three- or six-androus regular flowers, which are woolly or scurfy outside, the tube of the six-lobed perianth coherent with the whole surface, or with merely the lower part of the three-celled ovary. Anthers introrse: style single, sometimes three-partible. Pod crowned, or inclosed by the persistent perianth: three-celled, loculicidal three- to many-seeded. Embryo small, in hard or fleshy albumen. Examples: Hæmodorum, Lachnanthes, Lophiola, Aletris. &c.

Order 30. Burmanniaceæ, the Burmannia Family. Perianth colored, tubular, six-cleft, the three outer segments (calyx) often keeled at the back, the three inner (petals) minute. Stamens three, inserted in the tube of the perianth, opposite its inner segments, sometimes with three alternating sterile filaments; anthers dithecal, opening transversely, with a fleshy (Connective. Ovary inferior, either one- or three-celled, in the latter case the cells opposite the outer segments of the perianth; ovules, 00; style, simple; stigmas, three. Fruit, a one- or three-celled, three-valved capsule, crowned by the persistent perianth. Seeds 00, minute, striated Herbs, with radical leaves and bisexual flowers. Natives of most grassy places in tropical regions. They have no properties of importance. There are about ten known genera and thirty-five species. Examples: Burmannia, Apteria, Apostasia.

Order 31. Iridaceæ, the Iris Family. Perianth adherent, six-parted, colored, in two, often unequal whorls. Stamens three, epigynous, opposite the outer segments of the perianth; filaments distinct or monadelphous; anthers two-celled, extrorse. Ovary inferior, three-celled; ovules numerous, anatropal; style one; stigmas three, often petaloid, sometimes bilabiate. Fruit, a three-celled, three-valved capsule, with loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds numerous; embryo inclosed in horny or fleshy albumen; radicle next the hilum. Herbs, rarely undershrubs, with rhizomes or underground corms, having their leaves often equitant or distichous, and their flowers spathaceous. Natives chiefly of warm and temperate regions. They abound at the Cape of Grood Hope. There are fifty-three known genera, and five hundred and fifty species. Examples: Iris, Sisyrinchium, Witsenia, Gladiolus, Ixia, Crocus.

Certain plants of this order have an economical value. Orris-root is obtained from Iris florentina. The roasted seeds of I. pseudacorus have been used as a substitute for coffee. Saffron consists of the stigmata of Crocus sativus, a species originally from Asia Minor, now extensively spread. Numerous species of Iris occur in North America; Sisyrinchium or Blue-eyed grass also belongs here.

Pl. 58, 59, fig. 4, ai, Iris germanica, an European species. Pl. 58, fig. 3, Crocus sativus.

Order 32. Musaceæ, the Banana Family. Perianth six-cleft, adherent, petaloid, in two whorls, more or less irregular. Stamens six, inserted on the middle of the segments of the perianth, some usually abortive; anthers linear, dithecal, introrse, often with a membranous petaloid crest. Ovary inferior, three-celled; ovules numerous, anatropal; style simple; stigma usually three-lobed. Fruit, either a three-celled capsule, with loculicidal dehiscence, or succulent and indehiscent. Seeds sometimes surrounded by hairs; testa usually crustaceous; embryo erect in the axis of mealy albumen; radicle touching the hilum. Plants without true aerial stems, or nearly so, having shoots proceeding from subterranean root-stocks, which form spurious stems, composed of the sheathing leaf-stocks. Veins in the limb of the leaf parallel, and proceeding in a curved manner from the midrib to the margin. Flowers bursting through spathas. Natives of warm and tropical regions: there are five known genera and twenty-one species. Examples: Musa, Strelitzia. Ravcnala, Heliconia.

Plants of this order are highly important. The Banana fruit, which constitutes the chief food of certain inhabitants of tropical climates, is obtained from Musa sapientum and M. cavendishii. M. paradisaica furnishes the plantain; M. textilis yields a fine textile fibre.

Pl. 58, 59, fig. 5, Musa paradisaica; ae, various parts of the plant; f, cross-section of the ovary; g, ripe fruit; A, cross-section of ditto.

Order 33. Marantaceæ, the Arrow-root Family. Perianth superior, in two whorls; outer (calyx) three-lobed, short; inner (corolla) tubular, elongated, three-parted, segments nearly equal. Stamens in two whorls; outer sterile, petaloid, irregular, resembling a tubular trifid corolla, with one of the lateral segments dffferent from the others; inner petaloid, two sterile, and one lateral fertile; filament of the latter petaloid, entire or two-lobed; anther on the margin of the filament, one-celled, dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary three-celled, rarely one-celled; ovules solitary and erect, or numerous and attached to the axis, style petaloid or swollen: stigma either the naked apex of the style, or hollow, hooded, and incurved. Fruit a three-celled capsule, or baccate, one-celled and one-seeded. Seeds round, without arillus; embryo straight, in hard, somewhat floury albumen, without a vitellus; radicle lying against the hilum. Herbaceous plants, with tuberous rhizomes, and leaves and flowers similar to those of the Ginger family. They are natives of tropical regions. There are six genera, including 160 species. Examples: Maranta, Canna, Phrynium.

The West Indian arrow-root is obtained from the tuberous roots of Maranta arundinacea. The seeds of Canna indica are known as Indian shot.

Order 34. Zingiberaceæ or Scitamineæ, the Ginger Family. Perianth superior, in two whorls; outer (calyx) tubular, three-lobed, short; inner (corolla) tubular, elongated, three-parted, segments nearly equal. Stamens in two whorls; outer sterile, petaloid. having the appearance of a three-parted corolline whorl, with the intermediate segment (labellum) larger than the rest, and often three-lobed, sometimes the lateral segments are inconspicuous or nearly abortive; inner stamens three, the two lateral being abortive, the intermediate one opposite the labellum, fertile; filament not petaloid, often prolonged beyond the anther; anther two-celled, dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary three-celled, or imperfectly so; ovules several, anatropal, attached to a placenta in the axis: style filiform; stigma dilated, hollow. Fruit usually a three-celled capsule, sometimes baccate. Seeds roundish or angular, sometimes with an arillus; embryo inclosed in a vitellus (the remains of the embryo-sac), surrounded by farinaceous albumen, which is deficient near the hilum. Herbs, with a creeping rhizome, and simple sheathing leaves, having parallel veins proceeding from the midrib to the margin. The flowers arise from membranous spathaceous bracts. Natives of tropical countries. Twenty-nine genera and 247 species. Examples: Zingiber, Curcuma, Amomum, Hedychium, Renealmia.

The ginger of commerce is derived from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale growing in the East and West Indies. Preserved ginger consists of the younger rhizomata. Curcuma longa and zedoaria furnish turmeric, a well-known yellow die. Cardamom seeds come from various species of Amomum and Elettaria.

Zingiber officinale (pl. 58, 59, fig. 7); a, the entire plant; b, c, pieces of the rhizoma. 1–6, various parts of the flower; 7–11, do. of the fruit. Curcuma zedoaria (pl. 58, fig. 6), 1–5, rhizoma; ae. various parts of the plant.

Order 35. Orchidaceæ, the Orchis Family. Flowers bisexual. Perianth adherent, herbaceous, or colored, with a six-partite limb, the segments being arranged in two rows; exterior row, called the calyx (although Lindley says it is more properly the corolla, the true calyx or calyculus being usually abortive), consisting of three segments (rardly two by adhesion), the odd one of which is often next the axis by a twisting of the ovary; interior row called the corolla (regarded by Lindley as petaloid stamens), consisting usually of three segments (very rarely one), the odd one of which is called the labellum or lip. This labellum frequently differs from the other divisions of the perianth, assuming remarkable forms, being lobed, spurred at the base, or furnished with peculiar appendages, which are sometimes derived from the stigma. It is sometimes divided by contraction, so as to exhibit three distinct portions, the lowest being the hypochilium; the middle, mesochilium; and the upper, the epichilium. Stamens three, epigynous, united in a central column along with the style; the two lateral stamens are usually abortive, the central one opposite the odd exterior segment being fertile; but at times the two lateral are fertile, and the central one is abortive; anthers one-, two-, four-celled; pollen powdery or cohering in definite or indefinite waxy masses (pollinia), which often adhere by a caudicle to a gland connected with the beak (rostellum) of the stigma. This gland is sometimes naked, at other times in a sac or pouch (bursicula). Ovary adherent, one-celled, composed of six carpels, of which three only are placentiferous (Lindley); style incorporated with the column (gynostemium, pistil, and stamen); stigmas a viscid hollow space in front of the column, communicating directly with the ovary by an open canal. The upper part of the united stigmas is often extended into a beak-like process (rostellum). Placentas three, parietal. Fruit a capsule, opening by three or six valves, rarely fleshy, and indehiscent. Seeds 00, very minute, with a loose reticulated spermoderm, exalbuminous; embryo solid, fleshy; large radicle next the hilum. Perennial herbs or shrubs, with fibrous or tubercular roots, either no stem or a pseudo-bulb, entire parallel-veined often sheathing leaves, and generally showy, attractive flowers. Sometimes buds are produced on the margins of the leaves. They are natives of almost all parts of the world, but they abound in moist tropical regions. They are not found in the Arctic regions, nor in very dry climates. Some are terrestrial, and others are epiphytic. The former are commonly seen in temperate climates, the latter in warm regions.

The plants of this order are well distinguished by the peculiar form of their flowers, their remarkable lip, gynandrous stamens, and pollen masses. Their flowers often resemble insects, as butterflies, moths, bees, flies, and spiders; or birds, as doves and eagles; or reptiles, as snakes, lizards, and frogs. The colors and spots on the perianth sometimes give the appearance of the skins of quadrupeds, as the leopard and tiger. These resemblances are often indicated in the generic and specific names. The labellum, in some instances, displays peculiar irritability.

Tribe 1. Cypnpedleæ. Pollen pulpy granular. Fertile anthers two, with a dilated petal-like body (the third stamen) between them. Example: Cypripedium, or Ladies’ slipper, of which various American species exist.

Tribe 2. Neottieæ. Pollen powdery, in numerous minute and angled loosely cohering grains (forming two or four masses). Anther more or less parallel, with the stigma or column erect. This tribe includes the following sub-tribes: Cranichidæ, Listerideæ, Spiranthideœ, Physurideæ, Diarideæ, and Thelyinitrideæ. Examples: Cranichis, Acroea; Listera, Neottia; Speranthes; Goodyera; Diuris; Epiblema.

Tribe 3. Arethnsæ. Pollen, as in the last. Anther terminal, forming a lid over the stigma. Sepals and petals mostly erect or converging. Sub-tribes: Limnodoridæ, Acianthideæ, Caleyideæ, Pogonideæ, Gastrodideæ, and Vanillideæ. Examples: Chlorea, Microtis; Acianthus, Corybas; Caleya; Pogonia, Arethusa, Calopogon; Gastrodia; Vanilla. The fleshy pods of Vanilla planifolia and V. claviculata furnish the vanilla of the confectioner.

Tribe 4. Ophrydeæ. Pollen cohering in very numerous grains, which are collected on a cobweb-like tissue into two large masses, and affixed to the glands of the stigma. Flower ringent: lips with a spur at the base beneath. Sub-tribes: Serapiadeæ. Satyriadeæ, Gymnadenideæ, Holothrichideæ, Disideæ, Corycideæ. Examples: Orchis, Ophrys, Pachites, Gymnadenia, Plathanthera, Holothrix; Disa, Forficaria; Corycium, Arnottia.

Tribe 5. Vandeæ. Pollen cohering in definite (two or four) waxy masses, furnished with an elastic prolongation (caudicle). Sub-tribes: Sarcanthideæ, Cryptochilideæ, Brassideæ, Pachyphyllideæ, Maxillarideæ, Catasetideæ, Notylideæ, Ionopsideæ, and Calanthideæ.

Tribe 6. Epidendreæ. Pollen coherent, in definite waxy masses, furnished with a caudicle: anther terminal, opercular. Epiphytic or terrestrial plants. Sub-tribes: Cœlogynideæ, Isochilideæ, Læliadeæ, and Bletideæ.

Tribe 7. Malaxideæ. Pollen cohering in definite (four) waxy masses, without any connecting tissue or caudicle. Sub-tribes: Pleurothallideæ, Liparideæ. Dendrobideæ. and Corallorhizideæ. Examples: Microstylis, Liparis, Corallorhiza, Aplectrum.

Pl. 58, 59, fig. 8, Vanilla aromatica, or Vanilla.

Order 35. Hydrocharidaceæ, the Frog-bit Family. Flowers spathaceous, unisexual, rarely ☿. Perianth with a six-partite limb, the three outer segments herbaceous and equivalent to the calyx, the three inner petaloid and equivalent to the corolla. Stamens definite or indefinite, epigynous. Ovary adherent, one- or many-celled; ovules 00, anatropal, frequently attached to parietal placentas; stigmas three to six. Fruit dry or succulent, indehiscent, uni- or pluri-locular. Seeds numerous, exalbuminous; embryo straight, radicle remote from the hilum. Floating or aquatic plants, with parallel-veined leaves, sometimes spiny. Chiefly found in Europe, Asia, and North America. The plants of this order are not remarkable for their properties. Some are mucilaginous and astringent. Vallisneria spiralis is a diœcious plant, the male flowers of which, at the time of flowering, are said to be detached from the mud of the water in which they grow, and to float on the surface. At the same time the female flower developes a long, spiral peduncle, by means of which it reaches the surface of the water, so as to allow the application of the pollen. The canvas-back duck (Aythya vallisneria) derives its specific name from feeding on this plant, known in the Chesapeake Bay as the celery grass.

This order has been divided into two sections: Stratioteæ, with a many-celled ovary, and Vallisnerieæ, ovary one-celled. Examples: Limnobium, Udora, Vallisneria.

Sub-Class 3. Dictyogenæ

Leaves reticulated, often articulated with the stem, branches having the usual structure of Endogens, rhizomes or underground stems having the woody matter disposed in a compact circle, or in wedges containing central cellular tissue, and often showing medullary processes.

Order 37. Trilliaceæ, the Trillium Family. Flowers usually bisexual. Perianth in six, sometimes eight divisions, colored or herbaceous. Stamens six, eight, or ten; filaments subulate; anthers linear, with a prolonged connective. Ovary free, three-, four-, or five-celled; styles as many, distinct: ovules 00, anatropal. Fruit succulent, three-, four-, or five-celled. Seeds 00; embryo minute, in fleshy albumen. Natives of the temperate parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Some of them are more or less acrid, others are narcotic. The rhizome of Trillium cernuum is used as an emetic. Paris quadrifolia, Herb Paris, is narcotic. There are about ten known genera, and upwards of sixty species. Examples: Trillium, Paris, Medeola.

Order 38. Smilaceæ, the Greenbrier Family. Flowers bisexual or polygamous. Perianth petaloid, six-parted. Stamens six, inserted into the base of the perianth, rarely hypogynous. Ovary free, three-celled; cells uni- or multi-ovulate; ovules orthotropal; styles usually three-cleft; stigmas three. Fruit globular and succulent. Seeds with fleshy, cartilaginous albumen; embryo very small; usually distant from the hilum. Herbs or undershrubs, often climbing, with netted-veined leaves. Natives of the temperate and tropical regions of Asia and America. There are four or five known genera, and upwards of 120 species. Examples: Smilax, Philesia.

The Sarsaparilla of commerce is derived from the roots of various species of Smilax, the best article being furnished by S. officinalis, a native of Columbia; a poor substitute is found in the S. pseudo-china of the United States. The so-called wild sarsaparilla of the United states belongs to the genus Aralia. The tangled thickets of Greenbriers, so common in this country, are constituted by various species of Smilax.

Order 39. Dioscoreaceæ, the Yam Tribe. Flowers unisexual. Perianth six-divided, adherent, ♁. Stamens six, inserted into the base of the perianth; anthers introrse, with longitmlinal dehiscence. ♀. Ovary inferior, three-celled; ovules one to two, anatropal; style bifid; stigmas undivided. Fruit a compressed trilocular capsule; with two cells, sometimes abortive, occasionally fleshy and indehiscent. Seeds compressed, winged or wingless, in the succulent fruit ovate; embryo small, near the hilum, lying in a large cavity of cartilaginous albumen. Twining shrubs, with large epigeal or hypogeal tubers, alternate, sometimes opposite, reticulated leaves, and small, spiked, bracteated flowers. Natives chiefly of tropical countries; a few only found in temperate regions. There are six genera according to Lindley, and 110 species. Examples: Dioscorea, Tamus, Elephantopus.

The Yam, a tropical substitute for the potatoe, is the tuber of several species of Dioscorea.

Class 3. Dicotyledones and Exogenæ, Juss. and D.C. Acramphibrya, Endl.

This is the largest class in the vegetable kingdom. The plants included under it have a cellular and vascular system, the latter consisting partly of elastic spiral vessels. The stem is more or less conical, and exhibits wood and true bark. The wood is exogenous, i. e. increases by additions at the periphery, the hardest part being internal. It is arranged in concentric circles. Pith exists in the centre, and from it diverge medullary rays. The bark is separable, and increases by additions on the inside. The epidermis is furnished with stomata. The leaves are reticulated, usually articulated to the stem. The flowers are formed upon a quinary or quaternary type, and have stamens and pistils. The ovules are either inclosed in a pericarp, and fertilized by the application of the pollen to the stigma, or they are naked, and fertilized by the direct action of the pollen. The embryo has two or more opposite cotyledons, and is exorhizal in germination.

Sub-class 1. Monohlamydeæ
I. Plates 60 & 61: Cultivated Plants from Diverse Families: Ornamental, Edible, or Medicinal
Engraver: Henry Winkles
I. Plate 71: Various Plants, Including Members of the Sumac, Spurge and Gourd Families
Engraver: Henry Winkles
I. Plate 72: Coniferous Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms of the Mulberry, Pepper, Beech and Witch Hazel Families
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Corolla wanting; a calyx or a simple perianth present; flowers sometimes achlamydeous. This sub-class includes the Apetalous orders of Jussieu, and many of his Diclinous irregular orders. It corresponds to the Apetalæ and Gymnospermae of Endlicher.

Section A. Gymnosprmæ

Monochlamydeous or Axhlamydeous plants, with an exogenous structure as regards their stems and organs of vegetation, but differing from Exogens, in having naked ovules, which are fertilized by the direct application of the pollen to the foramen, without the intervention of stigma, style, and ovary. Their woody tissue is marked by the presence of disks. They are included in Lindley’s class of Gymnogens, and Endlicher’s Gymnospermous division of Acramphibrya.

Order 40. Cycadaceæ, the Cycas Family. Flowers unisexual. Males collected into cones, the scales bearing on their lower surface one-celled anthers, which are united often in sets of two, three, or four. Females consisting of naked ovules, placed at the base of flat scales, or beneath peltate ones, or seated on the margins of altered leaves. Seeds hard and nut-like, sometimes with an external spongy coat; embryo one or two, suspended in a central cavity; albumen fleshy or mealy; cotyledons unequal; radicle superior, having a long cord-like prolongation by which the embryo is suspended. Trees or shrubs, with cylindrical trunks, usually simple, sometimes dichotomous, marked with the scars of the leaves, and in many respects having the aspect of palms. The internal structure is more or less distinctly that of dicotyledons. Pitted tissue and spiral vessels occur. The leaves are pinnate, and their vernation is circinate, thus resembling ferns. The plants of this order are found in the temperate and warm regions of America and Asia, as well as at the Cape of Good Hope. There are six genera, according to Lindley, and forty-five species. Examples: Cycas, Zamia, Encephalartos, Macrozamia, Dion.

Some species of this order furnish an impure sago from the stem; the fruit of others is eaten, roasted like chestnuts. The family is interesting, from having fossil representatives. Cycas circinalis (pl. 56, fig. 4); Zamia elliptica (fig. 8).

Order 41. Coniferæ, the Pine Family. It includes the orders Pinaceæ, Taxaceæ, and Gnetaceæ of Lindley. Flowers unisexual. Male flowers monandrous or monadelphous; stamens collected in a deciduous amentum, about a common rachis; anthers one-, two-, or many-lobed, with longitudinal dehiscence, often terminated by a scaly crest. Female flowers in cones, sometimes solitary; ovary none, its place being supplied by the flat scales of the cones, arising from the axil of membranous bracts; ovules naked, usually in pairs on the face of the scales, inverted or erect; style; stigma 0. Fruit a cone, or a solitary naked seed. Seed with a hard crustaceous integument, sometimes winged, embryo in the midst of fleshy oily albumen; sometimes more than one embryo; cotyledons two, or many and verticillate; radicle next the apex of the seed, organically connected with the albumen. Trees or shrubs, with branched, usually resinous trunks, the wood marked with circular disks, the leaves usually narrow, rigid or acerose, entire, sometimes fascicled, and with a scaly sheath at their base. They are found in various parts of the world, both in cold and hot regions. They abound in the temperate regions of Europe and America, and many occur in Australia. Four genera of Coniferse, Araucaria, Phyllocladus, Microcachrys, and Arthrotaxis, are peculiar to the southern hemisphere. The following attain their maximum to the south of the tropics: Callitris, Podocarpus, and Dacrydium. Dammara has one species in each hemisphere.

Sub-order 1. Gnetaceæ. the Joint-fir Tribe; male flowers with a perianth; anthers uni-, or quadrilocular, opening by a short cleft; ovules with a projecting process formed from the intimate covering of the nucleus; seed solitary; embryo with a long spirally-twisted funiculus; stems jointed; zones of wood, often separated by marked cellular circles. Examples: Gnetum, Ephedra.

Sub-order 2. Taxineæ, the Yew Tribe; anthers usually bilocular, with longitudinal dehiscence; fertile flowers, solitary, terminal; ovule solitary, sessile in the centre of a fleshy disk, when in fruit forming a sort of drupe; embryo dicotyledonous. Examples: Taxus, Torreya, Cephalotaxus, Podocarpus, Dacrydium, Phyllocladus, Gingko. North American representatives: Torreya and Taxus (Taxus canadensis).

Sub-order 3. Citpressineæ, the Cypress Tribe. Ovules erect; fruit an indurated cone or fleshy, with the scales connected forming a galbulus; embryo di-, or poly-cotyledonous. Examples: Thuya, Taxodium, Juniperus, Cupressus, Cryptomeria, Thuyopsis, Callitris, Widdringtonia. North American genera are: Thuya (T. occidentalis or arbor vit), Cupressus (C. thyoides, white cedar), Taxodium (T. distichum, bald cypress), and Juniperus (J. communis, Juniper, and J. virginiana, Red cedar).

Sub-order 4. Abiethieæ, the true Pines. Fertile flowers, in cones with one or two inverted ovules at the base of each scale; embryo in the axis of fleshy or oily albumen, di-, or poly-cotyledonous.

Div. 1. Dammarieæ. Scales one or many-seeded. Seeds free; anthers bi-, tri-, or multilocular. Examples: Dammara, Cunninghamia, Arthrotaxis, none North American.

Div. 2. Araucarieæ. Scales one-seeded, seed adnate to the scale, and not separating from it; anthers multilocular. Examples: Araucaria, Eutassa, Altingia. None North American.

Div. 3. Abieteæ. Scales two-seeded, seeds adnate to the scale and at length separating from it; anthers bilocular. There are three prominent subdivisions: a. Scales without an apophysis, leaves fasciculated. Examples: Larix (leaves flat, annual); Cedrus (leaves tetragonal, perennial). b. Scales without an apophysis, leaves solitary. Examples: Tsuga (scales persistent, leaves flat); Picea (scales persistent, leaves tetragonal); Abies (scales deciduous, leaves flat), c. Scales with a thickened apophysis, which is either entire or dimidiate. Examples: Pinus (leaves in twos, threes, fours, or fives). North American representatives: Larix (L. americana, Tamarack), Abies (A. balsamea, balsam fir; A. canadensis. Hemlock spruce; A. alba, White spruce; A. nigra. Black or Double spruce, &c.); Pinus (P. strobus, white pine; P. mitis, yellow pine; P. rigida, Pitch pine, &c).

The Coniferæ form an extensive element in the forest features of many portions of the globe. Nevertheless, the different genera are rather restricted in their distribution. Thus Abies, Larix, Pinus, Taxus, Torreya, and Cupressus, are entirely confined to the northern hemisphere, few indeed being found in tropical latitudes, except at considerable elevations, Juniperus and Thuya are quite generally distributed. Cryptomeria and Thuyopsis are natives of Japan; Callitris, with a single exception, of Australia; Widdringtonia is South African, and Taxodium, North American. Araucaria is confined to South America, Eutassa and Arthrotaxis to Australia, Cunninghamia to China, Dammara to New Zealand and the adjacent islands, Sciadopitys to Japan. Of the Taxinese, Taxus and Torreya have already been assigned to the northern hemisphere, where they are found on both continents. Cephalotaxus and Gingko belong to the eastern extremity of Asia, Phyllocladus to Australia, Dacrydium to the islands of Asia, and Podocarpus to various parts of the globe.

The economical value of the Coniferag is very great. Many species furnish timber of the first quality, as also turpentine, rosin, tar, pitch, &c. Canada Balsam is the exuded and inspissated juice of Abies balsamea and fraseri, known as Balsam firs. Callitris quadrivalvis supplies Sandarach or pounce; Abies excelsa or Norway spruce, the Burgundy pitch or Frankincense. The oil from the berries of Juniper gives the peculiar flavor to Holland gin. The wood of lead pencils is derived from Juniperus bermudianus. The Gopher wood of Scripture is probably the cypress of modern times (Cupressus sempervirens). Many trees of this order furnish timber of extraordinary durability. The seeds of various species form a pleasant article of food.

Taxus baccata or common European Yew (pl. 72, fig. 10); a, a branch with male flowers; b, male catkin with the anterior part of the scales removed; c, connective covering the anther cells; e, a branch with female flowers; f, one-flowered male catkin; g, the same two-flowered; h, a female flower; i, a section of the same; k, single flowered female catkin; l, the flower separate; m, branch with fruit; n and o. fruit.

Juniperus communis, common Juniper (European) (pl. 72, fig. 11); a, branch with fruit; b, portion of a branch with male flowers; c, do. with female flowers; d, male catkin, e, anther cells with their covering; f, the three female flowers; g, transverse section of the carpophores; h, two flowers with their carpophores, the one in vertical section; i, section of the berry; [k], a seed; l, vertical section of do. Pinus picea; the stone Pine (European) (pl. 72, fig. 14); a, branch with male catkins; b, a strobile; c, carpellary scale with its two seeds.

Larix cedrus, European cedar (pl. 72, fig. 13); a, branch with a male catkin; b, the two anther cells; c, extremity of a branch with a female catkin; d, scale with the two female flowers; e, carpellary scale with the two seeds; f, vertical section of the seed.

Cupressus sempervirens, European cypress (pl. 72, fig. 12); a, branch with male and female catkin; b, male catkins; c, bracts with the anther filaments; d, female catkins; e and f, female flowers; g[k], various stages of fruit and seeds.

Section B. Angiospermæ

Monochlamydeous or achlamydeous plants having their seeds contained in an ovary and fertilized by the action of the pollen on a stigma. It corresponds to the Apetalous division of Endlicher’s Acramphibrya.

Order 42. Garryaceæ, the Garrya Family. Flowers unisexual, amentaceous. Male flowers, perianth of four parts, stamens four, alternate with the segments of the perianth. Female flowers, perianth superior, two-toothed; ovary unilocular; ovules two; pendulous on short funiculi; styles two. Fruit baccate, indehiscent. Seeds two; embryo minute, at the base of fleshy albumen. North American shrubs, with opposite, exstipulate leaves. The male plants of Garrya elliptica are commonly cultivated in shrubberies, and are prized for their peculiar silky catkins. Lindley associates with this order the Helwingiaceæ, which agree in their unisexual flowers, adherent fruit, pendulous ovules, minute embryo, at the base of the solid albumen. There are two known genera, and six species. Example: Garrya.

Order 43. Juglandaceæ, the Walnut Family. Flowers unisexual. Male flowers amentaceous: perianth membranous, oblique; irregularly-lobed, with a scaly bract. Stamens definite or 00: filaments short, free; anthers dithecal, erect. Female flowers in terminal clusters, or in loose racemes, with separate or united bracts: perianth, single or double, the outer three- or five-parted, inner, when present, in minute separate pieces. Ovary adherent to the perianth, one-celled; ovule solitary, erect, orthotropal; styles one or two, very short; stigmas two or four, fringed or sessile discoid, and four-lobed. Fruit a drupe, sometimes with an adherent involucre; endocarp bony, two-valved, or valveless, two- or four-celled at the base, and one-celled at the apex, with partial dissepiments. Seed exalbuminous, two- or four-lobed, with a membranaceous testa; embryo large; cotyledons fleshy, oily, and sinuous; radicle superior. Trees with alternate, pinnated leaves, having neither dots nor stipules. Examples: Juglans, Carya, Engelhardtia, and Pterocarya.

The plants of this family are chiefly North American, where they are represented by one genus (Carya) peculiar to the country, and another (Juglans) which possesses one European species. The fruit of Carya, known as hickory nuts, shell barks, Pecan nuts, &c., is highly prized as an article of food, while the timber is of exceedingly great value. The Walnut and Butternut, or white Walnut, belong to the genus Juglans; the wood of the former species is hardly surpassed as a beautiful material for cabinet ware. The bark of Juglans cinerea, or butternut, is a valuable medicinal agent.

Juglans regia, English walnut (European) (pl. 71, fig. 4); a, branch with male catkins and female flowers; b, male flowers on a scale; c, a male flower enlarged; d, female flower; e, vertical section of ditto; f, fruit with part of the hull removed; g, longitudinal section.

Order 44. Amentaceæ, the Catkin Family. Flowers unisexual. Male flowers capitate or in catkins (amenta), sometimes with a membranous perianth. Female flowers, clustered, solitary, or in catkins. Stamens varying from one to twenty, distinct or monadelphous; anthers dithecal. Ovary usually simple; stigmas one or more. Fruit membranous, or bony, or drupaceous, indehiscent or dehiscent. Seeds solitary or numerous, erect or pendulous, usually exalbuminous; embryo straight or curved; radicle mostly superior. Trees or shrubs with alternate, stipulate, or exstipulate leaves. Natives chiefly of temperate climates. The order has been divided into the following; sub-orders:

Sub-order 1. Cupuliferæ, the Oak Family. Trees or shrubs with alternate and simple straight-veined leaves, deciduous stipules, and monoecious flowers; the sterile in catkins (aments or capitate clustered in the Beech), the fertile solitary or clustered, furnished with an involucre which forms a cup or covering to the one-celled, one-seeded nut. Ovary, two- or seven-celled, with one or two pendulous anatropous ovules in each cell, but all the cells and ovules, except one, disappearing in the fruit. Calyx adherent to the ovary, the minute teeth crowning its summit. Seed with no albumen, filled with the embryo; cotyledons very thick and fleshy; radicle short, superior. Examples: Quercus, Castanea, Fagus, Corylus, Carpinus, Ostrya, Lithocarpus. All of these, with the exception of the last, have North American species. In oaks (Quercus) North America is especially rich, the northern and middle States alone possessing twenty species, not to mention numerous others peculiar to the south and west of the continent. Some of the southern species, as the Live Oak (Q. virens), have evergreen leaves. Of Castanea there are three species in the United States: the common Chestnut (C. vesca), the Chincapin (C. pumila), and a still smaller species, C. nana. The common American Beech is Fagus ferruginous. There are also the Hazelnut (Corylus americana and rostrata), the Hornbeam (Carpinus americana), and the Iron-wood (Ostrya virginica).

Sub-order 2. Plataneæ, the Plane Tribe. Flowers in globose catkins; stamen one, with scales; ovary, one-celled; style, thick and subulate; ovules, solitary or in pairs; suspended, orthotropal: fruit consisting of compressed clavate nuts, terminated by a recurved style: seeds one or two, pendulous, albuminous: radicle, inferior; leaves palmate or toothed, and stipulate. Natives chiefly of temperate regions. The principal genus in this family is Platanus, represented in the Old World by P. orientalis, the Plane tree, and in the New by P. occidentalis, Button-wood, or Sycamore.

Sub-order 3. Balsamifluæ, the Sweet-Gum Tribe. Flowers with verticillate bracts or minute scales; anthers, numerous; ovary, two-celled; ovules 00. amphitropal: fruit consisting of two-celled capsules, united together, so as to form a hard cone: seeds usually numerous, winged, albuminous; radicle superior; leaves stipulate. Balsamic trees natives of tropical and warm regions. The characteristic genus of this family is Liquidambar, embracing three species, two Asiatic and one North American. The latter, L. styraciflua, or sweet-gum, is abundant in the south-eastern portion of the continent.

Sub-order 4. Betulineæ, the Birch Tribe. Flowers with bracts which are sometimes verticillate: ovary, two-celled; ovules solitary, pendulous, anatropal: fruit membranous, indehiscent, forming a sort of cone; seeds pendulous, radicle superior, leaves with deciduous stipules. Natives of temperate and cold regions in Europe, Asia, and America, and extending to arctic and antarctic regions. Examples: Betula and Alnus. Of Betula, or birch, there are numerous species in North America; the most important of them is B. papyracea, paper or canoe birch, from whose bark the northern and western Indians and hunters manufacture their canoes. The genus Ahms, or Alder, is of little economical importance.

Sub-order 5. Casuarineæ, the Beefwood Tribe. Flowers with bracts; stamen one; ovary one-celled; ovules one to two; fruit consisting of winged achsenia, collected into a cone; seed erect; radicle superior. Australian trees or shrubs, with filiform branches, bearing membranous toothed sheaths in place of leaves.

Sub-order 6. Myriceæ, the Myrtle Tribe. Achlamydeous flowers; stamens two to eight in the axil of a scale; ovary one-celled, with hypogynous scales; ovule solitary, erect, orthotropal; fruit drupaceous, often with a waxy secretion, and with fleshy adherent scales; radicle superior. Natives both of temperate and tropical regions, and found in North and South America, in India, and at the Cape of Good Hope. North American genera, Myrica and Comptonia. Examples: Myrica gale, Sweet gale or Bog-myrtle; M. cerifera, wax myrtle: and Comptonia asplenifolia or Sweet fern.

Sub-order 7. Saliciueæ, the Willow Tribe. Dioecious trees or shrubs, with both kinds of flowers in catkins, one under each bract, entirely destitute of calyx or corolla; the fruit a one-celled and two-valved pod, containing numerous seeds clothed with a long silky down. Ovary one-celled or imperfectly two-celled; styles two, very short, or more or less united, each with a two-lobed stigma. Seeds ascending, anatropous, without albumen. Cotyledons flattened; leaves alternate, undivided, with scale-like and deciduous, or leaf-like and persistent stipules. Wood soft and light, bark bitter. The genera Salix and Populus, known respectively as Willows and Poplars, have numerous North American species, although none of sufficient importance to require special mention. They are of little value as timber trees, owing to the soft and spongy texture of their wood; the charcoal, however, is in much request by gunpowder manufacturers.

Quercus tinctoria. Black oak, is a North American tree from which the yellow dye. Quercitron, is obtained. See pl. 72, fig. 8; a, branch with fruit; b, a leaf; c, represents a female flower of the Cork oak (Q. suber).

Chastena vesca or Chestnut (European variety). Pl. 72, fig. 7; a, branch with male and female flowers; b, a nut; c, the same in the partly removed hull.

Liquidambar styraciflua. Sweet Gum (North American). Pl. 72, fig. 9; a, branch with leaves and flowers; b, anther; c, pistil; d, the fruit; e, open pod; f, ovary; g, dissepiment with the seeds; h, a single seed.

Order 45. Piperaceæ, the Pepper Family. Flowers ☿. Perianth 0, flowers supported on a bract. Stamens two, three, or six, arranged on one side or all around the ovary; anthers one- or two-celled, with or without a fleshy connective; pollen roundish, smooth. Ovary solitary, free, one-celled; ovule solitary, erect, orthotropal; stigma simple, sessile, rather oblique. Fruit somewhat fleshy, indehiscent, unilocular. Seed erect; embryo in a fleshy vitellus outside the albumen, and at the apex of the seed. Shrubs or herbs, with articulated stems, opposite (sometimes alternate by abortion of one of the pair of leaves), or verticillate, exstipulate or stipulate leaves, and spiked or racemose flowers. Natives of the hottest quarters of the globe. Common in South America and India. The wood is often arranged in wedges, with medullary rays, but without concentric zones. There are twenty-one known genera, and upwards of six hundred species. Examples: Piper, Artanthe, Peperomia.

The plants of this order have pungent, acrid, and aromatic properties. Most of them contain an acrid resin, and a peculiar principle called piperine. Black pepper is the dried unripe fruit of Piper nigrum, and white pepper the ripe fruit deprived of its outer covering. Cubeba officinalis, a Javan plant, furnishes Cubeb pepper. The Kava of the South Sea Islands is the root of Piper methysticum, and is employed in preparing an intoxicating beverage. The Betel leaf from Piper betle, is chewed in the East with the Areca nut.

Piper nigrum, Black pepper (East Indies) (pl. 72, fig. 6); a, a branch with flowers and fruit; b, portion of a catkin magnified; c, portion of the same dried and magnified; d, berry; ef. section of the fruit; g, embryo; h, anther; [i], unripe berry dried and constituting black pepper; k, white pepper.

Order 46. Saururaceæ, the Lizard’s-tail Family. Flowers bisexual. Perianth 0, a scale or bract supporting the flowers. Stamens three to six, clavate. hypogynous, persistent: filaments slender; anthers two-celled, continuous with the filament, with a thick connective separating the lobes, dehiscence longitudinal. Ovaries three to four, distinct, with one ascending orthotropal ovule, and a sessile recurved stigma, or united so as to form a three- to four-celled pistil, with several ovules and three to four stigmas. Fruit either consisting of four fleshy indehiscent nuts, or a one-, three-, or four-celled capsule, dehiscing at the apex, and containing a few ascending seeds. Seeds with a membranous spermoderm; embryo minute, lying in a fleshy vitellus, outside of hard mealy albumen, at the apex of the seed. Herbs growing in marshy places, with alternate stipulate leaves, and spiked flowers. Natives of North America, India, and China. Their properties are said to be acrid. There are four known genera, according to Lindley, and seven species. Examples: Saururus. Houttuynia. The species Saururus cernuus or Lizard’s-tail, represents the family in the United States.

Order 47. Chloranthaceæ, the Chloranthus Family. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, with a supporting scale. Perianth 0. stamens definite, lateral, and if more than one, connate: anthers monothecal, with longitudinal dehiscence, each adnate to a fleshy connective. Ovary unilocular; ovule solitary, pendulous, orthotropal; stigma sessile, simple. Fruit drupaceous, indehiscent. Seed pendulous; embryo minute, at the apex of fleshy albumen; cotyledons divaricate: radicle inferior, remote from the hilum. Herbs or undershrubs, with jointed stems, opposite, simple, stipulate leaves, sheathing petioles, and spiked flowers. Natives of the warm regions of India and America. Some of them, as Chloranthus officinalis, are aromatic and fragrant, and have been used as stimulants and tonics. Examples: Hedyosmium, Ascarina, Chloranthus.

Order 48. Lacistemaceæ, the Lacistema Family, flowers polygamous. Perianth in several narrow divisions, covered by an enkirged bract. Stamens, one, hypogynous: anther having two cells, which are separated by a thick, two-lobed connective, and which dehisce transversely. Disk fleshy. Ovary superior, one-celled; ovules several, anatropal, attached to two or three parietal placentas; stigmas two or three, nearly sessile. Fruit a unilocular, two- or three-valved capsule, with loculicidal dehiscence. Seed usually by abortion, solitary, suspended, with a fleshy arillus; spermoderm crustaceous; embryo in fleshy albumen; cotyledons flat: radicle cylindrical, superior. Small trees or shrubs, with simple, alternate, exstipulate leaves, and amentaceous flowers. They are natives of the warm parts of America. Their properties are unknown. There are two genera and six species. Example: Lacistema.

Order 49. Atherospermaceæ, the Plume-Nutmeg Family. Flowers unisexual. Perianth tubular, divided at the top into several segments, in two rows, the inner often petaloid, and accompanied in the female flowers with a few scales. Male flowers: stamens 00, inserted in the bottom of the perianth; filaments, with scales at the base; anthers two-celled, with valvular dehiscence. Female flowers: ovaries, usually 00; ovule solitary, erect; style simple, lateral, or basilar; stigmas, simple. In some flowers, though rarely, stamens and pistils are found, and in that case the stamens are fewer, and arise from the orifice of the perianth. Fruit consisting of achsenia, with persistent, ultimately feathery styles, inclosed within the tube of the perianth. Seed solitary, erect; embryo small, at the base of soft, fleshy albumen: radicle inferior. Trees with opposite exstipulate leaves, found in Australia, and in some parts of South America. They are generally fragrant. There are three known genera and four species, according to Lindley. Examples: Atherosperma, Laurelia.

Order 50. Monimiaceæ, the Monimia Family. Flowers unisexual. Perianth somewhat globose, in one or more rows, divided at the border. Male flowers: stamens indefinite, covering the whole interior of the perianth; filaments, often with two scales at the base; anthers dithecal, with longitudinal dehiscence. Female flowers: ovaries several, superior, inclosed within the tube of the perianth, each with one style and one stigma; ovule solitary, pendulous, anatropal. Fruit consisting of several achænia, inclosed within the enlarged perianth. Seed pendulous: embryo, at the end of copious fleshy albumen: radicle superior. Trees or shrubs, with opposite, exstipulate leaves. They are natives chiefly of South America and Australia. The bark and leaves arc aromatic and fragrant. The succulent fruit of some is eaten. There are eight known genera and about forty species. Examples: Monimia, Boldoa.

Order 51. Stilaginaceæ, the Stilago Family. Flowers unisexual. Perianth two-, three-, or five-parted. Male flowers: stamens two or more, arising from a swollen receptacle: filaments, capillary; anthers innate, two-lobed, with a fleshy connective, and vertical cells opening transversely. Female flowers: ovary free, one- or two-celled; ovules two, anatropal; stigma sessile, three- to five-toothed. Fruit drupaceous. Seed solitary, suspended; embryo, in fleshy albumen; cotyledons, leafy; radicle, superior. Trees or shrubs, with alternate, stipulate leaves. Natives chiefly of the East Indies. Some yield edible fruits, others are used as potherbs. The position of this order in the natural system is obscure. Lindley places it in the Urtical alliance, others consider it as allied to Amentaceæ. There are three known genera and about twenty species. Examples: Stilago, Antidesma.

Order 52. Podostemaceæ, the Podostemon Eamily. Flowers naked, or with a more or less perfect perianth, bursting through an irregularly lacerated spatha. Stamens hypogynous, definite or indefinite, distinct or monadelphous; anthers dithecal, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary free, two- or three-celled; ovules numerous, anatropal, attached to a fleshy central placenta; styles or stigmas, two or three. Fruit slightly pedicellate, capsular, two- or three-valved. Seeds 00; embryo exalbuminous, orthotropal. Herbaceous, branched, floating plants, with capillary, or linear, or lacerated, or minute and imbricated leaves. Natives chiefly of South America, and of the islands to the east of Africa. There are nine known genera and twenty-five species, according to Lindley. Examples: Podostemon, Lacis.

Order 53. Ceratophyllaceæ, the Hornwort Family. Flowers unisexual. Perianth inferior, ten- or twelve-parted. Male flowers: stamens, twelve to twenty; anthers sessile, bilocular. Female flowers: ovary free, one-celled; ovule solitary, pendulous, orthotropal: style filiform, oblique; stigma simple. Fruit, a one-celled indehiscent nut, terminated by the hardened style. Seed solitary, pendulous, exalbuminous: cotyledons two, but apparently four; radicle inferior. Aquatic submersed herbs, with verticillate leaves cut into filiform lobes. They are found in. ditches in various parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Of the single genus Ceratophyllum, North America possesses a single species.

Order 54. Urticaceæ, the Nettle Family Flowers unisexual, hermaphrodite, or polygamous, scattered or collected into catkins or heads. Perianth usually divided. Stamens definite, inserted into the perianth; filaments, sometimes curved in aestivation. Ovary free, rarely coherent, one- or two-celled; ovule solitary, erect, or suspended; stigmas one or two, simple or bifid. Fruit an indehiscent nut, surrounded by the persistent pericarp, or a samara, or a syconus, or a sorosis. Seed solitary, erect, suspended or pendulous, albuminous or exalbuminous; embryo straight, or curved, or spiral; radicle superior. Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with alternate, stipulate leaves, which, are usually hispid or scabrous. This order has been divided into the following sub-orders:

Sub-order 1. Artocarpeæ, the Bread Fruit Tribe. Trees or shrubs, with leaves often rough; filaments generally erect in æstivation; fruit often a sorosis; seed erect or pendulous, albuminous; embryo straight; juice milky. Natives of tropical regions. The typical genus of this sub-order is Artocarpus, one species of which, A. incisa, furnishes the bread fruit, so valuable to the inhabitants of tropical regions. All parts of the tree are applied to some valuable purpose. Some of the Artocarpae furnish a palatable milky juice, as in the Cow-tree of Demerara (Galactodendron utile). The celebrated Bohun-upas poison of Java is obtained from Antiaris toxicaria.

Sub-order 2. Moreæ, the Mulberry Tribe. Trees or shrubs, with milky or yellow juice, alternate leaves with deciduous stipules convolute in the bud, and the flowers spiked on (or inclosed in) a receptacle, becoming succulent in fruit. Styles or stigmas two. Seed amphitropous, with a curved embryo in copious albumen. Natives of temperate and tropical regions. The principal plants of this tribe are the figs and the mulberries. The common fig is the fruit of Ficus carica. F. indica is the well known Banyan tree of India, and F. religiosa the Pippul tree of the same country. Large quantities of caoutchouc are derived from F. elastica. F. sycamorus is probably the sycamore of the Scriptures. The genus Morus has luimcrous representatives, only one of which is indigenous to the United States. This is M. rubra or the red mulberry. M. nigra or the European black mulberry is the sycamine of the Bible. Morus alba or white mulberry (of which M. multicaulis is a variety), the favorite food of the silkworm, is partly naturalized in the United States. The Paper mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera), in some favor in this country as a shade tree, is so called from the fact of a kind of paper being made from the inner bark, in its native country, Japan. Madura aurantiaca, the Osage Orange, or Bois d’arc of the South West, is used for hedges. Fustic is obtained from Madura tinctoria.

Sub-order 3. Ulmaceæ. the Elm Tribe. Rough-leaved trees or shrubs; filaments erect in aestivation; fruit one- to two-celled, samaroid or drupaceous; seed pendulous, usually exalbuminous; embryo straight or curved; juice watery. Natives of the northern and mountainous parts of Europe, Asia, and America. This tribe is represented in the United States by the genera Ulmus and Celtis. The slippery or red Elm is Ulmus fulva, well known for its mucilaginous bark. Celtis crassifolia, Hackberry or sugar berry, is a tree which sometimes attains to a large size.

Sub-order 4. Cannabineæ, the Hemp Tribe. Herbs with watery juice, mostly opposite stipulated leaves, and dioecious flowers, the sterile racemed or panicled. Styles two. Seeds orthotropous. Embryo curved without albumen. Occur chiefly in temperate regions. Examples: Humulus and Cannabis. Humulus lupulus, the common Hop, is indigenous both in Europe and America. The hemp fibre is obtained from Cannabis sativa. A variety called C. indica is used in India to produce intoxication. The Haschisch of the Arabians consists of the dried tops and other tender parts of this variety.

Sub-order 5. Urticeæ, the true Nettle Tribe. Rough-leaved plants, often with stinging hairs, filaments elastic, and curved in aestivation; fruit an indehiscent nut; seed erect, albuminous; embryo straight; juice watery. They are widely scattered over the globe, and many of them follow the footsteps of man in his migrations. The principal representatives of this family in the United States are Urtica, Pilea, Boehmeria, Parietaria. Many species of Urtica, as U. urens or common nettle, have stinging hairs. Some species, as U. cannabina and tenacissima, aiFord excellent fibres for cordage. Urtica is found of great size in some countries. U. gigantea (Australia) having been known to reach a diameter of from eighteen to twenty-six feet. The Chinese grass cloth is the product of Bœhnieria nivea. Parietaria pennsylvanica is the plant known as Pellitory.

Artocarpus incisa or Bread Fruit (South Sea Islands and tropical countries in general) (pl. 72. fig. 2); a, branch with flowers, leaves, and fruit; b, male flower; c, three female flowers, the central one in vertical section; d, section of female capitulum.

Ficus carica, the Fig (pl. 72, fig. 1); a, branch with figs; b, vertical section of the torus; c, a male, d, a female flower; e, an unripe fruit; f, a ripe fruit; g, a vertical section of the seed.

Morus nigra, black mulberry (European) (pl. 72, fig. 3); a, a branch with fruit; b, a male flower: c, a female flower; d, fruit; e, the syconus; f, the pericarp; g, the seed.

Cannabis sativa, Hemp (pl. 72, fig. 5): a, top of the stalk with male flowers; b, a male flower; c, a filament; d, transverse section of the anther; e, pollen grains (be magnified); f, female flower; g, pistil magnified; h, female flower magnifled: i, dried pericarp; k, the same magnified; l, a nut without the hull: m, magnified; n, cross-section; o, vertical section.

Humulus lupulus. the Hop (pl. 72, fig. 4). A, branch with male flowers; B, branch with female catkins; C, a strobile; a, male flower; b, female flower; ce, rachis with glands, the two lowest scales and one female flower, the rest removed: f, four female flowers; g, ovary and pistil; h, fruit magnified; i, fruit inclosed by perianth; kl, other states of fruit.

Order 55. Euphorbiaceæ, the Spurge Family, Flowers unisexual, sometimes inclosed within an involucre. Perianth lobed, inferior, with various glandular or petaloid, scaly, internal appendages; sometimes the flowers are naked. Male flowers: stamens definite or 00, distinct or monadelphous, or polyadelphous; anthers bilocular, sometimes with porous dehiscence. Female flowers; ovary free, sessile or stalked, one-, two-, three-, or many-celled; ovules solitary or twin, suspended; styles equal in number to the cells, distinct or combined, sometimes; stigmas several, or one with several lobes. Fruit usually tricoccous, with the cocci separating in an elastic manner, and opening by two valves, or indehiscent and fleshy. Seeds solitary or in pairs, suspended, often arillate; embryo inclosed in fleshy albumen; cotyledons flat; radicle superior. Trees, shrubs, and herbs, often abounding in acrid milk, with opposite or alternate, often stipulate leaves, sometimes none. Some look on this order as apetalous, with a tendency to develope a corolla, while others consider it polypetalous, with a tendency to have the corolla suppressed. In European plants of the order there are usually no petals present, but in those of tropical countries the corolla is frequently well marked. In the Euphorbias of Britain there is an evident involucre, surrounding a number of achlamydeous male and female flowers, which by Linnaeus were looked upon as merely stamens and pistils, and hence the plants were put by him in Dodecandria in place of Monœcia. The flowers in Eupliorbiaccjc vary much in the number of their parts. Sometimes the general peduncle or rachis becomes flattened and leaf-like. The inflorescence is occasionally amentaceous, as in the division Scepaceæ, which is separated, as a distinct but not fully defined order, by Lindley. The plants of the order abound in warm regions, especially in Equinoctial America, where they occur as trees or bushes, or lactescent herbs, and often present the appearance of Cactuses, from which their milky juice at once distinguishes them. They are also found in North America and in Europe. There are about 192 genera arranged in six sub-orders, and over 2500 species.

Tribe 1. Eupliorbieæ, true Euphorbias. Cells one-seeded. Flowers of the two sexes united in a common involucre, resembling a single flower, naked, a single female with many males. Examples: Euphorbia, &c.

Tribe 2. Stillingieæ. Cells one-seeded. Flowers naked or apetalous in amentaceous spikes: one or many in the axil of an often biglandular bract; the males two- to tcn-androus. Examples: Stillingia, Styloceras, Hura, Hippomane, &c.

Tribe 3. Acalypheæ. Cells one-seeded. Flowers apetalous, calyx valvular in the bud, arranged in clusters along a spike, more rarely in racemes. Examples: Acalypha, Tragia, &c.

Tribe 4. Crotoneæ. Cells one-seeded. Flowers apetalous, calyx valvular, or imbricated in the bud, disposed in fascicles, spikes, racemes, or panicles. Examples: Crotonopsis, Siphonia, Croton, &c.

Tribe 5. Phyllantheæ. Cells two-seeded. Flowers most generally apetalous, with the calyx imbricated in the bud, solitary or combined in clusters or axillary fascicles. Stamens two to five, rarely more, inserted on the torus in the centre of the flower, free or united. Examples: Phyllanthus, &c.

Tribe 6. Buxeæ. Cells two-seeded. Flowers usually apetalous, with the calyx imbricated in the bud, arranged in clusters or axillary fascicles, more rarely in racemes or spikes. Stamens four to six, inserted around a central rudimentary pistil. Examples: Buxus, Savia. &c.

The plants of the order Euphorbiacæ are acrid and poisonous, this property residing chiefly in their milky juices. That of-some species of Euphorbia is collected for medicinal purposes. Valuable oils are also obtained from this order. Thus castor oil is expressed from the seeds of Ricinus communis, a plant which, herbaceous in temperate climates, is a tree in its native locality, India. The seeds of Croton tiglium furnish Croton oil. The fatty matter obtained from the seeds of Stillingia sebifera, the Chinese Tallow Tree, is used in making candles. Cascarilla is the bark of Croton elcutheria and other species. Ilie boxwood in such request by wood engravers is obtained from Buxus sempervirens. The Cassava, or Manioc flour, is a starchy matter (Tapioca), obtained by grinding up the root of Manihot utilissima. and washing this well with water. The juice is highly poisonous, although the washed pulp is both harmless and palatable. The juice of Siphonia elastica contains much caoutchouc, and furnishes most of that India-rubber which comes in bottles. Gum-lac is derived from Aleurites laccifera, a Ceylon plant.

Euphorbia officinarum, Spurge, Central and South Africa(pl. 71, fig. 9).

Euphorbia cyparissias, Central Europe (pl. 71, fig. 8): a and b, flowers of natural size and magnified; c, pistil; d and e, fruit of natural size and magnified.

Siphonia elastica, caoutchouc tree, South America (pl. 71, fig. 10): A, branch with flowers; a, a flower; b, vertical section of ditto: c, ovary in cross-section; d, ovary; e, the ripe fruit.

Order 56. Empetraceæ, the Crowberry Family. Flowers unisexual. Perianth bud-like, consisting of persistent imbricated scales, in two or four alternating rows, the inner row often petaloid. Male flowers; stamens two or three, equal in number to the scales in each row, and alternating with the innermost, hypogynous; anthers roundish, dithecal, with longitudinal dehiscence. Female flowers: ovary free, seated on a fleshy disk, three- to six- or nine-celled; ovules solitary, anatropal, ascending: style one; stigma with as many radii as there are ovarian cells. Fruit, a nuculanium, seated within the persistent perianth. Seeds solitary in each nucule, ascending; embryo, in the axis of fleshy albumen; radicle inferior. Heath-like shrubs, with alternate or somewhat verticillate, evergreen, exstipulate leaves. They inhabit chiefly Europe and North America. The fruit of some is slightly acid. Empetrum nigrum, the black Crowberry, is common on the mountains and northern parts of Europe, and the United States. The fruit is watery, and very slightly acid and astringent. Lindley notices four genera and four species. Examples: Empetrum, Corema. Both these genera have North American representatives.

Order 57. Datiscaceæ, the Datisca Family. Flowers unisexual. Male flowers: perianth three- or four-divided. Stamens three to seven: anthers linear, membranous, dithecal, with longitudinal dehiscence. Female flowers: perianth adherent, three- or four-toothed. Ovary inferior, unilocular; ovules 00, anatropal, attached to three or four parietal placentas; styles, as many as the placentas. Fruit, a one-celled capsule, opening at the apex. Seeds 00, strophiolate, with a reticulated spermoderm; albumen; embryo straight; cotyledons very short; radicle pointing to the hilum. Herbaceous branched plants or trees, with alternate, exstipulate leaves. They are scattered over North America, various parts of Asia, and the south-eastern part of Europe. Some of the plants are said to be bitter, and others of them have purgative qualities. Lindley mentions three genera and four species. Examples: Datisca, Tetrameles.

Order 58. Rhizantheæ, the Rhizogen Family. Flowers usually monœcious or dioecious, sometimes ☿. Perianth more or less perfect, superior, trimerous, tetramerous, or pentamerous: sometimes obsolete or 0. Stamens united, often in a fleshy column, to which the anthers cohere, dithecal, extrorse, opening longitudinally or by pores. Ovary inferior, one- or two-celled; ovules definite or 00. Fruit indehiscent, pulpy, usually unilocular. Seeds, sometimes solitary and pendulous, at other times 00, and attached to parietal placentas; embryo albuminous or exalbuminous. Leafless, scaly, parasitic plants, having a fungus-like appearance. They are never green, but assume a brown, yellow, or purple color. They are composed chiefly of cellular tissue, with a few scalariform or spiral vessels. They are often stemless, and sometimes are furnishod with a creeping rhizome. In their mode of decay they resemble Fungi. Thair seeds present a peculiar appearance, resembling spores rather than true seeds. The nature of their embryo is undetermined, and their place in the natural system is still doubtful. Lindley has placed them in a separate class, intermediate between Thallogens and Endogens. They have been divided by him into three distinct orders: 1. Balanophoraceæ, male flowers pedicellate; stamens, one to three; filaments and anthers both united; ovule solitary, pendulous; fruit, monospermous. 2. Cytinaceæ, flowers in spikes; perianth, three- to six-lobed; anthers sessile on a column, dehiscing by slits; ovules 00, attached to parietal placentas; fruit, polyspermous. 3. Rafflesiaceæ, flowers sessile, solitary; perianth, five-lobed, with calli in its throat; anthers attached to a column, dehiscing by pores; ovules 00, attached to parietal placentas; fruit polyspermous. They are natives chiefly of tropical countries, but some extend into temperate climates. They are found in the East Indies, South America, Cape of Good Hope, and the south of Europe. Lindley enumerates twenty-one genera and fifty-three species. Examples: Balanophora, Cynomorium, Cytinus, Rafflesia.

Species of Rafilesia exhibit the largest flowers known, the perianth being sometimes three feet in diameter, and capable of holding six quarts of liquid. They are all parasitic.

Order 59. Nepenthaceæ, the Pitcher-plant Family. Flowers diœcious. Perianth four-parted, inferior; asstivation imbricated. Male flowers: stamens united in a solid central column; anthers about sixteen, forming a spherical head, extrorse, and with longitudinal dehiscence. Female Flowers: ovary free, four-cornered, four-celled; ovules 00; stigma sessile. Fruit a four-celled, four-valved capsule, with loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds 00, ascending, very minute, fusiform, with a loose testa; nucleus less than the seed, suspended by the chalaza; embryo in the midst of fleshy albumen; cotyledons planoconvex; radicle pointing to the hilum. Herbs, or half-shrubby plants, with alternate leaves, slightly sheathing at the base, having a foliaceous petiole, which forms an ascidium at its extremity, and the lamina in the form of a lid. Natives of swampy ground in the East Indies and China. They have no known properties. The pitchers have been found to contain a solution of binoxalate of potash. Spiral vessels abound in all parts of the pitcher plants; and the woody bundles are without concentric zones. Lindley gives one genus, and six species. Example: Nepenthes.

Order 60. Aristolochiaceæ, the Birthwort Family. Perianth adherent, tubular, three-cleft, regular, or sometimes very irregular; æstivation valvate or induplicate. Stamens six to twelve, epigynous, distinct or gynandrous. Ovary inferior, three- to six-celled; ovules 00, anatropal, horizontal; style simple, short; stigmas radiating, three to six. Fruit dry or succulent, three- to six-celled. Seeds numerous; embryo very minute, at the base of fleshy albumen; cotyledons inconspicuous; radicle next the hilum. Herbs or shrubs, often climbing, with alternate, simple, often stipulate leaves, and solitary axillary flowers. Found in abundance in the warm regions of South America, and growing also in the temperate and cold regions of Europe, Asia, and America. There are eight known genera and 130 species. Examples: Asarum, Aristolochia, Heterotropa.

Asarabacca of the Pharmacopœia consists of the dried leaves of Asarum europneum. A. canadense is known as wild ginger. Aristolochia serpentaria or Virginia snake root, is a valuable medicine. It is to be distinguished from the seneca snake root, Polygala senega. Aristolochia sipho, a well-known North American plant, is called Dutchman’s pipe, from the grotesque similitude of its leaves. Species of this genus were formerly considered efficacious in certain uterine affections. The flowers of some Aristolochias are remarkable for their size and beauty.

Aristolochia clematitis, Birthwort, a highly poisonous species of central Europe. Pl. 58, 59, fig. 10: a rhizome, with the lower part of the stem; b, upper part of the plant; c, flower enlarged, partly in section; d, cross-section of the flower; e. do. of ovary; f, seed vessel in longitudinal section; g, a seed; h and i, do. in transverse and longitudinal sections; k, embryo magnified.

A. serpentaria, Virginia snake root (pl. 58, 59, fig. 12); a the entire plant; b, a seed.

A. sipho, Dutchman’s pipe, United States (pl. 58, 59, fig. 11).

Order 61. Santalaceæ, the Sandalwood Family. Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with entire leaves; the four- to five-cleft calyx valvate in the bud, its tube coherent with the one-celled ovary, which contains two to four ovules (consisting of a cellular nucleus, destitute of any proper integument) suspended from the apex of a stalk-like free central placenta which rises from the base of the cell, but the (indehiscent) fruit always one-seeded. Embryo small, at the apex of copious albumen; radicle directed upwards; cotyledons cylindrical. Stamens equal in number to the lobes of the calyx, and inserted opposite them into the edge of the fleshy disk at their base. Style one. Found in Europe, Asia, America, and New Holland.

Sandalwood, a highly fragrant wood, is derived from Santalum album and other Indian and Polynesian species. North American species of this family are Comandra umbellata (Toad Flax) and Pyrularia oleifera or Buffalo nut, common in the southern United States. Santalum myrtifolium, sandalwood (Java) (pl. 69, fig. 8).

Order 62. Nyssaceæ, the Tupelo Family. This differs from the Santalacese in the solitary ovule suspended from the top of the cell. This family is represented in the United States by the sole genus Nyssa, composed of trees remarkable for the adhesion of their fibres, it being almost impossible to split a block of the wood. The naves of carriage wheels are usually made of the wood of Nyssa multiflora, or Gum tree. Southern species are known as Tupelo, Ogeechee lime, &c., the latter term, however, being applied more correctly to the fruit, which is in great request as a preserve.

Order 63. Homaliaceæ, the Homalia Family. Perianth funnel-shaped, with five to fifteen divisions, and having usually alternating petaloid segments, and glands or scales in front of the outer divisions. Stamens perigynous, either single or in parcels of three or six, alternating with the outer divisions of the perianth; anthers dithecal, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary partly adherent to the tube of the perianth, one-celled; ovules numerous, anatropal, pendulous, attached to two, three, or five parietal placentas; styles three to five, simple, filiform, or subulate. Fruit either baccate or capsular. Seeds small, ovate; embryo in the axis of fleshy albumen; cotyledons leafy; radicle superior. Trees or shrubs with alternate leaves, having deciduous stipules. It contains tropical plants, which do not possess any important properties. Lindley mentions eight genera, including thirty species. Examples: Homalium, Nisa.

Order 64. Samydaceæ, the Samyda Family. Perianth four- to five-divided, usually colored inside; aestivation somewhat imbricate. Stamens inserted into the tube of the perianth, two, three, or four times as many as its divisions, either all fertile, or the alternate ones sterile, shorter, and fringed; filaments monadelphous at the base; anthers erect, ovate, two-celled. Ovary free, one-celled; ovules 00, attached to parietal placentas, semi-anatropal; style one, filiform; stigma capitate or slightly lobed. Fruit a coriaceous, unilocular, three- to five-valved capsule, partially dehiscent. Seeds 00, fixed irregularly on the pulpy inner surface of the valves, with a fleshy arillus, and a hollowed hilum; embryo large, in the midst of oily or fleshy albumen; cotyledons ovate, foliaceous; radicle pointing to the extremity remote from the hilum. Trees or shrubs, with alternate, simple, stipulate leaves, usually having pellucid, round, or linear markings. Natives of tropical regions, chiefly in America. There are five known genera, and eighty species. Examples: Samyda, Casearia.

Order 65. Chailletiaceæ, the Chailletia Family. Perianth five-parted, with an incurved valvate aestivation. Stamens inserted into the base of the perianth, five inner fertile opposite the segments of the perianth, five outer sterile, petaloid, usually with glands at their base; anthers ovate, versatile, dithecal. Ovary free, two- to three-celled; ovules twin, pendulous; styles two to three, distinct or combined; stigmas capitate or obscurely two- lobed. Fruit dry, one-, two-, or three-celled. Seeds solitary, pendulous, exalbuminous; embryo thick; cotyledons fleshy; radicle superior. Trees or shrubs, with alternate, stipulate leaves, and axillary peduncles, often cohering to the petiole. They are natives of the warm parts of Africa and South America. The fruit of Chailletia toxicaria is said to be poisonous. There are four genera, and ten species known. Examples: Chailletia, Tapura.

Order 66. Aquilariaceæ, the Aquilaria Family. Perianth coriaceous, imbricate or tubular, limb four- to five-lobed; aestivation imbricate. Stamens usually ten fertile, alternating with ten sterile, in the form of petaloid scales, sometimes eight or five; filaments inserted into the orifice of the perianth, often united; anthers dithecal, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary free, ovate, compressed, two-celled; ovules two, suspended, anatropal; stigma usually sessile, large and simple. Fruit a pyriform, sessile, or stipitate two-valved capsule, or drupaceous and indehiscent. Seeds two, one on each placenta; pendulous; albumen: cotyledons fleshy; hemispherical, radicle straight, superior. Trees, with alternate or opposite, entire, stalked, and exstipulate leaves. They are natives of the tropical regions of Asia. There are six genera noticed, including ten species. Examples: Aquilaria, Gyrinopsis.

Order 67. Thymelæaceæ, the Mezereum Family, Perianth tubular, colored, four-, rarely five-cleft, inferior; occasionally with scales in its orifice; aestivation imbricate. Stamens perigynous, definite, often eight, sometimes four or two, and then opposite the segments of the perianth; anthers dithecal, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary free, one celled; ovule suspended, anatropal; style one; stigma undivided. Fruit either nut-like or drupaceous. Seed solitary, pendulous; albumen 0, or thin and fleshy; embryo straight; cotyledons plano-convex, or somewhat lobed and shrivelled; radicle superior. Shrubby, rarely herbaceous plants, with alternate, or opposite, entire, exstipulate leaves. Natives of various parts of the world, both in warm and temperate regions. There are two sections of the order: 1. Daphneæ, with hermaphrodite or rarely unisexual flowers, and plano-convex cotyledons. 2. Hernandieæ, with polygamous flowers, and lobed and shrivelled cotyledons. Lindley enumerates thirty-eight genera, including three hundred species. Examples: Daphne (Thymelsea), Passerina, Pimelea, Gnidia, Lagetta, Exocarpus, Hernandia, Inocarpus, Dirca.

The inner bark of Lagetta lintearia exhibits a beautifully reticulated appearance, whence its name Lacebark. The fibrous bark of Dirca palustris is very tough, and is used by the Indians for thongs. This species, known as Leather wood and Wicopy, represents the only North American genus of the family.

Daphne mezereum, the Mezereon, Europe and Northern Asia (pl. 58, 59, fig. 14); a, a branch with flowers; b, perianth laid open; c, stamen; d, section of ovary; e, a branch with leaves and fruit; f, fruit in longitudinal section; g, embryo: h (to the right of 14a), seed.

Order 68. Penæeaceæ, the Sarcocol Family. Perianth colored, salver-shaped, with a four-lobed limb, and with two or more bracts at its base persistent. Stamens perigynous, either four or eight, alternate with the lobes of the perianth; anthers dithecal, introrse. Ovary superior, four-celled; ovules usually in pairs, collateral, anatropal, ascending or suspended; style simple; stigmas four. Fruit a four-celled, four- valued capsule. Seed erect or pendulous; testa brittle; hilum with a fungus-like aril; nucleus a fleshy mass, without distinction of albumen or embryo. Shrubs, with opposite, entire, exstipulate leaves. They are found at the Cape of Good Hope. They have no known properties of importance. The gum-resin called Sarcocol is said to be produced on the perianth of Penaea sarcocolla, and other species. There are two sections of this order: 1. Penæeæ, æstivation valvate, stamens four, connective fleshy, ovules ascending. 2. Geissolomeæ, æstivation imbricate, stamens eight, connective not fleshy, ovules suspended. There are three known genera, and twenty-one species. Examples: Penæa, Geissoloma.

Order 69. Elæagnaceæ, the Oleaster Family. Flowers usually unisexual, rarely hermaphrodite. Male flowers amentaceous, with two to four leaves forming the perianth; stamens three, four, or eight; anthers nearly sessile, dithecal, introrse, and dehiscing longitudinally. In the female and hermaphrodite flowers, perianth tubular, persistent, with an entire or two- to four-toothed limb. Disk fleshy. Ovary superior, one-celled; ovule solitary, ascending, on a short funiculus, anatropal; style short; stigma simple, suludate, glandular. Fruit a crustaceous achasnium, inclosed within the enlarged succulent perianth. Seed ascending; embryo straight, surrounded by thin fleshy albumen; cotyledons fleshy; radicle inferior. Trees or shrubs, with alternate or opposite entire exstipulate leaves, which are often covered with scurfy scales. They are found in all parts of the northern hemisphere. Examples: Hippophae, Elgeagnus, Shepherdia. Of this latter genus there are two species in the United States: S. canadensis, and S. argentea or Buffalo berry, furnishing a pleasant acid fruit.

Elgeagnus angustifolia. Oleaster (Europe and Asia) (pl. 58, 59, fig. 13); a, flowering branch; b, flower with an abortive pistil, and displayed or laid open; c, anther; d, a fertile flower displayed; e, pistil; f, vertical section of the tube of the perianth and of the pistil; g, a ripe fruit; h, vertical section of do.; i, a leaf showing the scurfy stellated hairs; k, a scurf scale much magnified.

Order 70. Proteaceæ, the Protea Family. Perianth more or less deeply four-divided; estivation valvate. Stamens pcrigynous, four (one sometimes sterile), opposite the segments of the perianth; anthers dithecal, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary single, superior, unilocular; ovules single or in pairs, anatropal or amphitropal; style simple; stigma undivided, discoid. Fruit dehiscent or indehiscent. Seed exalbuminous, sometimes winged; embryo straight, cotyledons two or more; radicle inferior, next the hilum. Shrubs or small trees, with hard, dry, opposite, or alternate, exstipulate leaves. They are natives principally of Australia and the Cape of Good Hope. The order has been divided into two sections: 1. Nucumentaceæ, with nucumentaceous indehiscent fruit. 2. Folliculares, with follicular dehiscent fruit. Lindley mentions forty-four genera, including 650 species. Examples: Protea, Persoonia, Grevillea, Hakea, Banksia, Dryandra.

The plants of this order exhibit great diversity of appearance, and are in much request as ornamental shrubs. The fruit Guevina avellana yields the Chilian nut, called Avellano.

Protea speciosa, Sugar-bush, Cape of Good Hope (pl. 60, 61, fig. 1): head of flowers.

Banksia serrata, New Holland (pl. 60, 61, fig. 2): a, the cone of flowers; b, a flower: c, follicle.

Order 71. Myristicaceæ, the Nutmeg Family. Flowers unisexual: perianth trifid, rarely quadrifid, in the female deciduous; æstivation valvate. Stamens, three to twelve; filaments combined into a cylinder; anthers united or distinct, dithecal, extrorse, dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary free, composed of one or more carpels, unilocular; ovule solitary, erect, anatropal; style very short; stigma somewhat lobed. Fruit succulent, one-celled, two-valved. Seed solitary, usually covered by a laciniated arillus; embryo small, orthotropal, at the base of ruminate albumen; cotyledons foliaceous: radicle inferior. Trees with alternate, exstipulate, entire, not dotted leaves. Natives of the tropical regions of Asia and America. There are five known genera, and between thirty and forty species. Example: Myristica.

The most important genus of this order is Myristica, from which the nutmeg is obtained. The principal species, M. moschata, is a native of the Moluccas, but cultivated in many tropical countries. The fruit is a drupe, opening by two valves when ripe, and exhibiting a reticulated arillus, known as mace. Within this is a hard shell, enveloping the kernel or nutmeg. One tree will sometimes yield six pounds of nutmeg. Nutmeg butter or fat is a concrete oil obtained by expressing the fruit.

Myristica moschata, nutmeg (pl. 60, 61, fig. 3): a, a branch with fruit; b, ditto, with flowers; m, the seed; k, vertical section;  h, ditto, with the embryo: i, cross-section.

Order 72. Lauraceæ, the Laurel or Bay Family. Perianth, with four or six divisions, which are usually in two rows, the limb sometimes obsolete; æstivation imbricate. Stamens perigynous, definite, often twice as many as the divisions of the perianth, and arranged usually in two rows, those of the inner row (often three) being frequently sterile (staminodia), while those of the outer (often six in number) are fertile; if the inner stamens are fertile they are extrorse, while the outer are introrse; filaments of the inner row, often with glands at their base; anthers, two- to four-celled, cells opening by longitudinal valves. Ovary superior, unilocular; ovule solitary, pendulous; style simple; stigma obtuse. Fruit baccate or drupaceous, naked or covered by the enlarged perianth, peduncle of the fruit sometimes becoming fleshy. Seed solitary, pendulous; albumen; embryo inverted; cotyledons large, plano-convex, peltate near the base; radicle very short, superior; plumule conspicuous. Trees with exstipulate, alternate, rarely opposite leaves; sometimes twining, parasitic, and leafless herbs or under-shrubs. They are natives chiefly of the tropical regions of Asia and America. Few are found in Africa. The order has been divided into two sub-orders: 1. Laureæ, true Laurels, trees with leaves. 2. Cassytheæ, Dodder-laurels, climbing parasitic plants, without leaves.

The more elaborate arrangement of this family by Nees d’Esenbeck, gives the following sub-orders: 1. Cinnamomeæ. Example: Cinnamomum. 2. Camphoreæ. Example: Camphora. 3. Phœbeæ. Example: Phœbe. 4. Perseæ. Example: Persea. 5. Cryptocaryeæ. Examples: Cryptocarya, Adenostemon. 6. Acrodiclidieæ. Example: Aydendron. 7. Nectandreæ. Example: Nectandra. 8. Dicypellieæ. Example: Petalanthera, 9. Oreodaphneæ. Example: Oreodaphne. 10. Flaviflores. Examples: Sassafras, Benzoin. 11. Tetrantherecæ. Examples: Laurus, Tetranthera. 12. Daphnidieæ. Example: Daphnidium. 13. Cassytheæ. Example: Cassytha.

Plants of this family yield many products of importance. Camphor is a solid volatile oil, sublimed from the distillation of the wood of Camphora oflicinarum, a native of China and Japan. The cinnamon of commerce is the dried, inner bark from the young twigs of Cinnainomum zeylanicum, indigenous in Ceylon. The ripe fruit yields an oil, known as cinnauion suet, and camphor is distilled from the roots. Cassia bark and buds are furnished by C. cassia. The Avocado, or the alligator’s pear, is the fruit of Persea gratissima. Bebceru-bark is obtained from Nectandra rodioei, a native of British Guiana. Its timber is used in ship-building, under the name of Green-heart. Well-known inhabitants of North America are Sassafras officinale (Laurus sassafras) or sassafras, and Benzoin odoriferum (L. benzoin) or spice-bush. The Victor’s Laurel of the ancients is the Lauras nobilis.

Camphora officinarum (L. camphora), the camphor-tree (pl. 58, 59, fig. 15, ac).

Cinnamomum zeylanicum (L. cinnamomum), the cinnamon tree (pl. 58, 59, fig. 16); c, bark; d. structure of the bark; e, perianth externally; f, the same externally; g, stamen; h, pistil; i, fruit; k, sexual apparatus; l, stamen. Fig. 16, b, bark of C. cassia.

Laurus nobilis, the Victor’s Laurel (Mediterranean coast) (pl. 58, 59. fig. 17); a, branch with flowers; b, umbel with male flowers; c, female flowers; d, fruit; e, male flowers magnified; f, stamen; g, do. with two- to three-lobed valves; h, female flower magnified; i, fruit partly in section; k, a cotyledon.

Order 73. Begoniaceæ, the Begonia Family. Flowers unisexual. Perianth colored, having usually four divisions in the male flowers, and five or eight in the female, some veins; smaller than others; æstivation imbricate. Stamens 00, distinct, or united into a solid column; anthers collected in a head, dithecal, with a thick connective, and longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary adherent to the tube of the perianth, winged, three-celled, with three placentas meeting in the axis: ovules 00, anatropal; stigmas three, sessile, two-lobed, somewhat spirally twisted. Fruit a membranous, triangular, winged capsule, dehiscing below in a loculicidal manner. Seeds 00, minute; testa thin and reticulated; albumen: embryo oblong; radicle next the hilum. Semi-succulent herbaceous plants and undershrubs, with alternate oblique leaves, having large scarious stipules. They are sometimes called Elephant’s ear, from the form of the leaves. They are natives of warm countries, as the East and West Indies, and South America. The stomata on the lower side of the leaves of many of the species of Begonia are arranged in clusters, and exhibit a beautiful appearance under the microscope. There are three genera and 159 known species. Example: Begonia. Plants of this genus are favorites with American horticulturists.

Order 74. Polygonaceæ, the Buckwheat Family. Perianth inferior, divided, often colored; æstivation imbricate. Stamens definite, inserted into the bottom of the perianth; anthers with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary free, usually formed by three carpels, unilocular; ovule solitary, orthotropal; styles and stigmas equal to the carpels in number. Fruit a nut, usually triangular, naked or covered by the persistent perianth. Seed erect; albumen farinaceous; embryo anatropal, generally on one side, sometimes in the axis of the albumen; radicle superior. Herbaceous, rarely shrubby plants, with alternate, stipulate, or exstipulate leaves, and often unisexual flowers. They are found in almost all parts of the world, more especially in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. They grow in fields, waste grounds, ditches, mountains, &c. The order has been divided into two tribes: 1. Polygonesæ with loose flowers, embryo usually abaxial, ochreate stipules. 2. Eriogoneæ, with involucrate flowers, embryo axial, leaves generally exstipulate. Lindley enumerates twenty-nine genera, including 490 species. Examples: Polygonum, Rumex, Rheum, Eriogonum.

The species of the typical genus Polygonum are inconspicuous in appearance, and generally stigmatized as worthless weeds. A common species growing in damp yards and other localities, is called smart-weed (P. hydropiper) from its intense acridity. It is said to drive away the small red ant when laid in places infested by this animal. Some species, as P. sagittatum, form almost impenetrable growths in meadows, on account of the sharp-toothed prickles along the angular stem and leaves. The common Buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum, is, in all probability, a native of Northwestern China, and was not known in Europe before the sixteenth century. Species of Rumex form the sheep sorrel of old fields. The most important genus is Rheum or Rhubarb, the root rhubarb being furnished by many species indigenous to Siberia, Thibet, Northern China, and the Himalaya Mountains. Rheum compactum and rhaponticum have acid petioles, in much request for making pies.

Rheum palmatum. Rhubarb (pl. 60, 61, fig. 4); a, the root; b, the stem; cf, flowers and fruit in different states.

Order 75. Phytolaccaceæ, the Pokeweed Family. Perianth four- to five-partite. Stamens usually perigynous, indefinite, or equal to the segments of the perianth, and alternate with them. Ovary of one or several carpels, distinct or combined; ovule one in each carpel, ascending or erect; styles equal to the carpels in number, terminal or lateral; stigmas simple or divided. Fruit fleshy and dry, indehiscent, sometimes samaroid. Seeds solitary, erect or ascending; embryo straight or curved; albumen mealy or; radicle next the hilum. Undershrubs or herbs, with alternate, entire leaves, which are often dotted. They are natives both of tropical and warm countries, and are found in America, Asia, and Africa.

Sub-order 1. Petiverlaceæ. Cotyledons convolute. Leaves stipuled. Tropical America.

Tribe 1. Petiverieæ. Embryo straight or slightly curved, perisperm none or much reduced. Examples: Sequieria, Petiveria.

Tribe 2. Rivineæ. Embryo annular, inclosing a mealy perisperm. Examples: Mohlana, Rivina.

Sub-order 2. Phytollaccineæ. Seeds ascending, cotyledons plane, leaves exstipulate.

Tribe 3. Limeæ. Testa of membranous grains. South African plants. Examples: Limeum, Gaudinia, &c.

Tribe 4. Phytolacceæ. Testa of crustaceous grains. Plants seldom extra-tropical. Examples: Phytolacca, Ercilla, Giesekia, Microtea, &c. The most important North American plant of this family is Phytolacca decandra or Pokeberry. The young shoots are boiled as greens, and the rich purple juice of the berries has been used as red ink, and also in the coloration of wines. The ashes of the young plants contain a large amount of potash.

Order 76. Chenopodiaceæ, or Antriplices, the Goosefoot Family. Perianth deeply divided, sometimes tubular at the base, persistent without bracts; æstivation imbricate. Stamens inserted into the base of the perianth or hypogynous, opposite to its segments, and equal to them in number, or fewer. Ovary single, superior, or sometimes cohering to the tube of the perianth, one-celled; ovule solitary, attached to the base of the cell; style two- to four-divided; stigmas simple. Fruit membranous, indehiscent, inclosed in the calyx, sometimes fleshy. Seed erect or resupinate; embryo curved, round farinaceous albumen; often like a horse-shoe, or spiral, or doubled together without albumen; radicle next the hilum. Herbs or undershrubs, with alternate, sometimes opposite, exstipulate leaves, and hermaphrodite or unisexual flowers. They are found in almost all parts of the world, but do not abound in the tropics. Most of the plants are inconspicuous weeds. There are sixty-seven known genera, and 372 species.

Moquin Tandon has divided this family into seven tribes arranged under two sub-orders, the first, with the embryo curved round the albumen (Cyclolobeæ); the other with a spiral embryo and no albumen (Spirolobeæ).

A. Cyclolobeæ

Tribe 1. Anserineæ. Stem unjointed, with membranous flat leaves. Flowers hermaphrodite, all of the same form. Pericarp free. Seed with two integuments, the outer usually crustaceous. Examples: Chenopodium, Beta, Ambrina, Blitum, &c.

Tribe 2. Spinacieæ. Stem like the last. Flowers polygamous or diclinous; males different from the females, or the calyx often reduced to two valves with the fruit compressed, most often free. Seed with a single or double integument. Examples: Atriplex, Spinacia, Obione, Acnida, &c.

Tribe 3. Camphorosmeæ. Stem and leaves generally like the last, the leaves rarely fleshy and semicylindrical. Flowers hermaphrodite or polygamous. Pericarp free. Tegument of the seed simple. Examples: Kochia, Camphorosma, &c.

Tribe 4. Corisperrneæ. Stem unjointed, with coriaceous, flat, linear leaves. Flowers hermaphrodite, all of the same form. Pericarp adherent. Seed embraced by a simple integument which is compounded with the pericarp. Examples: Anthochlamys, Corispermum.

Tribe 5. Salicornieæ. Stem jointed, often leafless. Flowers hermaphrodite, all of the same form, lodged in cavities of the rachis or in the articulations. Pericarp free or adherent. Seed with one or two integuments. Example: Salicornia.

B. Spirolobeæ

Tribe 6. Suædineæ. Stem unjointed, with leaves usually fleshy and vermicular. Flowers hermaphrodite, all similar. Pericarp free, rarely adherent. Seed with two integuments, the outer crustaceous. Embryo coiled in a flat spiral. Examples: Suæda, Schangina, &c.

Tribe 7. Salsoleæ. Stem jointed or not, with leaves usually cylindrical and fleshy. Flowers hermaphrodite, similar. Pericarp thin, scarcely free. Tegument of the seed simple and membranous. Embryo in a helicoid or conical spiral. Examples: Salsola, Kali, Brachylepis.

Some prominent American genera are Salsola, Suaeda, Salicornia, Chenopodium, &c. The ashes of many species furnish carbonate of soda, especially Salsola, Salicornia, and Kochia. The mustard seed of Scripture is Salvadora persica. The common beet. Beta vulgaris, indigenous along the coast of the Mediterranean, belongs to this family; as also Spinacia oleracea or Spinach, and the Peruvian quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa. The American Chenopodiums are known as Lamb’s quarter and Goose-foot.

Beta vulgaris, common Beet (pl. 60, 61, fig. 5); d, root with a radical leaf; b, a group of flowers; c, a fruit.

Order 77. Amaranthacæ, the Amaranth Family. Perianth three- to five-partite, hypogynous, scarious, persistent, usually with two bractlets at the base. Stamens hypogynous, either five and opposite the segments of the perianth, or double that number, distinct, or united, sometimes partly abortive; anthers either dithecal or monothecal. Ovary superior, single, one-celled; ovules solitary or several, amphitropal, hanging from a free central funiculus; style one or; stigma simple or compound. Fruit a utricle or a caryopsis, rarely baccate. Seeds lentiform, pendulous; testa crustaceous; embryo peripherical; albumen farinaceous; radicle next the hilum. Herbs and shrubs, with simple, opposite, or alternate exstipulate leaves; flowers in heads or spikes, usually hermaphrodite. They are natives of tropical and temperate regions. There are thirty-eight known genera, and 282 species. Examples: Amaranthus, Achyranthes, Celosia, Deeringia, Gomphrena.

The plants of this family are of little economical importance; the leaves of some species furnish a great amount of mucilage. Three fourths of all the species are tropical, most of them American. Iresine and Amaranthus are North American representatives. A. hypochondriacus is a common garden flower, known as Prince’s feather. Celosia cristata or Cock’s comb, a native of China, is frequently cultivated for purposes of ornament.

Celosia cristata, Cock’s comb (pl. 60, 61. fig. 6); c, a flower magnified.

Order 78. Nyctaginaceæ, the Marvel of Peru Family. Perianth tubular, colored, contracted in the middle, becoming indurated at the base; limb entire, or toothed and deciduous; æestivation plicate. Stamens definite, hypogynous; anthers dithecal. Ovary superior, one-celled; ovule solitary, erect; style one; stigma one. Fruit a caryopsis, inclosed within the enlarged persistent tube of the perianth. Embryo pcripherical; albumen farinaceous; cotyledons foliaceous; radicle inferior. Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with opposite, often unequal, sometimes alternate leaves, and involucrate flowers. They are natives principally of warm regions. Lindley notices fourteen genera, including one hundred species. Examples: Mirabilis (Nyctago). Boerhaavia, Pisonia.

The plants of this order have purgative qualities. Mirabilis jalapa was at one time considered to be the true Jalap plant. Some species of this genus are known as Four-o’clocks, from their blossoming at nearly that hour of the afternoon.

Mirabilis longifolia (Mexico) (pl. 60, 61, fig. 8); a, upper part of the plant; b, stamens and pistil at the bottom of the perianth; c, ovary; d, filament; e, upper part of the style with the stigma; f, nut; g, vertical section; h, embryo.

Sub-Class 2. Corollifloræ
I. Plate 62: Members of the Acanthus, Olive, Verbena, Mint, Figwort and Mightshade Families
Engraver: Wilhelm Wagenschieber
I. Plate 63: Plants of Several Families which Contain Toxic Compounds, Especially of the Order Polemoniales
Engraver: Henry Winkles
I. Plate 64: Plants with a Resinous or Milky Sap
Engraver: Wilhelm Wagenschieber
I. Plate 65: Plants Brewed as Teas and Representatives of the Umbelliferæ, Some Poisonous
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Calyx and corolla present; petals united, bearing the stamens. This sub-class includes the Monopetalas of Jussieu, and the Gamopetalæ of Endlicher.

Order 79. Plantaginaceæ, the Plantain Family. Calyx four-parted, persistent; æstivation imbricate. Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, scarious, persistent, with a four-parted limb. Stamens four, inserted into the corolla, and alternate with its segments; filaments long, filiform, folded inwards in the bud; anthers dithecal, versatile. Disk inconspicuous. Ovary free, two- to four-celled; ovules solitary, or in pairs, or 00: style simple, capillary; stigma hispid, simple, rarely bifid. Fruit an operculate capsule, inclosed within the persistent corolla. Seeds sessile, peltate, or erect; spermoderm mucilaginous; embryo in the axis of fleshy albumen, transverse; radicle inferior. Herbs, which are often stemless, with radical ribbed leaves, and spiked hermaphrodite flowers, or solitary unisexual ones. The species are chiefly found in temperate and cool regions. There are three genera noticed by Lindley, including 120 species. Examples: Plantago, Littorella.

The genus Plantago or plantain, is represented by several species in the United States, one of which (P. major), like the hive bee, appears to accompany man in all his migrations.

Plantago major, common plantain, cosmopolite (pl. 60, 61, fig. 7): a, the entire plant; b, a flower; c, the corolla tube opened; d, the pistil; e, the pericarp; f, the same opened; g, a seed; h, transverse section of ditto.

Order 80. Plumbaginaceæ, the Leadwort Family. Calyx tubular, persistent, sometimes colored; csstivation plaited. Corolla monopetalous. or pentapetalous, regular. Stamens five, hypogynous when the corolla is gamopetalous, attached to the base of the petals when they are separate. Ovary free, one-celled; ovule solitary, pendulous from a funiculus which arises from the bottom of the cell; styles five, seldom three or four, each bearing a subulate stigma. Fruit a utricle. Seed pendulous; spermoderm simple; embryo straight, in the axis of mealy albumen; radicle superior. Herbs or underslirubs, with alternate or fjisciculate exstipulate leaves, somewhat sheathing at the base; flowers panicled or capitate. They inhabit the sea-shore and salt marshes, chiefly in temperate regions. There are two sections of this order: 1. Plumbagineæ, with a synpetalous corolla and connate styles. 2. Staticeæ, with a pentapetalous corolla and distinct style. Lindley mentions eight genera and one hundred and sixty species. Examples: Plumbago, Statice, Armeria.

Plumbago europea. Tooth wort. Southern Europe (pl. 60, 61, fig. 9): a, upper part of the plant; b, portion of a leaf magnified; c, calyx magnified; d, section of flower tube; e, stamens and pistil; f, anther magnified; g, section of the ovary showing the ovule with its long funiculus.

Order 81. Primulaceæ, the Primrose Family. Calyx rarely four-cleft, inferior, or half superior, regular persistent. Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, rarely perigynous, with the limb five- rarely four-cleft, sometimes 0. Stamens inserted on the corolla, equal in number and opposite to its segments. Ovary free, rarely adherent to the base of the calyx, one-celled; ovules 00, amphitropal; style one; stigma capitate. Fruit a capsule, opening with valves, or with a lid. Seeds numerous, peltate, attached to a free central placenta; embryo straight, inclosed within fleshy albumen, and lying across the hilum. Herbaceous plants, with leaves usually opposite, and frequently radical, exstipulate; flowers on simple or umbellate scapes. They are natives chiefly of temperate and cold regions in the northern hemisphere; some occur in elevated stations in warm countries.

Sub-order 1. Primuleæ. Pod entirely free from the calyx, opening by valves. Examples: Primula, Dodecatheon, Trientalis, Lysimachia, Cyclamen, &c.

Sub-order 2. Anagallideæ. Pod free from the calyx, opening all round by a transverse line, the top falling off by a lid. Example: Anagallis.

Sub-order 3. Samoleæ. Pod half adherent to the calyx. Example: Samolus.

Sub-order 4. Hotonieæ. Pod opening by valves. Seeds fixed by the base, anatropous. Example: Hottonia.

All the genera above enumerated are found in the United States, except Cyclamen. This is known in Europe as sow-bread, on account of the partiality shown to the tuberoid, partly subterraneous stems, by hogs. The cowslip and the primrose are respectively Primulea veris and vulgaris; the oxlip P. elatior.

Anagallis arvensis, Pimpernel, indigenous in Europe, introduced into America (pl. 60, 61, fig. 10): a, the plant; b, the calyx magnified; c, portion of the corolla magnified; d, stamen; e, pistil; f, pod, showing the manner of opening; g, a seed magnified; h, transverse section of ditto.

Lysimachia vulgaris. Loose-strife, Europe (pl. 60, 61, fig. 13): a, branch with flowers; b, extremity of calyx-lobe magnified; c, stamens; d, capsule in the calyx; e, a seed; f and g, transverse and longitudinal section of ditto.

Cyclamen europæum, Sow-bred (pl. 60, 61, fig. 12): a, the plant; b, calyx and pistil; c, a portion of the corolla, with two stamens; d, a stamen magnified; e, cross-section of the anther; f, vertical section of the ovary; g, pericarp; h, a seed magnified.

Dodccatheon intcgrifolium, American cowslip, United States (pl. 60, 61, fig. 11): a, lower part of the plant; b, scape; c, stamens separated; d, pistil; e, fruit.

Order 82. Lentibulariaceæ, the Bladdcr-wort Family. Calyx inferior, divided, persistent. Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, irregular, bilabiate, usually spurred. Stamens two, inserted into the base of the corolla, and included; anthers monothecal, sometimes contracted in the middle. Ovary free, composed of two carpellary leaves, unilocular; ovules 00, anatropal; placenta free, central; style one, very short; stigma bilamellar. Fruit a one-celled capsule, dehiscing transversely, or by an apicilar cleft. Seeds numerous, minute, exalbuminous; embryo somethnes undivided; radicle next the hilum. Aquatic or marsh herbaceous plants, with radical leaves, which are sometimes compound, and bear little bladders or ampullæ. Flowers often on scapes. They are found in all parts of the world, and abound in the tropics. Lindley enumerates four genera, including one hundred and seventy-three species. Examples: Utricuhiria, Pinguicula.

Order 83. Acanthaceæ, the Acanthus Family. Calyx with four or five divisions, equal or unequal, occasionally multifid, or entire and obsolete, persistent. Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, usually irregular, with the limb ringent or bilaluate, or rarely unilabiate, sometimes nearly equal, deciduous. Stamens inserted on the corolla, usually two, sometimes four, didynamous, the shorter ones being occasionally sterile; anthers one- or two-celled, with longitudinal dehiscence. Disk glandular. Ovary free, two-celled: placentas adhering to the axis; ovules two or more in each cell, curved; stylo one: stigma two-lobed, rarely entire. Fruit a two-celled capsule, dehiscing by two elastic valves, in a loculicidal manner. Seeds two or many in each cell, sometimes solitary, roundish, attached to hard, persistent, hooked or subulate, ascending processes of the placenta; testa loose; albumen: embryo curved or straight; cotyledons large, leafy; radicle cylindrical, next the hilum. Herbaceous plants or shrubs, with opposite, exstipulate, simple leaves, and bracteated flowers, two or three large leafy bracts accompanying each flower. They abound in tropical regions. The order has been divided into three tribes by Nees d’Esenbeck, as follows:—

Tribe 1. Thmibergieæ: placental processes, in the form of a hard cup supporting the seed. Example: Thunbergia.

Tribe 2. Nelsonieæ: placental processes contracted into a papilla, bearing the small and pitted seed. Example: Nelsonia.

Tribe 3. Echniatncanthi. Placental processes hooked. Of this tribe there are seven sections. 1. Hygrophiles. Example: Hygrophila. 2. Ruellieæ. Examples: Dipteracanthus, Ruellia. 3. Barlerieæ. Example: Barleria. 4. Acantheæ. Example: Blepharis. 5. Justicieæ. Example: Justicia. G. Dicliptereæ. Example: Blechum. 7. Andrographideæ. Example: Erianthera. Prominent genera of the United States are Dianthera and Dipteracanthus. There are about 105 genera, and 750 species in the entire family, according to Lindley.

Acanthus mollis. Bear’s claw (Southern Europe) (pl. 62, fig. 2); a, portion of the flower, showing the stamens and the two lateral bracts; b, anther; c, pistil; d, seed vessel; e. section of the seed.

Ruellia formosa (pl. 62, fig. 1); a, calyx; b, pistil.

Order 84. Verbenaceæ, the Vervain Family. Calyx tubular, persistent, inferior. Corolla monopetalous, tubular, hypogmous, deciduous, limb usually irregular; æstivation imbricated. Stamens usually four, didynamous, rarely equal, sometimes two. Ovary free, two- to four-celled; ovules usually four, erect or pendulous, anatropal or amphitropal; style one, terminal; stigma bifid or entire. Fruit nucamentaceous or baccate, composed of two or four achænia united. Seeds one to four; albumen or fleshy; embryo straight: radicle cither inferior or superior. Trees or shrubs, rarely herbs, with opposite or alternate exstipulate leaves. The order has been divided into three sub-orders:—1. Myoporineæ, anthers two-celled, seed pendulous, radicle superior; natives of the southern parts of America and Africa, and of Australia. 2. Verbeneæ, anthers two-celled, seed erect, radicle inferior; natives both of the tropical and temperate regions of America, and found also in Asia and Europe. 3. Selagineæ, anthers one-celled, seed pendulous, radicle superior; natives chiefly of the Cape of Good Hope, but some are European. There are seventy-five known genera, and upwards of 770 species. Examples: Myoporum, Avicenna, Verbena, Vitex, Tectona, Selago, Globularia.

Some American representatives of this family are Verbena, Phryrma, and Lippia. The fragrant Verbena of horticulturists is the Aloysia citriodora. Tectona grandis furnishes the teak wood of India.

Vitex agnus castus (Europe) (pl. 62, fig. 5, a–i).

Order 85. Labiatæ. the Mint Family. Calyx tubular, inferior, regular or bilabiate, persistent. Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, bilabiate; upper lip entire or bifid, lower three-lobed. Stamens four, didynamous, sometimes two by abortion, inserted into the corolla, and alternate with the lobes of the lower lip; anthers two-celled, or one-celled by abortion, or by absorption of the septum; connective sometimes large and distractile. Disk fleshy. Ovary free, deeply four-lobed: ovules four: style one, basilar; stigma bifid, usually acute. Fruit consisting of one to four achsenia, inclosed within the persistent calyx. See Is erect; albumen either 0, or in small quaility; embryo erect; cotyledons flat; radicle inferior. Herbs or undershrubs, with tetragonal stems, opposite exstipulate leaves, and cymose inflorescence, the flower being often in verticillasters. Linnæus looked upon the fruit as naked seeds, and hence included many of the plants in the order Gymnospermia of his Didynamous class. They are natives chiefly of temperate regions. Lindley mentions 125 genera, including 2,350 species.

Tribe 1. Ocimoideæ. Stamens declined. Ex.: Lavandula.

Tribe 2. Menthoideœ. Stamens straight or diverging. Tube of the corolla hardly exceeding the calyx, with four or five nearly equal divisions. Ex.: Isanthus, Mentha, Lycopus.

Tribe 3. Monardeæ. Stamens ascending; the superior, abortive, or synantherous: the inferior with linear anthers united or halved. Ex.: Salvia, Monarda, Blephilia.

Tribe 4. Satureineæ. Stamens straight, diverging or slightly ascending; the inferior longest. Anthers not bifid. Tube of the corolla without the ring, scarcely exceeding the calyx and the imbricated bracts; the limb slightly bilabiate, with flat divisions. Ex.: Cunila, Thymus, Origanum, &c.

Tribe 5. Melissineæ. Stamens ascending; the inferior longest. Corolla bilabiate with fiat divisions (upper lip rarely arched). Calyx generally traversed by thirteen nervures, bilabiate. Ex: Hedeoma, Melissa, &c.

Tribe 6. Scutellarineæ. Stamens ascending; the inferior longest. Corolla bilabiate; upper lip arched. Upper lip of the calyx entire or truncate. Ex.: Prunella, Scutellaria.

Tribe 7. Prostanthereæ. Stamens diverging or ascending, the lower longest or abortive. Anthers often dimidiate. Corolla with the tube short, campanulate above, the flat divisions disposed nearly in two lips. Achaenia coriaceous, reticulated, with the style persistent. Plants entirely Australasian. Ex.: Chilodia, &c.

Tribe 8. Nepeteæ. Superior stamens projecting most. Ex.: Lophanthus, Nepeta, Dracocephalum, Cedronella.

Tribe 9. Stachydeæ. Stamens ascending, the inferior longest. Corolla bilabiate. Calyx not thirteen nerved. Achaenia dry, almost smooth. Ex.: Synandra, Lamium, Galeopsis, Stachys, Betonica, Ballota, &c.

Tribe 10. Prasieæ. Stamens ascending, the inferior the longest. Corolla bilabiate. Achrenia fleshy. Ex: Prasium, &c.

Tribe 11. Ajugordeæ. Stamens ascending, projecting considerably beyond the upper lip, which is very short or bifid, or declined; achienia with reticulated furrows. Ex.: Teucrium, Trichostema.

Most of the genera adduced above represent this order in the United States. Plants of the order Labiatæ are generally fragrant and aromatic, none of them poisonous or injurious. Various species of Mentha or Mint yield volatile oils. Peppermint is M. piperita; Spearmint, M. viridis; and Pennyroyal, M. pulegiura. Lavender is obtained from various species of Lavandula, one of which (Spica latifolia) furnishes oil of spike. Sweet marjoram is Origanum majorana; hoarhound, Marrubium vulgare; thyme, a species of Thymus; savory, of Satureia; sage, of Salvia; basil, of Ocymum. The patchouli perfume is derived from Pogostemon patchouli.

Galeopsis tetrahit. Hemp-nettle (United States and Europe) (pl. 62, fig. 7): a, calyx; b and c, corolla; d, fruit calyx; e, a nut.

Betonica officinalis (Europe) (pl. 62, fig. 6). The various figures to all of which 6 is attached need no special explanation.

Order 86. Scrophulariaceæ, the Figwort Family. Calyx divided into four or five parts, unequal, persistent, inferior. Corolla monopetalous, more or less irregular and bilabiate, or personate, sometimes spurred or saccate at the base; æstivation imbricate. In the bud, the flovrers are regular. Stamens usually 4, didynamous, rarely 5, sometimes 2; anthers bilocular or unilocular by abortion or adhesion. Ovary free, two-celled; ovules usually 00; style simple; stigma two-lobed, rarely entire. Fruit capsular, rarely fleshy, dicarpellary, two-celled, two- to four-valved, opening by septicidal or loculicidal dehiscence, rarely by pores or lids, the dissepiments becomnng finally loose in the centre. Placentas attached to the dissepiment, and sometimes in the mature fruit becoming central. Seeds definite or 00; embryo straight or slightly curved, included within fleshy albumen. Herbs, undershrubs, or shrubs, with opposite, whorled, or alternate leaves. They are found generally distributed over the globe, both in cold and warm regions. The order has been divided by Bentham into three sections:

Sub-order 1. Salpiglossideæ. Segments of the corolla equal with induplicate or bilabiate æstivation, the biloped lip external. Inflorescence centrifugal. This suborder contains but a single tribe—1. Salpiglossecæ. Examples: Duboisia, Schizanthus. Principally South American.

Sub-order 2. Antirrhinideæ. Corolla bilabiate, the bilobed lip external. Inflorescence centripetal or compound. Tribe 2. Calceolarieœ. Example: Calceolaria. Tribe 3. Verbasceæ. Examples: Yerbascum, Celsia. Tribe 4. Hemimerideæ. Examples: Alonsia, Colpias, &c. Tribe 5. Antirrhinieæ. Examples: Linaria, Antirrhinum. Tribe 6. Cheloneæ. Examples: Chelone. Collinsia, Pentstemon, Scrophularia. Tribe 7. Escobedieæ. Examples: Alectra, Escobedia, &c. Tribe 8. Gratioleæ. Examples: Diplacus, Conobæa, Gratiolo, Ilysanthus, Hemianthus, Herpestis.

Sub-order 3. Rhinanthideæ. Corolla bilabiate, the bilobed lip never exterior in gestivation. Inflorescence centripetal or compound. Tribe 9. Sibthorpiem. Examples: Sibthorpia, Limosella. Tribe 10. Buddleieæ. Example: Bryodes. Tribe 11. Digitaleæ. Examples: Digitalis, Synthyris. Tribe 12. Veronicæ. Example: Veronica. Tribe 13. Buchnereæ. Example: Buchnera. Tribe 14. Gerardieæ. Examples: Seymeria, Gerardia. Tribe 15. Euphrasieæ. Examples: Castilleja, Schwalbea, Euphresia, Rhinanthus, Pedicularis, Melampyrum.

Most of the above-m.entioned genera have North American representatives. The entire order, according to Lindley, contains 176 genera and 1814 species. Some plants of the order are poisonous. The most important medicinal species is Digitalis purpurea, or Fox-glove. The common Mullein (Yerbascum thapsus) has been introduced into America from Europe, as also Linaria vulgaris, Toad-flax, an abundant yellow weed.

Calceolaria corymbosa, Slipperwort (Chili) (pl. 62, fig. 9); c, calyx; d, vertical section of flower.

Digitalis purpurea, purple Fox glove (Europe) (pl. 62, fig. 8); A, extremity of stalk: B, central portion of do.; a, inside of the flower (in part) magnified, with the stamens: b and c, anthers: d, calyx with pistil; e, seed vessel; f, do. burst open: g, do. in cross-section; h, placenta; i, seed; k, a seed magnified; l and m, sections of do.

Verbascum thapsus, Mullein (Europe) (pl. 62, fig. 10); b, calyx; c, corolla with the five stamens; d, smooth stamen; e, hairy stamen.

Pedicularis palustris, Lousewort (Europe) (pl. 60, 61, fig. 15); a, upper part of the plant; b, root; c, lower lip of the corolla; d, section of the corolla with the stamens; e, pistil.

Veronica officinalis, Speedwell (central Europe) (pl. 60, 61, fig. 14).

Order 87. Orobancheæ, the Broom-rape Family. Calyx divided, persistent, inferior. Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, irregular, usually bilabiate, persistent; æstivation imbricated. Stamens four, didynamous. Disk fleshy. Ovary free, one-celled, composed of two carpels which stand fore and aft, with two or more parietal placentas; ovules 00; style one; stigma two-lobed, each of the lobes belong half to each carpel. Fruit capsular, inclosed within the withered corolla, one-celled, two-valved. Seeds 00, minute; embryo very minute, at one end of fleshy albumen. Herbaceous parasitical plants, having scales in place of leaves. They are natives of Europe, more especially the southern parts, and of Asia, North America, and the Cape of Good Hope. Lindley gives twelve genera, and 116 species. Examples: Orobanche, Lathnpa, Epiphegus, Conopholis, Aphyllon.

The plants of this order are generally destitute of green foliage, with lurid yellowish or brownish scales instead. They are mostly parasitic on the roots of various other species.

Lathrsæa squamaria (Europe) (pl. 60, 61, fig. 16); upper and lower part of the plant; a and b, calyx; c, corolla; d, anthers; e, pistil; f, pericarp, &c.

Order 88. Solanaceæ, the Nightshade Family. Calyx inferior, five-, rarely four-partite, persistent. Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, with the limb five-, rarely four-cleft, regular, or somewhat unequal, deciduous; æstivation plicate or imbricated. Stamens inserted on the corolla, equal in number to the corolline sehments, and alternate with them: anthers with longitudinal or porous dehiscence. Ovary usually two-celled, sometimes four-, five-, or many-celled; ovules indefinite; style continuous; stigma simple. Fruit with two, four, or more cells, rarely unilocular; either a capsule dehiscing in a septicidal or circumscissile manner, and having a double dissepiment parallel to the valves, or a berry with the placentas adhering to the dissepiment, or a nuculanium with five or more nucules. Seeds 00; embryo straight or curved, often excentric, lying in fleshy albumen; radicle next the hilum. Herbs or shrubs, with alternate leaves. Natives of most parts of the world, but abundant in the tropics. The order has been divided into two sections, which are not, however, well defined.

A. Curvembryeæ

(Embryo curved, with semi-cylindrical cotyledons.)

Tribe 1. Nicotianæ. Capsule bilocular, separating into two valves by septicidal dehiscence. Examples: Nicotiana, Petunia.

Tribe 2. Daiureæ. Capsule or berry incompletely four-locular. Example: Datura.

Tribe 3. Hyoscyameæ. Capsule bilocular, opening by a circular slit. Example: Hyoscyamus.

Tribe 4. Solaneæ. Berry two-celled or more, or fruit dry, indehiscent. Examples; Nicandra, Physalis, Solanum, Lycopersicum, Atropa, Capsicum, Mandragora, &c.

B. Rectembryeæ

(Embryo straight, cotyledons foliaceous.)

Tribe 5. Cestrineæ. Berry bilocular. Example: Oestrum.

Tribe 6. Vestieæ. Capsule bilocular. Examples: Vestia, Sessea.

Of the entire order, there are about sixty-six genera and 950 species. Many of these occur in the Americas. The general qualities of Solanaceæ are narcotic, which, when developed to a great degree, impart highly poisonous properties. Some of these are Solanum dulcamara (Bittersweet), Atropa belladonna (Belladonna), Hyoscyamus niger (Henbane), Datura stramonium (Jimson weed), Nicotiana tabacum (Tobacco.) The most important plant of this order is the potatoe (Solanum tuberosum). This invaluable tuber is indicrenous to the South American Cordilleras, whence it was brought to Europe, and ultimately distributed all over the world. It is now cultivated in Europe as far north as Hammerfest in Lapland, lat. 71°., and in the Faroes, as also in the lower plateaus of India, in China, Japan, Australasia, and New Holland. The precise period of its introduction into Europe is unknown, towards the end of the sixteenth century in all probability; it was first carried from Virginia to Ireland in 1586. Other species of Solanum (S. melongena, and ovigerum,) furnish the Melongena or egg plant. The Tomato is the fruit of Lycopersicum esculentum. As already mentioned, species of Nicotiana furnish tobacco. The one generally cultivated in the United States is N. tabacum; the best Havannah cigars are made from N. repanda. Syrian, Turkish, and Persian tobacco are furnished by different species. The mandrake of English authors is the forked root of Mandragora officinalis. The Cayenne peppers or Chillies are derived from species of Capsicum.

Hyoscyamus niger, Henbane (Europe) (pl. 63, fig. 1); a, the corolla opened and reduced; b, pistil; c, pericarp; d, cross-section of do.; e, a seed.

Nicotiana tabacum. Tobacco (pl. 62, fig. 11); A, top of the plant; B, an inferior and C a superior leaf; a, an opened flower; b, capsule; d, do. burst; e, a cross-section of do.

Datura stramonium, Jimson weed (corruption of Jamestown weed) (East Indies) (pl. 63, fig. 2); a, corolla opened; b, pistil; c, cross-section of the pod; d, a seed magnified.

Atropa belladonna. Belladonna (Europe) (pl. 63, fig. 3); a, expanded corolla; b, anther; c, pistil; d, stigma magnified; e, fruit; f, cross-section of do.; g, seed; h, vertical section of do.

Solanum dulcamara. Climbing nightshade (Europe) (pl. 63, fig. 4).

Capsicum annuum, Cayenne pepper (South America) (pl. 63, fig. 5).

Order 89. Boraginaceæ, the Borage Family. Calyx persistent, four- to five-divided. Corolla gamopetalous, hypogynous, usually regular, five-, rarely four-cleft; æstivation imbricated. Stamens inserted on the corolla, equal in number to its segments and alternate with them. Ovary usually four-lobed, quadrilocular; ovules four, each attached to the lowest point of the cavity, amphitropal; style simple, basilar (terminal in Ehretieae and Heliotropieæ); stigma simple or bifid. Fruit consisting of two to four distinct achsenia (succulent and consolidated in Ehretieæ.) Seed exalbuminous, or with thin albumen; radicle superior; cotyledons plano-convex. Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with terete stems, alternate rough, exstipulato leaves, and flowers generally in scorpioidal (gyrate) cymes. On account of the asperities in the leaves, the plants have sometimes been called Asperifoliæ.

Sub-order 1. Ehretieæ. Style terminal. Almost entirely tropical. Tribe 1. Tournefortieæ. Seeds with a perisperm. Examples: Ehretia, Tournefortia, &c. Tribe 2. Hetiotropeæ. Seeds without perisperm. Examples: Heliotropium, Schleidenia.

Sub-order 2. Boragineæ. Style gynobasic. No perisperm. Inhabitants of temperate regions. Tribe 3. Anchuseæ. Carpels adnate to the receptacle. Examples: Onosmodium, Echyum, Lycopsis, Symphytum, Mertensia, Lithospermum, Myosotis, &c. Tribe 4. Cynoglosseæ. Carpels adnate to the base of the style. Examples: Cynoglossum., Echinospermum.

The genera adduced of the two last tribes all have North American species. There are in the entire order about 67 genera and 200 species. Some species of Heliotropium are eminent for their fragrance. Alkanet root, which yields reddish-brown die. is the product of Anchusa tinctoria. Myosotis palustris is the Forget-me-not. Mertensia (Pulmonaria) virginica, or Lungwort, is one of our earliest spring flowers.

Borago officinalis, Borage, Europe and Asia (pl. 63, fig. 6); a. calyx with pistil; b, division of corolla with stamen; c, one of the scaly appendages of the corolla; d, a stamen; e, ditto from before: f, the nutlets; g, one of these magnified.

Order 90. Cordiaceæ, the Cordia Family. Calyx four- or five-toothed, inferior. Corolla monopetalous, four- or five-cleft, regular. Stamens inserted on the corolla, alternate with its segments; anthers versatile. Ovary free, four- to eight-celled; ovules solitary, pendulous, anatropal; style continuous; stigma four- to eight-cleft. Fruit drupaceous, four- to eight-celled. Seed exalbuminous, pendulous from the apex of the cell by a long funiculus, upon which it is turned back; radicle superior; cotyledons plaited longitudinally. Trees with alternate, rough, exstipulato leaves, and panicled flowers. They are chiefly natives of warm countries. Some yield edible fruits; their bark is occasionally bitter, tonic, and astringent, and their wood is used for various economical purposes. The succulent mucilaginous fruits of Cordia myxa, and sebestena receive the name of Sebesten Plums. There are 11 genera enumerated by Lindley, including 180 species. Examples: Cordia, Yarronia.

Order 91. Convolvulaceæ, the Convolvulus Family. Calyx five-divided, persistent, imbricated, often bracteated. Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, deciduous, regular; limb five-lobed, with a plaited or imbricated æstivation; tube sometimes with scales, alternate with the lobes of the limb. Stamens five, inserted in the base of the corolla, and alternate with its lobes. Disk annular, hypogynous. Ovary free, two- to four-celled, rarely by abortion one-celled; ovules definite, erect, when more than one, collateral; style one, usually bifid, rarely two; stigmas obtuse or acute. Fruit succulent or capsular, one- to four-celled, with septifragal and septicidal, or circumscissile deliiscence. Seeds albuminous; embryo curved or spiral; cotyledons corrugated or inconspicuous; radicle inferior. Herbs or vshrubs, usually twining, sometimes parasitical, often with a milky juice, and with alternate, undivided, or lobed, exstipulate leaves, rarely leafless. They occur chiefly in tropical and temperate regions. The order has been divided into two sub-orders.

Sub-order 1. Convolvideæ, true Bindweeds, leafy plants with the corolline tube not scaly, embryo curved, cotyledons conspicuous.

Sub-order 2. Cuscuteæ, Dodders, leafless parasites, having scales on the corolline tube, embryo spiral and filiform, cotyledons inconspicuous. There are forty-five genera and upwards of 700 species. Examples: Catystegia, Convolvulus, Ipomoea, Exogonium, Dichondra, Cuscuta.

This order contains plants of considerable economical importance. Jalap is obtained from Exogonium purga (Convolvulus jalapa) a native of Mexico; Convolvulus scammonia yields scammony. The root of Batatas edulis (Convolvulus batatas) is known as the sweet potatoe.

Exogonium purga, Jalap plant, Mexico (pl. 63, fig. 7); a, pistil; b, capsule; c, a seed.

Order 92. Hydrophyllaceæ, the Water-leaf Family. Herbs, commonly hairy, with mostly alternate and cut-lobed leaves, regular five-merous, and five-androus flowers, as in the Borage Family, but the ovary ovoid and entire, one-celled, with two parietal few- or many-ovuled placentas, which usually project into the cell, and often line it like an interior pod. Style two-cleft above. Pod globular, two-valved, few-seeded. Seeds reticulated or pitted, amphitropous, with a minute embryo in cartilaginous albumen. Flowers chiefly blue or white, in one-sided cymes or racemes, which are coiled from the apex when young; pedicels bractless. Examples: Hydrophyllum, Phacelia, Eutoca. All North American.

Order 93. Diapensiaceæ, Mountain-box Family. Dwarf and tufted, somewhat shrubby plants (only two in number), with small and evergreen heath-like foliage, the fruit agreeing with Polemoniaceæ. as do the flowers, except in the following points, viz. Calyx of five separate and strongly imbricated persistent sepals, like the bracts. Stamens five, inserted in the very sinuses of the bell-shaped corolla; filaments short and flat; anthers opening transversely across the cells on the inside. Style single, stigma minutely three-lobed. Examples: Diapensia and Pyxidanthera, both low, evergreen shrubs. Diapensia lapponica is found in the Alpine summits of Mounts Washington, and Marcy or Tahawus.

Order 94. Polemoniaceæ, the Phlox Family. Calyx inferior, five-divided, persistent, sometimes irregular. Corolla regular, rarely irregular, five-lobed. Stamens five, inserted on the middle of the tube of the corolla, and alternate with its segments; pollen often blue. Disk lobed: ovary free, three-celled; ovules anatropal or amphitropal; style simple; stigma trifid. Fruit, a three-celled, three-valved capsule, with septifragal dehiscence. Seeds angular, or oval, or winged, often enveloped in mucus, containing spiral threads, ascending in a single or a double row; embryo straight, in the axis of a fleshy or horny albumen; cotyledons foliaceous, elliptical, or cordate; radicle inferior, next the hilum. Herbaceous or climbing plants, with opposite or alternate, simple or compound leaves. They inhabit temperate countries chiefly, and they abound in the north-western part of America. There are 17 genera enumerated by Lindley, including 104 species. Examples: Polemonium, Phlox, Cobaea.

Polemonium cœruleum, Jacob’s Ladder, Europe (pl. 63, fig. 8); a, the corolla expanded; b, calyx; c, pistil; d, capsule; e, cross-section of ditto; f, a seed.

Order 95. Bignoniaceæ, the Bignonia Family. Calyx divided or entire, sometimes spathaceous. Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, usually irregular, four- or five-lobed. Stamens five and unequal, or four and didynamous, some of them occasionally sterile; anthers bilocular. Disk annular or glandular. Ovary superior, one- or two-celled, each cell being often spuriously divided; ovules indefinite; style one; stigma bilamellar, or two- to four-cleft, or entire. Fruit, a two-celled (sometimes spuriously four-celled) and two-valved capsule, occasionally succulent. Placentas, parietal, sometimes extending to the centre, and forming a spurious dissepiment, which finally separates, bearing the seeds. Seeds winged or wingless, often flat and compressed, exalbuminous; embryo straight; radicle next the hilum. Trees, shrubs, or herbs, with opposite, rarely alternate, exstipulate leaves. They abound generally in tropical regions, but some of them are widely distributed. The order has been divided into four sub-orders:

Sub-order 1. Bignonieæ, capsule two-valved, two-celled, sometimes spuriously four-celled, with a dissepiment parallel or contrary to the valves, at length free, bearing the seeds, which are transverse, compressed, and winged.

Sub-order 2. Cyrtandreæ (Didymocarpeæ), fruit succulent or capsular, or siliquose and two-valved; seeds small, ovate, or cylindrical, suspended, apterous, sometimes comose.

Sub-order 3. Crescentieæ, fruit woody and melon-shaped, inclosing large seeds which are immersed in the pulp of the placentas.

Sub-order 4. Pedalieæ, fruit drupaceous, rarely capsular and two-valved, spuriously many-celled; seeds few, large, and apterous, pendulous, erect, or transverse. These are reckoned separate orders by many. There are upwards of one hundred known genera and about 650 species. Examples: Bignonia, Tecoma, Catalpa, Spathodea, Eccremocarpus, Cyrtandra, Didymocarpus, Crescentia, Pedalium, Sesamum, Martynia.

The Bignonia Family embraces many species of great beauty. The most conspicuous North American forms are Tecoma (T. radicans, or Trumpet Creeper) and Catalpa (C. bignonioides, Catalpa, or Catawba tree), both well-known plants, the former a climber, conspicuous for its showy crimson flowers, the latter a tree with large heart-shaped leaves.

Jacaranda tomentosa, Mexico (pl. 63, fig. 9).

Bignonia leucoxylon, Antilles (pl. 63, fig. 10); a, the calyx; b, portion of the corolla tube laid open; c, pistil; d, side of the stigma.

Order 96. Gentianaceæ, the Gentian Family. Calyx gamosepalous, usually five-divided, sometimes four-, six-, eight-, or ten-divided, persistent. Corolla gamopetalous, hypogynous, usually regular and marcescent; limb sometimes fringed, divided into as many lobes as the calyx; æstivation plaited or imbricate-twisted. Stamens inserted upon the corolla, alternate with its segments, and equal to them in number, some of them occasionally abortive. Ovary composed of two carpels, unilocular, or partially bilocular; ovules 00, anatropal; style one, continuous; stigmas, one or two. Fruit, capsular or baccate, one-celled, usually bivalvular, with septicidal, or rarely loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds 00, small; embryo straight, minute, in the axis of soft, fleshy albumen; radicle next the hilum. Herbs, seldom shrubs, with opposite, rarely alternate, entire or divided, exstipulate leaves, which are often three- to five-ribbed. The plants of the order are distributed generally over the globe, inhabiting both cold and warm regions. They are rare in arctic and antarctic islands. They exhibit great varieties of colors, and many are highly prized for their beauty.

Sub-order 1. Gentianeæ. Lobes of the corolla, twisted to the right in the bud, with the folds at the sinuses, when present, plaited. Leaves almost always opposite or whorled, entire, those of the stem sessile. Tribe 1. Chironieæ. Anthers without connective, with the cells opening by a slit, abbreviated into a pore. Examples: Chironia, Lapithea, &c. Tribe 2. Chloreæ. A connective. Style distinct, caducous. Examples: Sabbatia, Erythraea, &c. Tribe 3. Lisiantheæ. A connective. Style persistent, distinct from the double or simple stigmata. Tropical plants, almost exclusively American. Examples: Pagœa, Prepusa, &c. Tribe 4. Swertieæ. A connective. Stigmata sessile or confluent with the persistent style. Plants inhabiting northern latitudes or the summits of mountains. Examples: Gentiana, Bartonia, Halenia, Frasera.

Sub-order 2. Menyanthideæ. Lobes of the corolla valvate in the bud, with the edges turned inwards. Stem-leaves alternate, petioled. Seed coat hard or bony. Plants growing in wet places. Examples: Menyanthes, Limnanthemum.

Sub-order 3. Obolarieæ. Lobes of the corolla imbricated in the bud. Leaves opposite, sessile. Ovules covering the whole inner surface of the ovary. Example: Obolaria.

Lindley assigns 60 genera and about 450 species to the order Gentianaceæ. Most of the genera indicated above have North American representatives.

Gentiana pneumonanthe, common gentian, Europe (pl. 63, fig. 11): a, calyx; b, corolla displayed; c, capsule; d, a seed magnified; e, seed.

Order 97. Loganiaceæ. Calyx, four- or five-leaved, with æstivation imbricate or combined with valvate. Corolla hypogynous, with the limb four- or five-fid, the division similarly valvate or imbricated. Stamens inserted on the tube of the corolla, equal and alternate, or reduced to one. Anthers introrse, bilocular, opening longitudinally. Ovary free, of two cells, sometimes subdivided, each into two others, by the reflexion of their walls, each inclosing one or more ovules fixed at the internal angle, ascending, or more frequently peltate. Style simple, terminated by an undivided, or more rarely, bilobed stigma. Fruit fleshy or capsular, with septicidal dehiscence, rarely septifragal. Seeds often winged or peltate, presenting in the axis of a fleshy or cartilaginous perisperm, an embryo with plano-convex, or foliaceous cotyledons, the cylindrical radicle turned towards the hilum, or parallel to it. Species almost entirely tropical. Trees or shrubs, rarely herbs, distinguished from the Apocyanese by their watery juice, and the stipules which usually unite the petioles of the opposite and simple leaves. Flowers solitary in the axils of these leaves, or grouped in corymbs, in axillary or terminal panicles.

Sub-order 1. Strychneæ. Æstivation of corolla valvate; fruit, a two- or three-celled berry or capsule, seeds peltate, embryo rather large. Examples: Strychnos, Curare, &c.

Sub-order 2. Loganieæ. Æstivation of corolla convolute; fruit a bilocular capsule or nuculanium, seeds peltate, sometimes winged. Examples: Logania, Gelsemium.

Sub-order 3. Spigelieæ. Æstivation of corolla valvate; fruit a didymous capsule, seeds apterous, embryo small, cotyledons inconspicuous. Examples: Spigelia, Coelostylis, Mitreola.

The plants of this order embrace the most virulent poisons known. One of these, Strychnos nux-vomica, a tree found on the coasts of Malabar and Coromandel, has for its seeds the deadly nux-vomica. The fruit is much like an orange, the seeds being embedded in a mucilaginous pulp. Two alkaloids are obtained from the nux-vomica, strychnine and brucine, occurring in combination with igasuric or strychnic acid. Strychnine is also found in other species of Strychnos. The poison, called tieutè, used by the Malays to envenom their daggers and creases, is obtained from Strychnos tieutè. The wourali, or ourari, with which the South American Indians poison their arrows, likewise owes its properties to strychnine. False angustura bark is obtained from the nux-vomica tree. Less than a grain of strychnine has been known to kill a dog. This poison is used to advantage in North America, for killing wolves and other wild animals, by spreading it on pieces of meat laid in accessible and frequented places. Spigelia marilandica, or Pink-root, is employed as a vermifuge.

Spigelia marilandica, Pink-root, United States (pl. 63, fig. 12).

Order 98. Apocyanaceæ, the Dogbane Family. Calyx usually five-partite, persistent. Corolla hypogynous, gamopetalous, regular, usually five-lobed, deciduous; æstivation contorted, twisting in some cases to the right, in others to the left. Stamens five, inserted on the corolla, alternate with its segments; filaments distinct; anthers two-celled, dehiscing longitudinally; pollen granular, globose, or three-lobed, immediately applied to the stigma. Ovaries two, and each unilocular, or one and bilocular; ovules 00; styles two or one; stigma one, with a contraction in the middle. Fruit follicular or capsular, or drupaceous or baccate, double or single. Seeds 00, rarely definite, usually pendulous; albumen cartilaginous, or fleshy, rarely; embryo foliaceous; radicle turned towards the hilum. Trees or shrubs, usually lactescent, with entire, generally opposite, exstipulate leaves, with interpetiolary cilia or glands. They are chiefly found in tropical regions. Lindley enumerates 100 genera, including 566 species.

Sub-order 1. Carisseæ. Ovary single, bilocular, or unilocular, with placentas parietal and corresponding to the suture of the carpels. Fruit baccate, very rarely capsular. Example: Carissa.

Sub-order 2. Ophioxyleæ. Ovary double, fruit drupaceous. Examples: Ophioxylon, Cerbera.

Sub-order 3. Euapocyaneæ. Ovary double. Fruit follicular; follicles often fleshy or pulpy. Tribe 1. Plumerieæ. Seeds without hairs, often peltate. Examples: Hunteria, Tabernaemontana, &c. Tribe 2. Alstonieæ. Follicles coriaceous; seeds peltate, ciliate; ciliæ elongated, forming a kind of coma at the two ends of the seeds. Example: Alstonia. Tribe 3. Echiteæ. Follicles coriaceous or membranous, distinct or rarely united so as to constitute a single capsule. Seeds comatose towards the hilum or point of attachment. Examples: Apocynum, Nerium.

Sub-order 4. Wrightieæ. Seeds comatose at the apex. Example: Wrightia.

The sole representative of this order in the northern part of North America is the genus Apocynum or dogbane, supposed to be poisonous to dogs. Many plants of the order are poisonous, although a few yield edible fruits. The Tanghin poison of Madagascar is obtained from the seeds of Tanginia venenata. Even the common Oleander (Nerium) is poisonous. Species of Urceola and Vahea supply caoutchouc. The juice of Tabernæmontana utilis, the Cow tree of Demerara, is used as milk.

Nerium oleander, Oleander (Europe and Asia) (pl. 63, fig. 13); a, anther; b, pistil; c, a seed.

Order 99. Asclepiadaceæ, the Milkweed Family. Calyx five-divided, persistent. Corolla synpetalous (monopetalous), hypogynous, regular, five-lobed, deciduous; aestivation imbricate, rarely valvate. Stamens five, inserted into the base of the corolla, and alternate with its segments; filaments usually combined so as to form a tube; staminal tube rarely naked behind, generally furnished with a corona (crown) of variously-formed leaves, which are either distinct or connate. Anthers bilocular, each cell sometimes spuriously divided; pollen, when the anther dehisces, cohering in masses (pollinia), which are either as numerous as the cells, or are confluent in pairs, and adhere to the five stigmatic processes, either in sets of two or four, or singly. Ovaries two; ovules 00; styles two, closely approaching each other, often very short; stigma common in both styles, dilated, quinquangular; the angles furnished with cartilaginous corpuscles which retain the pollinia, or with glands. Fruit consisting of two follicles (sometimes only one by abortion), having a placenta on the ventral suture. Seeds 00, imbricate, pendulous, usually comose (hairy) at the hilum; albumen thin; embryo straight; cotyledons leafy; radicle superior. Shrubs, or occasionally herbs, usually with milky juice, and often twining. The leaves are usually opposite, sometimes alternate or verticillate, with interpetiolary cilia in place of stipules. The gynostegium, staminal crown or peculiar hooded (cucullate) appendages, prolonged from the tube of the filaments, which occur in many of the plants of this order, give a peculiar aspect to their flowers. They inhabit chiefly warm and tropical regions, but many species extend to northern climates. Many succulent species are found in the south of Africa. Lindley enumerates 141 genera, including 910 species.

Tribe 1. Ceropegieæ. Pollinia upright. Examples: Ceropegia, Hoya, Stapelia. Tribe 2. Gonoloheæ. Pollinia horizontal. Example: Gonolobus. Tribe 3. Oxypetaleæ. Pollinia pendent, supported by winged processes, with a lateral spur. Example: Calostigma. Tribe 4. Asclepieæ. Pollinia pendent. Examples: Asclepias, Acerates, Enslenia. Tribe 5. Periploceæ. Pollinia granular. Granules four-lobed. Example: Periploca. Tribe 6. Secamoneæ. Anthers four-locular, pollinia twenty, applied by fours to the summit of the corpuscles. Example: Secamone.

The milky juice with which plants of this order abound, is usually bitter and acrid, sometimes mild, as in the Cow plant of Ceylon, Gymnema lactiferum. The wax plant of greenhouses (Hoya carnosa) derives its name from the pecuhar appearance of the flowers. The stapelias are remarkable for the odor of the blossoms, which resembles that of rotten flesh. Flesh flies, it is said, are deceived to such an extent by the smell, as to deposit their eggs on the plant. The most conspicuous species of the United States is Asclepias cornuti (A. syriaca) known as silk or milk weed, a plant of some economical value. In certain districts of Europe, as in Silesia, it is cultivated on a large scale. The stem is rotted like hemp, and yields a strong fibre; the long silky hairs attached to the seeds are spun into various fabrics with silk or cotton, or else used in pillows as a substitute for down. Sugar has been extracted from the flowers, and the juice contains an abundance of caoutchouc. The hairs of the seeds, when properly prepared, afford an excellent gun-cotton, much superior to that from true cotton.

Cynanchum vincetoxicum (Europe) (pl. 64, fig. 1); a, flower branch; b, natural size of the flower; c, process of the stigma; d, section of the ovary; e, pollen mass; f, pistil; g, seed vessels; h, seed; i, vertical section of do.

Asclepias cornuti (A. syriaca). Milkweed (United States) (pl. 64, fig. 2); a, group of flowers; b, corona; c, the calyx; d, stamina; e, segments of corona exhibiting some of the pollinia; f, two attached pollen masses magnified; g, section of the seed vessel; h, a seed; i, vertical section of do.

Order 100. Oleaceæ, the Olive Family. Flowers ☿, sometimes ♁ ♀. Calyx gamosepalous, divided, persistent. Corolla gamopetalous, hypogynous, four-cleft, sometimes of four petals which are connected in pairs by means of the filaments, sometimes; æstivation somewhat valvate. Stamens two (rarely four), alternate with the corolline segments; anthers dithecal, with longitudinal dehiscence. Disk 0. Ovary free, two-celled; ovules in pairs, collateral or pendulous; style one, or; stigma entire or bifid. Fruit drupaceous, baccate or capsular, sometimes samaroid. Seeds often by abortion solitary; albumen dense, fleshy, abundant; embryo straight, about half the length of the albumen; cotyledons leafy; radicle superior. Trees or shrubs, with opposite leaves, which are either simple or compound. Found chiefly in temperate regions. They occur in North America, Asia, Europe, and New Holland. There are two sections of the order: 1. Oleæ, with a drupaceous or berried fruit. 2. Fraxineæ, with a samaroid (winged) fruit. Lindley mentions twenty-four genera, including 130 species. Examples: Olea, Ligustrum, Chionanthus, Fraxinus, Syringa.

The most important plant of this order is the olive, Olea europaea, whose fruit yields olive oil by expression. The best oil comes from Provence and Florence. Castile soap is made from olive oil and soda. Potash and oil make a soft soap. A species (Olea americana) indigenous in the southern United States, is called devilwood. The so-called flowers of tea are, in part, the blossoms of Olea fragrans, a Chinese species. The Lilac, Syringa vulgaris, and the Privet, Ligustrum vulgare, belong to this order, and are both naturalized in some parts of the United States. Chionanthus or the Fringe tree is a very ornamental American species. The timber of Fraxinus or the ash, is highly valuable.

Olea europæa, the Olive (Europe) (pl. 62, fig. 3); a, a flower branch reduced; b, a flower; c, pistil; d, vertical section of do.; e, do. of fruit; f and g, sections of the nut; h, embryo.

Order 101 Jasminaceæ, the Jessamine Family. Flowers ☿, calyx five- to eight-divided or toothed, persistent. Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, regular, salver-shaped, five- to eight-divided; æstivation twisted or valvate. Stamens two, inserted on the corolla, included; anthers bilocular, with longitudinal dehiscence. Disk 0. Ovary free, two-celled; ovules erect, anatropal, one to four in each cell; style one; stigma two-lobed. Fruit a double berry, or a pyxidium, or a two-valved capsule. Seeds usually solitary, rarely in pairs, albuminous or exalbuminous; embryo straight; radicle inferior. Shrubs, often with twining stems, and opposite or alternate, pinnate leaves. They abound chiefly in the tropical parts of India. They have frequently fragrant flowers which yield oils, and their leaves and roots are sometimes bitter. There are five genera and one hundred species. Examples: Jasminum, Nyctanthes, Bolivaria. Species of Jessamine (Jasminum) have become naturalized in the Southern States.

Jasminum officinale (Southern Asia) (pl. 62, fig. 4); a, calyx; b, corolla displayed.

Order 102. Myrsinaceæ, the Myrsine Family. Flowers hermaphrodite or occasionally unisexual. Calyx four- to five-cleft, persistent. Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, four- to five-cleft, equal. Stamens four to five, inserted into the corolla, and opposite to its segments; filaments distinct, rarely united, sometimes 0, occasionally five sterile petaloid alternating ones; anthers sagittate, erect, bilocular, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary free or slightly adherent, unilocular; ovules definite or indefinite, campylotropal, immersed in a free central placenta; style single; stigma simple or lobed. Fruit fleshy, one- or many-seeded. Seeds angular or roundish, with a concave hilum, and a membranous spermoderm; albumen horny; embryo usually curved, often heterotropal; cotyledons short; radicle horizontal when the seed is solitary, inferior when there are several seeds. Trees, shrubs, or undershrubs, with alternate or opposite, coriaceous, exstipulate leaves. They are much restricted as regards their geographical limits, and they are said to abound chiefly in islands with an equable temperature. They are found in Africa, Asia, and America. Little is known regarding their properties. Theophrasta jussiaei is a prickly-leaved shrub, which is called Coco in St. Domingo. Its seeds are eatable, and a kind of bread is made from them. The Ardisias are prized for the beauty of their foliage. There are thirty-one known genera, and 325 species. Examples: Myrsine, Ardisia, Maesa, Jacquinia.

Order 103. Sapotaceæ, the Sapodilla Family. Flowers hermaphrodite. Calyx regular, with five, sometimes four to eight divisions, persistent; æstivation valvate or imbricate. Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, deciduous, regular, its lobes equal to, rarely twice or thrice as many as, those of the calyx. Stamens inserted on the corolla, definite, distinct; fertile ones as many as, rarely more than, the segments of the calyx, with which they alternate; sterile ones alternating with the fertile ones, rarely wanting. Disk 0. Ovary free, plurilocular; ovules solitary, anatropal, ascending or pendulous; style one; stigma simple, sometimes lobed. Fruit fleshy, plurilocular, or by abortion unilocular. Seeds nut-like, solitary; testa bony and shining, with a long scar on its inner face; embryo large, erect, white; albumen usually fleshy; sometimes; cotyledons in the albuminous seeds, foliaceous, in the exalbuminous, fleshy; radicle straight or slightly curved, pointing to the hilum. Lactescent trees or shrubs, with alternate, exstipulate, entire, coriaceous leaves. They are natives chiefly of the tropical parts of India, Africa, and America. The number of known genera noticed by Lindley is twenty-one, species 212. Examples: Isonandra, Achras, &c.

Some species of this family furnish fruit of great excellence, as the Sappodilla plum, and naseberry in the West Indies from species of Achras. Shea butter is probably derived from Bassia parkii. The most important product is Gutta Percha, the concrete juice of Isonandra gutta and perhaps of other species, found in Singapore, Borneo, and Malacca. This substance is rapidly coming into use for a vast variety of purposes, being very tough, softening readily by the heat of boiling water, and sufficiently elastic at ordinary temperatures without being extensible like caoutchouc.

Mimusops dissecta (Manilla) (pl. 64, fig. 3); a, flower branch with the leaves removed; b, flower opened; c, anther; d, a fruit branch; e, a seed.

Order 104. Aquifoliaceæ or Ilicineæ, the Holly Family. Sepals four to six; æstivation imbricated. Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, four to six-parted; æstivation imbricate. Stamens inserted into the corolla, alternate with its segments, and equal to them in number; filaments straight; anthers adnate, bilocular, introrse. Disk 0. Ovary free, fleshy, somewhat truncate, two- to six-celled; ovules solitary, anatropal, pendulous from a cup-shaped funiculus; stigma nearly sessile, lobed. Fruit fleshy, indehiscent, with two to six monospermous nucules, and hence it is sometimes called a nuculanium. Seed suspended; albumen large, fleshy; emoryo small, lying next the hilum; cotyledons small; radicle superior. Evergreen trees or shrubs, with alternate or opposite, coriaceous, simple, exstipulate leaves. They are found in various parts of the world, as in Europe, North and South America, and Africa. Lindley enumerates eleven genera, including 110 species. Examples: Ilex, Prinos, Nemopanthes.

All the above-mentioned genera are North American. The American Holly, Ilex opaca, has less glossy leaves and less brilliant berries than the European, I. aquifolium. The leaves of Ilex paraguayensis constitute the Yerba mate or Paraguay tea.

Ilex aquifolium, European Holly (pl. 71, fig. 6), ag.

Order 105. Ebenaceæ, the Ebony Family. Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual. Calyx three- to seven-divided, nearly equal, persistent. Corolla gamopetalous, regular, deciduous; somewhat coriaceous; limb three- to seven-divided; æstivation imbricated. Stamens either attached to the corolla or hypogynous, two or four times as many as the corolline segments, rarely equal to them in number, and then alternate with them; filaments usually in two rows, the inner row having smaller anthers; anthers erect, lanceolate, bilocular, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary free, sessile, plurilocular; ovules one to two in each cell, pendulous; style divided, rarely simple; stigmas bifid or simple. Fruit fleshy, round or oval, the pericarp sometimes opening regularly. Seeds few; testa membranous; embryo straight, nearly in the axis of cartilaginous albumen; cotyledons leafy; radicle taper, next the hilum. Trees or shrubs, not lactescent, with alternate, exstipulate, coriaceous leaves. They are chiefly found in tropical regions, and many species are met with in India. The plants are in general remarkable for the hardness and durability of their wood. Some yield edible fruit. Diospyros ebenus, and other African and Asiatic species, supply Ebony, which is the black duramen of the tree. Other species of Diospyros furnish Ironwood. Diospyros virginiana, the Persimmon, yields a fruit which is astringent when green, but becomes sweet and eatable when ripe, especially after being acted on by frost. D. kahi is the Keg-fig of Japan, the fruit of which resembles a plum. Lindley notices nine genera, including 160 species. Examples: Diospyros, Royena, Mabsi.

Order 106. Styracaceæ, the Storax Family. Calyx persistent, with an entire or a five- or four-divided limb. Corolla gamopetalous, regular, inserted in the calyx; æstivation imbricated or valvate. Stamens definite or 00, attached to the corolline tube, of unequal length; filaments often slightly united at their base in one or more parcels; anthers innate, dithecal, introrse. Ovary either free or cohering more or less to the calycine tube, two- to five-celled, the septa occasionally deficient towards the centre; ovules, two to four in each cell, or 00, pendulous, sometimes the upper ones ascending; style simple; stigma simple. Fruit inclosed in the calyx, drupaceous, usually unilocular by abortion. Seeds usually solitary, erect, or suspended; embryo slender, in the axis of fleshy albumen; cotyledons flat, foliaceous; radicle long, pointing to the hilum. Trees or shrubs, with alternate, exstipulate leaves, and frequently stellate hairs. They are chiefly natives of warm countries. There are two sections: 1. Styraceæ, with a more or less valvate aestivation of the corolla, and long anthers. 2. Symploceæ, with a quincuncial corolline aestivation, and roundish anthers. Lindley gives 6 genera, including 115 species. Examples: Styrax, Halesia, Symplocos.

Storax, a well-known balsamic, resinous substance, is the concrete juice of Styrax oflicinale, a native of the Mediterranean region. Styrax benzoin, a tree growing in Sumatra and Borneo, furnishes gum benzoin. North American representatives are species of Halesia or Snow-drop tree, found in the southern States.

Styrax benzoin (pl. 64, fig. 4); a, a flowering branch; b, a flower; c, ditto exposed; d, anthers; e, the pistil; f-, section of ovary; g, fruit; h, portion of the pericarp removed, showing the stone; i, the stone with the upper portion removed; k, section of seed.

Order 107. Columelliaceæ, the Columellia Family. Calyx superior, quinquepartite. Corolla rotate, inserted into the calyx, five- to eight-parted; æstivation imbricate. Stamens two, inserted in the throat of the corolla; anthers roundish, three-lobed, extrorse, each consisting of six linear, sinuous cells, arranged in pairs, dehiscing longitudinally, and attached to a three-lobed, fleshy connective. Disk fleshy,, perigynous. Ovary adhering to the calycine tube, two-celled; ovules 00; style simple, smooth; stigma capitate, two-lobed. Fruit, a bilocular. bivalvular capsule, with both septicidal and loculicidai dehiscence. Seeds 00; testa smooth and coriaceous; embryo straight, in the axis of fleshy albumen; cotyledons oval, obtuse; radicle long, pointing to the hilum. Evergreen shrubs or trees, with opposite, entire, exstipulate leaves, and solitary yellow flowers. Natives of Mexico and Peru. Their properties unknown. There is one genus mentioned, including three species. Example: Columellia.

Order 108. Epacridacæ, the Epacris Family. Calyx five-, rarely four-parted, often colored, persistent. Corolla inserted at the base of the calyx, or hypogynous, deciduous or marcescent, monopetalous, sometimes separable into five petals; limb with five, rarely four equal divisions, sometimes by the cohesion of the segments bursting transversely; aestivation imbricated or valvate. Stamens inserted with or on the corolla, equal in number to and alternate with its segments, rarely fewer; anthers one-celled, without appendages, opening longitudinally; pollen round, or formed of three united grains, attached to a single central receptacle. Ovary sessile, free, plurilocular, rarely unilocular, surrounded by scales at the base; ovules solitary or 00; style one; stigma simple, sometimes toothed. Fruit drupaceous, baccate, or capsular. Seeds albuminous; embryo slender, in the axis of fleshy albumen, and about half its length. Shrubs or small trees, with alternate, rarely opposite, exstipulate leaves, which are sometimes half-amplexicaul at the base. They are allied to Ericaceae, and seem to occupy the place of heaths in Australia. They are distinguished from heaths by the structure of their anthers. They are cultivated for the beauty of their flowers. In some cases they yield edible fruits. One of the plants called Native Currant in Australia is Leucopogon richei. The order has been divided into two sections: 1. Epacreæ, polyspermous. 2, Styphelieæ, monospermous. There are 30 known genera and 320 species, according to Lindley. Examples: Epacris, Sprengeha, StypheHa, Leucopogon, Lissanthe.

Order 109. Vacciniaceæ, the Cranberry Family. Calyx superior, entire, four- to six-lobed. Corolla monopetalous, four- to six-lobed; æstivation imbricated. Stamens distinct, eight to twelve, inserted into an epigynous disk; anthers bilocular, with two horn-like cells, dehiscing by pores. Ovary inferior, four- or five-celled; ovules 00; style simple; stigma simple. Fruit succulent, crowned by the persistent limb of the calyx. Seeds one or many in each cell, minute; embryo straight, in the axis of fleshy albumen; cotyledons very short; radicle long, inferior. Shrubby plants, with alternate, undivided, exstipulate leaves. They are closely allied to Ericaceæ, and differ from that order chiefly in their adherent (inferior) ovary. They are natives of temperate regions, and some of them are marsh plants. Some are astringent, others yield sub-acid edible fruits. Cranberries are produced by Vaccinium oxycoccus (Oxycoccus palustris of some authors) and V. macrocarpum. Examples: Vaccinium, Gaylussaccia, Chiogenes. The American Huckleberries, Bilberries, Deerberries, &c., are furnished by various species of Vaccinium, and of Gaylussaccia.

Order 110. Ericaceæ, the Heath Family. Calyx, four- or five-cleft, nearly equal, persistent. Corolla inserted at the base of the calyx, or hypogynous, monopetalous, four- or five-cleft, sometimes tetra- or pentapetalous, regular or irregular, often marcescent; æstivation imbricated. Stamens definite, equal in number to the segments of the corolla, or twice as many, inserted with the corolla, and either free from it or attached to its base; anthers two-celled; ceils hard and dry, bifid, usually having appendages at the base or apex, dehiscing by apicilar pores or clefts. Ovary free, surrounded at the base by a disk or scales, plurilocular; ovules 00, attached to a central placenta; style one, straight; stigma one, undivided or toothed. Fruit capsular or baccate, many-celled, with loculicidal or septicidal dehiscence. Seeds 00, minute; embryo cylindrical, in the axis of fleshy albumen; radicle next the hilum. Shrubs, undershrubs, or herbaceous plants, with evergreen, often rigid, entire, verticillate, or opposite, exstipulate leaves. The order contains many beautiful and showy plants, which abound at the Cape of Good Hope, and which are also found in Europe, North and South America, and Asia. The order has been divided into the following sub-orders:

Sub-order 1. Ericineæ. Calyx free from the ovary. Corolla monopetalous, or rarely nearly or entirely polypetalous. Seed-coat close and thin, rarely loose and cellular. Tribe 1. Salaxideæ. Corolla persistent; cells one-ovuled; anthers unarmed; buds naked. Example: Salaxis. Tribe 2. Ericeæ. Cells many-seeded. Examples: Erica, Calluna. Tribe 3. Arhuteæ. Fruit, a berry or drupe. Examples: Arbutus, Arctostaphylos. Tribe 4. Andromedeæ. Fruit, a pod, opening loculicidally. Examples: Gautiera, Epigaea, Andromeda, Clethra. Tribe 5. Rhodoreæ. Fruit, a pod, opening septicidally. Examples: Rhodora, Azalea, Rhododendron. Kalmia, Loiseleuria, Ledum, Leiophyllum.

Sub-order 2. Pyroleæ. Calyx free from the ovary; petals distinct, or nearly so; seeds with a very loose and cellular covering, much larger than the nucleus; mostly herbaceous, with evergreen foliage. Examples: Pyrola, Chimaphila, Moneses.

Sub-order 3. Monotropeæ. Flowers nearly as in sub-orders one and two, seeds as in three. Entirely destitute of green foliage, with the aspect of Beech drops. Examples: Pterospora, Hypopitys, Monotropa.

The entire order includes about 52 genera and 880 species, many of which are North American. The true heaths are, however, entirely wanting in this continent. The heather of England is composed of Calluna vulgaris. The Rhododendrons, Azaleas, and Kalmias, of North America, are among her most showy plants. Kalmia latifolia, or common Laurel, is said to be poisonous to sheep, but not to deer and pheasants (Tetrao umbellus). Well authenticated cases exist of poisonous effects produced by eating these birds after they had devoured Laurel-buds. Gautiera procumbens, Tea-berry, or Wintergreen, is used to flavor candies and syrups. Chimaphila umbellata, or Pipsissiwa, has medicinal properties. Monotropa uniflora, or Indian pipe, is a singular plant, entirely white and fleshy, found in damp, rich woods.

Erica filamentosa, Cape Heath, Cape of Good Hope (pl. 64, fig. 6); a, a flowering branch; b, anther magnified; c, pistil magnified.

Ledum palustre, Marsh Tea, Northern Europe and America (pl. 64, fig. 5); a, a flowering branch; b, portion of lower surface of leaf magnified; c, calyx and sexual apparatus; d, stamen magnified; e, the stigma; f, open capsule magnified; g, cross-section of ditto; h, seeds on the placenta; i, a seed magnified.

Order 111 Gesneraceæ, the Gesnera Family. Calyx partially adherent, five-partite; æstivation valvate. Corolla monopetalous, tubular, more or less irregular, five-lobed; æstivation imbricated. Stamens four, didynamous, with the rudiment of a fifth, rarely two; anthers dithecal, with a thick swollen connective. Ovary partly free, unilocular, formed by two carpels with parietal placentas, which are two-lobed; ovules indefinite, anatropal; style continuous with the ovary; stigma capitate, concave, glandular or annular. Disk surrounding the base of the ovary. Fruit capsulate or succulent, one-celled, more or less adherent. Seeds 00, minute; testa thin, finely and obliquely veined; embryo erect in the axis of fleshy albumen; radicle pointing to the hilum. Herbs or shrubs, often springing from scaly tubers, with opposite or whorled, rugose, exstipulate leaves, and showy flowers. They are found principally in the warnrer regions of America, and are interesting chiefly on account of their beauty, for they do not appear to possess any important qualities. There are twenty-two known genera and upwards of 120 species. Examples: Gesnera, Columnea, Gloxinia, Achimenes.

Order 112. Lobeliaceæ, the Lobelia Family. Calyx superior, five-lobed or entire. Corolla gamopetalous, inserted on the calyx, irregular, more or less deeply five-cleft. Stamens five, attached to the calyx, alternate with the segments of the corolla; anthers cohering; pollen oval. Ovary inferior, one- to three-celled; ovules 00, attached either to central or parietal placentæ; style glabrous, with a fringe of hairs below the stigma. Fruit a one- or more-celled capsule, with apicilar dehiscence. Seeds numerous; embryo straight, in the axis of fleshy albumen; radicle pointing to the hilum. Lactescent herbs or shrubs, with alternate, exstipulate leaves. They are found both in temperate and warm countries. There are twenty-seven known genera and 375 species. Examples: Lobelia, Siphocampylus, Chntonia.

Acridity characterizes the order to a greater or less extent. Lobelia inflata, or Indian tobacco, is a remedy in great favor with a certain class of practitioners. Other species also, as L. siphilitica, are considered efficacious in some diseases.

Lobelia fulgens (Mexico) (pl. 64, fig. 8); a, upper part of the plant; b, stamens expanded and magnified; c, stamens with the anthers cut across; d, stamens and pistil; e, stigma.

Order 112. Campanulaceæ, the Hare-bell Family. Calyx superior, usually five-lobed, sometimes three- to eight-lobed, persistent. Corolla gamopetalous, inserted into the top of the calyx, usually five-lobed, sometimes three- to eight-lobed, regular, marcescent; æstivation valvate. Stamens inserted into the calyx, alternating with the corolline lobes, and equal to them in number; anthers bilocular, free; pollen spherical. Ovary more or less completely inferior, composed of two or more carpels; ovules indefinite; style simple, covered with collecting hairs; stigma naked, simple, or with as many lobes as there are ovarian cells. Fruit capsular, crowned with the withered calyx and corolla, dehiscing in a loculicidal manner by lateral apertures, or by valves at the apex. Seeds 00; attached to a central placenta; embryo straight, in the axis of fleshy albumen; radicle pointing to the hilum. Lactescent herbs or undershrubs, with alternate, rarely opposite, exstipulate leaves. The hairs on the style are said to be retractile, and seem to be connected with the application of the pollen. The flowers in most instances are blue. They are natives chiefly of northern and temperate regions. They abound in the alpine regions of Europe and Asia, and are also frequent in North America. Alphonse De Candolle states, that the species whose capsule dehisces by lateral fissures are natives of the northern hemisphere, while those with apicilar dehiscence are principally found in the southern hemisphere. The milky juice found in the plants of this order has acrid properties. Lindley enumerates twenty-eight genera, including five hundred species. Examples: Campanula, Phyteuma, Jasione.

Campanula trachelium, Hare-bell (Europe) (pl. 64, fig. 7); a, upper portion of the plant; b, sexual apparatus; c, separated stamens; d, stamen; e, a seed-vessel; f, cross-section of do.; g, the seed; h, do. magnified; i, section of do.

Order 113. Stylidiaceæ, the Stylewort Family. Calyx adherent, persistent, with two to six divisions, bilabiate, or regular. Corolla ganiopetalous, falling off late, limb usually irregular, five- to six-partite, segments with a central vein; æstivation imbricated. Stamens two; filaments united with the style into a longitudinal column; anthers didymous, rarely simple, lying over the stigma; pollen simple, globose, or angular. Ovary cohering with the calyx, bilocular, or by contraction of the dissepiment unilocular, often surmounted by one gland in front, or by two opposite ones; ovules anatropal; style one; stigma entire or bifid. Fruit a bivalvular, bilocular, or spuriously unilocular capsule, with septicidal dehiscence. Seeds 00, small, erect; embryo minute, inclosed in fleshy, somewhat oily albumen. Non-lactescent herbs or undershrubs, with alternate, scattered, or somewhat verticillate, entire, exstipulate leaves. They are well distinguished by their gynandrous structure. The column formed by the union of the filaments and style possesses, in the species of the genus Stylidium, a peculiar irritability. The plants are principally natives of marshy places in New Holland. Some are found at the southern point of South America. There are five known genera, and 121 species. Examples: Stylidium, Forstera.

Order 114. Goodeniaceæ, the Goodenia Family. Calyx persistent, usually equal, with three to five divisions, sometimes obsolete. Corolla inserted into the calyx, monopetalous, more or less irregular, marcescent or deciduous; its tube split at the back, and sometimes separable into five pieces, when the calyx only coheres with the base of the ovary; its limb five-partite, uni- or bilabiate, the thin part of the segments being at the edcres, which are folded inwards in aestivation. Stamens five, distinct, inserted with, but free from, the corolla, and alternate with its segments: anthers not articulated with the filaments, distinct or cohering, bilocular, with longitudinal dehiscence; pollen grains either separate or united in fours. Ovary more or less united to the calycine tube, one-, two-, or four-celled, sometimes with a gland at its base; ovules definite or 00, attached to a central, often free, placenta; style one, simple, rarely divided; stigma fleshy, undivided or two-lobed, surrounded by a cup-like indusium. Fruit a one-, two-, or four-celled capsule, or drupaceous or nut-like. Seeds definite or indefinite, with a thickened, often hard testa; embryo straight, in fleshy albumen; cotyledons leafy; radicle inferior. Herbs, rarely shrubs, not lactescent, with scattered, exstipulate, usually alternate leaves, and distinct, never capitate flowers. They are found chiefly in Australia, and in the South Sea Islands. The order is divided into two sub-orders.

Sub-order 1. Goodeniecæ, with dehiscent capsular fruit, and numerous seeds.

Sub-order 2. Scævoleæ, with indehiscent, drupaceous, or nut-like fruit, and seeds solitary, or two in each cell. There are fourteen known genera, according to Lindley, and about 150 species. Examples: Goodenia, Yelleia, Leschenaultia, Scaevola, Dampiera.

Order 115. Brunoniaceæ, the Brunonia Family. Calyx persistent, five-partite, with bracts at the base. Corolla inserted at the base of the calyx, monopetalous, nearly regular, withering; limb five-parted, having central veins in its segments, which divide at the top into two recurrent marginal veins; aestivation valvate. Stamens five, inserted with, but free from, the corolla, alternating with its segments; anthers articulated with the short filaments, dithecal, introrse, dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary free, unilocular; ovule solitary, erect, anatropal; style single; stigma inclosed in a two-valved cup or indusium. Fruit a utricle, inclosed in the hardened calycine tube. Seed solitary, erect, exalbuminous; embryo straight; cotyledons fleshy; plano-convex; radicle minute, inferior. Stemless herbaceous plants, with radical, exstipulate leaves, and capitate flowers, supported on scapes, and surrounded by an involucre of enlarged bracts. Natives of New Holland. Their properties are unknown. The order contains as yet only one genus and nine species. Example: Brunonia.

Order 116. Compositæ, Syngenesia of Linn. Flowers collected into a dense head (compound flowers of the older authors) upon a common receptacle, surrounded by an involucre. Tube of the calyx coherent with the ovary, and undistinguishable from it; the limb (called pappus) composed of bristles, or scales, &c., or very rarely foliaceous, often wanting or reduced to a margin. Corolla composed of mostly five united petals; either ligulate or tubular, in the latter case with a valvate æstivation; the tube generally furnished with five nerves (or more properly ten united in pairs), which extend from the base to the sinuses, where they divide, a branch coursing along or near each margin to the apex of the lobes. Stamens as many as the lobes of the corolla and alternate with them: the filaments (distinct or united above) inserted into the tube; anthers linear, coherent by their margins into a cylinder (syngenesious). Ovary one-celled, containing a single erect anatropous ovule; style (usually undivided in the sterile flowers) two-cleft; the lobes or branches (incorrectly called stigmas) various in form, mostly flattish within, often furnished with collecting hairs; the proper stigmas occupying their inner margins, in the form of glandular, slightly prominent lines. Fruit an indehiscent, dry, one-seeded pericarp (achænium), crowned with the limb of the calyx or pappus. Seed destitute of albumen. Radicle short; cotyledons flat or plano-convex. Herbs, rarely shrubs or trees (forming about one tenth of phanerogamous vegetation); with alternate or opposite, sometimes divided or lobed, exstipulate leaves. Branches often corymbose, terminated by the heads, the central ones earliest developed. Flowers in each head expanding successively from the margin (or lower portion) to the centre or apex, either all of the same color (homochromous). or the marginal ones diflferent from those of the disk (heterochromous), the latter in this case almost always yellow; either perfect, polygamous, or diclinous.

This order is both one of the largest and one of the most natural in the vegetable kingdom. The plants are generally distributed over the surface of the globe, and all of the tribes have North American representatives. Generally herbaceous in northern regions, they become at times shrubby and even arborescent in warm climates. The number of known genera amounts to upwards of 1000, including 9500 species, and forming about one tenth of all the known species. Various subdivisions have been proposed by different authors; those by Linnæus into Polygamia aequalis, superflua, frustranea, necessaria, and segregata, will be found explained on page 54. The sub-orders more usually followed by modern authors are those of De Candolle, as follows: 1. Tubulifloræ. Corolla of the perfect flowers tubular, and regularly five- (rarely three- to four-) lobed or toothed. 2. Labiatifloræ. Corolla of the perfect flower bilabiate. 3. Ligulifloræ. Flowers all perfect and ligulate. (The genera marked with an asterisk are North American.)

Sub-order 1. Tubulifloræ

Tribe 1. Vernoniaceæ. Style of the perfect flowers cylindraceous; the branches usually elongated and subulate, hispid throughout; the stigmatic lines not extending beyond their middle.

Sub-tribe 1. Vernonieæ. Heads discoid, homogamous. Division 1. Euvernonieæ. a, Ethulieæ. Example: Ethulia. b, Heterocomeæ. Examples: *Stokesia, *Vernonia. c, Albertinieæ. Example: Albertinia. Division 2. *Elephantopeæ. Example: Elephantopus. Division 3. Rolandreæ. Example: Gundelia. Division 4. Bojerieæ. Example: Synchodendron.

Sub-tribe 2. Pectideæ. Heads radiate, heterogamous. Division 1. Liabeæ. Example: *Xanthisma. Division 2. Eupectidece. Examples: *Pectis, Pectidopsis.

Tribe 2. Eupatoriaceæ. Style of the perfect flowers cylindraceous: the branches elongated, obtuse, or clavate, externally puberulent or papillose towards the summit, the stigmatic lines obscure, terminating near their middle.

Sub-tribe 1. Eupatorieæ. Heads discoid, homogamous. Division 1. Alomieæ. Ex.: Orsinia. Division 2. Ageratecæ. Ex.: *Cœlestina, *Ageratum, *Sclerolepsis. Division 3. Adenostyleæ. Ex.: *Liatris, *Kunia, *Eupatorium.

Sub-tribe 2. Tussilagineæ. Heads with the flowers heterogamous or dioecious. Division 1. Petasiteæ. Examples: *Nardosmia, *Adenocaulon. Division 2. Eutussilagineæ. Example: *Tussilago.

Tribe 3. Asteroideæ. Style of the perfect flowers cylindraceous: the branches linear, externally flattish, minutely and equally pubescent above, stigmatic lines prominent, extending about to the origin of the exterior pubescence.

Sub-tribe 1. Asterineæ. Heads heterogamous and radiate, or homogamous. Receptacle seldom chaffy. Anthers not caudate. Leaves alternate. Division I. Amellieæ. a, Euamelleæ. Example: Amellus. b, Heterothalameæ. Example: Heterothalamus. Division 2. Astereæ. a, Euastereee. Examples: *Galatella, *Aster. b, Diplopappeæ. Example: *Diplopappus. c, Erigerese. Example: *Erigeron. d, Heteropappeæ. Examples: *Chætopappa, *Boltonia. e, Bellieæ. Example: Behium. f, Bellideæ. Examples: *Bellis, *Aphanostephus. Division 3. Chrysocomeæ. a, Gymnospermeæ. Example: *Gymnosperma. b, Achyrideæ. Example: *Amphiachyris. c, Heterothecæ. Example: *Bradburia. d, Psiadieæ, Erato. e, Chrysopsideæ. Example: Chrysopsis. f, Solidagineæ. Example: *Solidago. Division 4. Solenogyneæ. Example: Leptothamnus.

Sub-tribe 2. Baccharideæ. Heads dioecious, or heterogamous, never radiate; pistillate flowers tubular, slender, or filiform, in several series. Receptacle not chaflfy. Anthers not caudate. Division 1. Conyzeæ. a, Sphœranthese. Example: Athroisma. 6, Grangeineæ. Example: Grangea. c, Euconyzeæ. Example: *Conyza. d, Eubaccharideæ. Example: *Baccharis.

Sub-tribe 3. Tarchonantheæ. Heads diœcious, or heterogamous, never radiate; pistillate flowers, tubular and very slender, mostly in several series. Anthers caudate. Division 1. Eutarchonantheæ. Example: Tarchonanthus. Division 2. Plucheineæ. Example: *Pluchea, *Micropus.

Sub-tribe 4. Inuleæ. Heads heterogamous and radiate, or homogamous and discoid, never dioecious. Receptacle not chaffy. Anthers caudate. Leaves alternate. Division 1. Euinuleæ. Example: *Inula. Division 2. Cæsulineæ. Example: Cæsula.

Sub-tribe 5. Bupthalmeæ. Example: Bupthalmum.

Sub-tribe 6. Eclypteæ. Heads heterogamous, radiate. Receptacle chaffy. Anthers not caudate. Pappus toothed, or awned, or none. Leaves opposite. Examples: *Borrichia, *Eclipta.

Tribe 4. Senecionideæ. Style of the perfect flowers cylindraceous: the branches linear, truncate at the summit, and penicillate, or often produced into a conical or elongated hispid appendage; the stigmatic lines rather broad and prominent, extending to the commencement of the appendage or hairy portion.

Sub-tribe 1. Melampodineæ. Flowers all unisexual: the staminate and pistillate either occupying the same or different heads, in the same or different individuals. Anthers not caudate. Pappus never of bristles. Division 1. Euxenieæ. Example: Euxenia. Division 2. Millerieæ. Example: *Blennosperma. Division 3. Silphieæ. Examples: *Silphium, *Engelmannia. Division 4. Melampodieæ. Example: *Melampodium. Division 5. Ambrosieæ. Examples: *Ambrosia, *Xanthium. Division 6. Iveæ. Example: *Iva. Division 7. Parthenieæ. Example: *Parthenium.

Sub-tribe 2. Heliantheæ. Heads heterogamous and radiate, or homogamous and discoid. Receptacle partly or entirely chaffy. Pappus none, or coroniform, or awned, or of few squamellæ. Anthers blackish, not caudate. Leaves often opposite. Division 1. Heliopsideæ. Example: *Heliopsis. Division 2. Rudbeckieæ. Example: *Rudbeckia. Division 3. Coreopsideæ. Example: *Coreopsis. Division 4. Bidentideæ. Example: *Bidens. Division 5. Verbesineæ. Example: *Spilanthes.

Sub-tribe 3. Flaverieæ. Heads one-, few-flowered, densely aggregated, heterogamous. Leaves opposite. Example: *Flaveria.

Sub-tribe 4. Tagetineæ. Heads heterogamous and radiate, or homogamous and discoid. Receptacle not chaffy. Pappus awned or setose. Involucre, with the scales in a single series, and mostly united, dotted, like the opposite leaves, with large pellucid glands. Division 1, Tageteæ. Examples: *Dysodia, *Riddellia. Division 2. Porophylleæ. Example: Porophyllum.

Sub-tribe 5. Helenieæ. Heads mostly heterogamous. Pappus of several or numerous scarious, chaffy scales, in a single series, distinct, rarely none. Leaves mostly alternate (chiefly American). Division 1. Gaillardieæ. a, Eugaillardieæ. Example: *Gaillardia. b, Euhelenieae. Example: *Hymenopappus. Division 2. Galinsogeæ. a, Eugalinsogeæ. Example: *Marshallia. b, Sphenogyneæ. Example: Ursinia. Division 3. Madieæ. Example: *Callichroa. Division 4. Baldwinieæ. Example: *Actinospermum.

Sub-tribe 6. Anthemideæ. Heads mostly heterogamous. Pappus none or coroniform, rarely squamellate. Anthers not caudate. Branches of the style truncate and bearded at the apex, rarely terminated by a short cone. Leaves mostly alternate. Division 1. Euanthemideæ. Examples: *Anthemis, * Achillea. Division 2. Chrysanthemeæ. Example: *Moiiolopia. Division 3. Cotuleæ. Example: *Aromia. Division 4. Athanasieæ. Example: Athanasia. Division 5. Artemisieæ. Examples: *Tanacetum, *Artemisia. Division 6. Hippieæ. Example: *Soliva. Division 7. Eriocephaleæ. Example: Eriocephalus.

Sub-tribe 7. Gnaphalieæ. Heads homogamous and discoid, rarely heterogamous. Anthers caudate. Pappus of capillary or setaceous bristles, rarely none. Leaves mostly alternate. Division 1. Angiantheæ. Example: Hyalolepis. Division 2. Cassinieæ. Example: Cassinia. Division 3. Helichryseæ. Examples: *Gnaphalium, *Filago. Division 4. Seriphieæ. Example: Seriphium. Division 5. Antennarieæ. Example: *Antennaria. Division 6. Leyserreæ. Example: Athrixia. Division 7. Relhanieæ. Example: Carpesium.

Sub-tribe 8. Senecioneæ. Heads homogamous or heterogamous, discoid or radiate. Anthers not caudate. Pappus of capillary bristles, or very rarely wanting in the exterior flowers. Leaves alternate. Division 1. Neurolceneæ. Example: Neurolaena. Division 2. Erechtiteæ. Example: *Erechtites. Division 3. Eusenecioneæ. Example: *Cacalia, *Senecio. Division 4. Balbisieæ. Example: Balbisia.

Tribe 5. Cynareæ. Style of the perfect flowers nodose-thickened, and often penicillate at the summit; the stigmatic lines not prominent, reaching to and confluent at the summit of the externally puberulent branches.

Sub-tribe 1. Calendulaceæ (none North American). Division 1. Calenduleæ. Example: Calendula. Division 2. Osteospermeæ. Example: Osteospermum. Division 3. Othonneæ. Examples: Heteractis.

Sub-tribe 2. Arctotideæ (none North American). Division 1. Arctoteæ. Example: Arctotis. Division 2. Gorterieæ. Example: Cullumia.

Sub-tribe 3. Echinopsideæ (none North American). Example: Acantholepis.

Sub-tribe 4. Cardopateæ (none North American). Example: Cardopatium.

Sub-tribe 5. Xeranthemeæ (none North American). Example: Chardinia.

Sub-tribe 6. Carlinieæ. Heads discoid, homogamous. Anthers caudate. Pappus mostly plumose. Example: Saussurea.

Sub-tribe 7. Centaurieæ. Heads discoid; the marginal flowers mostly neutral, usually much larger than the others. Pappus never plumose, sometimes wanting. Example: *Centaurea, *Cnicus.

Sub-tribe 8. Carthameæ (none North American). Example: Carthamus.

Sub-tribe 9. Silybeæ (none North American). Example: Silybum.

Sub-tribe 10. Carduineæ. Heads discoid, homogamous, sometimes dioecious. Anthers slightly or not at all caudate. Pappus of plumose or scabrous bristles. Examples: *Cirsium, *Carduus, *Lappa.

Sub-tribe 11. Serratulæ (none North American). Example: Serratula.

Sub-order 2. Labiatifloræ

Tribe 6. Mutisiaceæ. Style of the perfect flowers cylindraceous or somewhat nodose above: the branches obtuse or truncate, externally very convex, and minutely pubescent above. Only one North American genus (Chaptalia).

Sub-tribe 1. Mutisieæ (none North American). Division 1. Barnadesieæ. Example: Schlechtendalia. Division 2. Eumutisieæ. Example: Mutisia.

Sub-tribe 2. Lerieæ. Example: *Chaptalia.

Sub-tribe 3. Facelideæ (none North American). Example: Facelis.

Tribe 7. Nassauviaceæ. Style of the perfect flowers not nodose, thickened above: the branches linear, rather long, truncate, penicillate at the summit. Only one North American genus (Acourtia).

Sub-tribe 1. Polyachyrideæ. Example: Polyachyrus.

Sub-tribe 2. Nassauvieæ. Example: Caloptilium.

Sub-tribe 3. Trixideæ. Example: *Acourtia.

Sub-order 3. Ligulifloræ

Tribe 8. Cichoraceæ. Style cylindraceous above: the branches rather long and obtuse, equally pubescent, the stigmatic lines terminating below their middle. Plants with a milky juice. Leaves alternate.

Sub-tribe 1. Scolymeæ (none North American). Example: Scolymus.

Sub-tribe 2. Lampsaneæ. Pappus none. Receptacle not chaffy. Examples: *Lampsana, *Apogon.

Sub-tribe 3. Hyoserideæ. Pappus wholly or partly chaffy or squamellate. Receptacle not chaffy. Example: *Cichorium.

Sub-tribe 4. Hypochærideæ (none North American). Example: Oreophila.

Sub-tribe 5. Scorzonereæ. Pappus setose or plumose. Receptacle not chaffy. Examples: *Leontodon, *Rafinesquia.

Sub-tribe 6. Lactuceæ. Pappus capillary, not plumose. Receptacle not chaffy. Examples: *Hieracium, *Taraxacum, *Lactuca.

Of the 1000 genera indicated above, as embraced in this vast order, 200 are found in North America, or one fifth of the whole. Nearly all the sub-tribes, and most of the divisions indicated above, have representatives in this country. Of the entire order Labiatifloræ, however, there are but two genera, the rest being principally found on the western coast of South America. In conclusion, we can but briefly name such plants as ore conspicuous for their economical qualities. Cynara cardunculus, the Cardoon; C. scolymus, the Artichoke; Carthamus tinctorius, Safflower. Anthemis nobilis, Chamomile; Inula helenium, Elecampane; Artemisia absinthum, Wormwood. Moxas are formed from the woolly leaves of the Chinese Artemisia moxa. A. dracunculus is Tarragon; Tanacetum vulgare, Tansy; Helianthus, Sunflower; Cichorium intybus, Succory or Chicory; Taraxacum dens-leonis, Dandelion; Lactuca sativa, Lettuce; Tragopogon porrifolius, Salsify or Oyster plant.

Lactuca virosa, Poison Lettuce, Europe (pl. 64, fig. 9); a, a flower; b, ditto magnified; d, pistil; e, achænium; f, ditto magnified; g, hair of pappus magnified; h, cross-section; and i, longitudinal ditto of achænium.

Carthamus tinctorius, Safflower, East Indies (pl. 64, fig. 11); a, upper part; b, sepal from the interior; c, an inner involucral leaf; d, a flower; e, the anthers separated; f, a pappus hair magnified; g, achænium without the pappus.

Cynara scolymus, the Artichoke, Europe (pl. 64, fig. 10); a, a flower; b, the fruit without pappus.

Serratula tinctoria (pl. 64, fig. 12); A, the upper, B, the lower part of the plant; a, involucral scale; b, hermaphrodite flower; c, stigma; d, achænium; e, cross-section of ditto; h, a female flower.

Tanacetum vulgare, Tansy, Europe (pl. 64, fig. 13); a, involucral scale; b, anthers; c, ray, and d, disk flowers; e, pistil; f, achænium; g, cross-section of ditto.

Artemisia absinthum, Wormwood, Europe (pl. 65, fig. 1); a, a lower leaf; b, flowering branch; c, receptacle with a disk and ray flower still standing; d, ray flower; e, disk flower; f, stigma; g, achænium; h, ditto in cross-section.

Order 117. Calyceraceæ, the Calycera Family. Calyx superior, with a limb of five unequal segments. Corolla regular, infundibuliform, with a long, slender tube, and a five-lobed limb, the lobes having each three principal veins. Stamens five, attached to the tube of the corolla, with as many alternating glands below them; filaments monadelphous; anthers partially united. Ovary inferior, one-celled; ovule solitary, pendulous; style single, smooth; stigma capitate. Fruit an achænium, crowned by the rigid spiny segments of the calyx, sometimes covered with papillae, which emit spiral tubes when placed in water. Seed solitary, pendulous; embryo in the axis of fleshy albumen; radicle superior. Herbaceous plants, with alternate, exstipulate leaves, and sessile capitate flowers, surrounded by an involucre. They inhabit South America. Their properties are unknown. There are five known genera, according to Lindley, and ten species. Examples: Calycera, Boopis.

Order 118. Dipsaceæ, the Teazel Family. Calyx superior, with an entire or toothed, or pappose limb. Corolla gamopetalous, tubular, inserted on the calycine tube, with an oblique four- or five-lobed limb; aestivation imbricated. Stamens four, attached to the tube of the corolla, and alternate with its lobes; anthers dithecal, distinct. Ovary cohering with the tube of the calyx, either closely or only at the apex, unilocular; ovule solitary, pendulous, anatropal; style filiform; stigma simple. Fruit dry, indehiscent, crowned by the limb of the calyx, covered by an epicalyx, or involucellum, one-celled. Seed solitary, pendulous, albuminous; embryo straight; radicle superior. Herbs or undershrubs, with opposite or verticillate leaves, and capitate or verticillate flowers, surrounded by a many-leaved involucre. They are found in the south of Europe, the Levant, and at the Cape of Good Hope. None in North America. The properties of the order are unimportant. The heads of Dipsacus fullonum, Fuller’s Teazel, on account of their spiny bracts, are used in dressing cloth. Lindley mentions six genera, including one hundred and fifty species. Examples: Morina, Scabiosa, Dipsacus.

Dipsacus fullonum, the Teazel, Europe (pl. 65, fig. 2): a, a flowering branch; b, vertical section of the head; c, a flower; d, ditto opened; e, stigma; f, achænium; g and h, sections of ditto.

Order 119. Valerianaceæ, the Valerian Family. Calyx superior, its limb being either membranous or pappose. Corolla gamopetalous, inserted into the top of the ovary, tubular, three-, four-, to five-lobed, sometimes gibbous or spurred at the base. Stamens one to five, adherent to the corolla and alternate with its lobes. Ovary inferior, one- to three-celled; ovule solitary, pendulous, style filiform; stigmas one to three. Fruit dry, indehiscent, crowned with the limb of the calyx, one-celled, in consequence of two cells being abortive. Seed solitary, pendulous, exalbuminous; embryo straight; radicle superior. Herbs, with opposite, exstipulate leaves, and cymose inflorescence. They are found in temperate climates. Lindley gives twelve genera, and 185 species.

The only North American genera are Valeriana, Plectritis, and Fedia. The root of Valeriana officinahs furnishes the medicinal valerian; this substance produces a species of intoxication in cats. Nardostachys jatamansi is the nardos or spikenard of the ancients.

Order 120. Rubiaceæ, the Madder and Cinchona Family. Tube of the calyx adherent to the ovary, rarely partly, or almost completely free; the mostly four- to five-cleft or toothed, sometimes obsolete. Corolla inserted upon the summit of the calyx-tube, composed of as many united petals as there are lobes of the calyx, valvate, imbricate, or somewhat contorted in æstivations. Stamens inserted into the tube of the corolla, equal in number and alternate with its lobes (or very rarely fewer); anthers introrse. Ovary two- (rarely three-, several-) celled, with one, or many ovules in each cell; style single or partly divided; stigmas distinct or concrete. Fruit capsular, drupaceous, baccate, or separated into indehiscent carpels. Seeds anatropous or amphitropous, solitary, few, or numerous in each cell. Embryo straight or slightly curved, in the axis or at the extremity of copious densely fleshy or horny albumen. Trees, shrubs, or herbs, with opposite, or rarely verticillate, entire leaves. Stipules between the petioles, sometimes simulating the leaves. Flowers regular. Inflorescence various.

Sub-order 1. Coffeaceæ. Cells one- to two-seeded.

Tribe 1. Opercularieæ. Flowers close pressed in a capitulum, in which they are united by their unilocular one-seeded ovaries. Fruit dehiscent. Herbs or undershrubs of Australia. Example: Pomax.

Tribe 2. Galieæ, or Stellatæ. Ovary with two one-seeded cells. Carpels indehiscent, dry or fleshy, separating from each other at maturity. Whorls of straight leaves, of which two opposite ones alone carry buds in their axils, the others perhaps transformed stipules. Herbs or undershrubs of temperate and cold climates. Examples: *Galium, Rubia.

Tribe 3. Anthospermæ. Flowers distinct. Ovary with two one-seeded cells. Carpels indehiscent, dry, separating at maturity. Stipules small, petiolar. Herbs or undershrubs of the Cape, of the Canaries, very rarely of Australia. Example: Anthospermum.

Tribe 4. Spermacoceæ. Flowers distinct. Ovaries of two to four cells, one- to two-seeded. Carpels dry or fleshy, never loculicidal, dehiscent or not. Estivation of the corolla valvate. Stipules membranaceous at the base, usually with several bristles at the apex. Sub-tribe 1. Euspermacoceæ. Examples: *Spermacoce, *Borreria, *Diodia. Sub-tribe 2. Putorieæ. Example: *Ernodia. Sub-tribe 3. Cephalantheæ. Example: *Cephalanthus.

Tribe 5. Psycotrieæ. Flowers distinct. Ovary of two one-seeded cells. Fruit fleshy, with two nucules. Perisperm horny. Stipules interpetiolar, distinct or connate. Trees or shrubs of tropical or juxtatropical regions, especially American. Examples: *Chiococca, *Psycotria, Coffea.

Tribe 6. Pœderieæ. Flowers distinct. Ovary of two one-seeded cells. Fruit of two compressed shells which become detached from the calyx, and remain suspended by a filiform axis. Lianas of intertropical regions. Example: Lecontea.

Tribe 7. Guettardeæ. Flowers distinct or combined together. Ovary of two or more one-seeded cells. Drupe with the like number of nucules. Albumen fleshy. Stipules axillar or interpetiolar, connate. Trees or shrubs of tropical regions. Sub-tribe 1. Morindeæ. Example: *Morinda. Sub-tribe 2. Mitchelleæ. Example: *Mitchella. Sub-tribe 3. Euguettardeæ. Example: *Guettarda, *Erithalis.

Tribe 8. Cordierieæ. Flowers distinct or separate. Ovary of two to five one-seeded cells. Fruit a berry. Perisperm fleshy. Stipules interpetiolar, large, and adnate. Shrubs of tropical regions. Example: Cordiera.

Sub-order 2. Cinchonaceæ. Cells many-seeded.

Tribe 9. Hamelieæ. Berry many-celled. Cells many-seeded. Example: *Hamelia.

Tribe 10. Isertieæ. Fruit drupaceous, with many nucules. Ex.: Isertia.

Tribe 11. Hedyotideæ. Fruit capsular, seeds not winged. Example: Hedyotis.

Tribe 12. Cinchoneæ. Fruit capsular. Seeds winged. Example: *Pickneya, *Exostemma, Cinchona.

Tribe 13. Gardenieæ. Berry one- to two-locular. Seeds not winged. Example: Sarcocephalus, Catesbœa.

The entire order, as at present composed, embraces 280 genera (sixteen North American) and upwards of 2800 species. The most important medicinal species are those belonging to the sub-order Cinchonaceæ. Peruvian bark is furnished by various species (about twelve) of Cinchona. It owes its efficacy to two alkaloids, Cinchonia and Quina. The bark of Pinckneya pubens has properties somewhat similar to that of true Cinchonas. Ipecacuanha is the root of Cephaelis ipecacuanha, a Brazilian plant. The coffee plant, Coffea arabica, likewise belongs to this order. It is originally a native of Arabia and the borders of Abyssinia. Rubia tinctoria yields madder, a very valuable dye.

Rubia tinctoria, madder (pl. 65, fig. 3); a, the root; b, a flowering branch; c, d, f, flowers; e, pistil; g, anthers.

Coffea arabica, coffee (pl. 65, fig. 4); a, a branch with flowers and fruit; b, pistil; c, flower expanded; d, fruit; e, do. with part of the hull removed, showing the two seeds; f, a seed; g, cross-section.

Order 121. Caprifoliaceæ, the Honeysuckle Family. Tube of the calyx adherent to the ovary; the limb five- (rarely four-) cleft or toothed. Corolla tubular, or sometimes rotate; the lobes imbricate in aestivation. Stamens equal in number and alternate with the lobes of the corolla (or rarely one of them deficient), and inserted into the tube; anthers introrse, versatile. Ovary three- (rarely four- to five-) celled, with one to several pendulous ovules in each cell; style filiform, with a somewhat capitate stigma; or wanting, and the oblong stigmas three to five. Fruit baccate, fleshy, or sometimes dry (rarely capsular), often one-celled by abortion. Seeds anatropous. Embryo in the axis of fleshy albumen. Shrubs, or rarely herbaceous plants, with opposite exstipulate leaves. Inflorescence various. Chiefly found in the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America.

Sub-order 1. Lonicereæ. Corolla tubular; the limb sometimes irregular. Style filiform. Raphe on the outer side of the ovule. Tribe 1. Caprifolieæ. Fruit baccate, sometimes nearly dry. Testa of the seed crustaceous or coriaceous. Examples: *Linnæa, *Symphoricarpus, *Lonicera, *Diervillea. Tribe 2. Triosteæ. Fruit drupaceous; endocarp bony. Testa of the seed membranaceous. Example: *Triosteum.

Sub-order 2. Sambuceæ. Corolla regular, rotate, or rarely somewhat tubular. Stigmas three to five, nearly sessile. Endocarp of the fruit crustaceous or coriaceous. Testa of the seed membranaceous, the raphe occupying the inner side. Examples: *Sambucus, *Viburnum.

Lindley assigns fourteen genera and 220 species to this family, of which eight genera and thiny-seven species are North American; of these, twelve are species of Viburnum, and fifteen of Lonicera. The snow-berry, a common ornamental shrub, is Symphoricarpus racemosus. The Elder (Sambucus), Honeysuckle (Lonicera), are well known plants. Linnæa borealis is a charming species found in the north of the United States and of Europe.

Lonicera caprifolium. Honeysuckle (Europe) (pl. 65, fig. 5); a, a flowering branch; b, a flower expanded; c, anther; d, pistil; e, fruit; f, sections of do.; g, a seed.

Order 122. Loranthaceæ, the Mistletoe Family. Perianth in the unisexual flowers sometimes none, or often simple (calyx), adnate to the ovary in the fertile flowers, three- to five-cleft in the sterile flowers; in the perfect flowers double, viz. calyx adnate to the ovary; the limb entire or denticulate, or often obsolete. Corolla of three to four or eight petals, either distinct, or more or less coherent in a tube, inserted into the epigynous disk; æstivation valvate. Stamens equal in number with the petals and opposite them, or as many as the segments of the calyx, and inserted upon them when the perianth is simple. Ovary one-celled, with a single suspended ovule; style simple, or none. Fruit baccate, one-celled, one-seeded. Seed anatropous; the membranous testa often adhering to the walls of the fruit. Embryo in a superficial cavity of the fleshy albumen; radicle clavate, often exserted; cotyledons obtuse, sometimes connate. Parasitical, half-shrubby, evergreen plants, with dichotomous stems. Leaves mostly opposite, fleshy or coriaceous, almost veinless; sometimes reduced to scales or entirely wanting. Stipules none. Flowers unisexual and small (whitish or greenish yellow), or perfect and very showy.

Many of the plants are tropical, and hang from the trunks and branches of trees; others occur in temperate regions. Lindley gives 23 genera and 412 species, of which two genera, Viscum and Arceuthobium, with three species, are North American. Viscum album is the mistletoe of English writers.

Sub-class 3. Calycifloræ
I. Plate 69: Plants Indigenous to Sandy or Rocky Soil, a Sandalwood, and Representatives of the Order Myrtales
Engraver: Wilhelm Wagenschieber
I. Plate 70: Lythrum and Representatives of the Order Rosales
Engraver: Wilhelm Wagenschieber

In this division are included the polypetalous orders of Jussieu, in which the stamens are not hypogynous, as well as some diclinous orders. A calyx and corolla are present; in other words, the plants are dichlamydeous, the petals are distinct, and the stamens are attached to the calyx, being thus more or less perigynous. This sub-class, along with Thalamiflorae, comprises the Dialypetalse of Endlicher. De Candolle included in this division gamopetalous plants, in which the ovary is inferior.

Order 123. Cornaceæ, the Dogwood Family. Calix, four-lobed. Petals four, oblong, broad at the base, regular, inserted into the upper part of the calycine tube; æstivation valvate. Stamens four, inserted along with the petals, and alternate with them; anthers dithecal. Ovary adherent to the tube of the calyx, two-celled, crowned by a disk; ovules solitary, pendulous, anatropal; style filiform; stigma simple. Fruit fleshy, crowned by the limb of the calyx, two-celled, rarely one-celled by abortion; endocarp bony. Seeds solitary, pendulous; embryo straight, long in the axis of fleshy albumen; radicle superior, shorter than the oblong cotyledons. Trees, shrubs, or herbs, with opposite, very rarely alternate, exstipulate leaves, and capitate, umbellate, or corymbose flowers. They inhabit the temperate climates of Europe, Asia, and America. The most prominent North American species of this family is Cornus florida, or the Dog wood, a showy member of our forests. Lindley enumerates nine genera and forty species, of which but one genus (Cornus), with eleven species, belongs to North America.

Order 124. Araliaceæ, the Ginseng Family. Calyx entire or toothed. Petals definite, two- to five- or ten-deciduous, occasionally; æstivation valvate. Stamens, as many as the petals, or twice as many, inserted below the margin of an epigynous disk. Ovary adherent to the tube of the calyx, two- or more-celled; ovules solitary, pendulous, anatropal; styles, two or more, distinct or connate; stigmas simple. Fruit usually succulent, two- to fifteen-celled, covered by the calycine limb. Seeds solitary, pendulous, adhering to the endocarp; albumen fleshy; embryo small; radicle pointing to the hilum. Trees, shrubs, or herbaceous plants, with alternate, exstipulate leaves, and umbellate or capitate flowers. They are found both in tropical and in cold regions. Lindley enumerates 21 genera, including 160 species. Examples: Aralia, Panax, Adoxa, Hedera. The first three genera, with eight species, are the only North American.

The plants of this order are allied to Umbelliferae, but do not possess poisonous qualities to any very marked degree. A species of Panax yields the Ginseng of the Chinese, for which a North American species, P. quinquefolium, serves as a substitute. An arborescent species, P. horridum, forms almost impenetrable thickets in Oregon. Aralia nudicaulis is used in the United States under the name of Sarsaparilla. The Ivy, Hedera helix, belongs to this order.

Aralia nudicaulis, Sarsaparilla (not the true), United States (pl. 65, fig. 6): a, a compound leaf; b, flower branch; c, a flower-bud; d, an open flower; e, petal; f, pistil; g, cross-section of ovary; h, ripe berry; i, seed.

Order 125. Umbelliferæ, the Umbelliferous Family. Calyx adherent to the ovary; the limb very small, five- toothed, or entire. Petals five, inserted on the outside of the epigynous disk, usually inflexed at the point, the inflexed portion cohering with the lamina; aestivation somewhat imbricate, or rarely valvate. Stamens five, alternate with the petals, inflexed in aestivation; anthers ovate, introrse. Ovary composed of two (very rarely more) united carpels, invested with the coherent calyx, two-celled, with a solitary suspended ovule in each cell: styles two, their bases dilated and thickened into a fleshy body (stylopodium), which covers the top of the ovary; stigmas simple. Fruit consisting of two dry carpels (often termed mericarps), which adhere by their faces (commissure) to a common axis (carpophore), at length separating from each other, and suspended from the summit of the carpophore, each carpel indehiscent, marked with five longitudinal primary ribs, one opposite each petal and each stamen, and often with five alternating secondary ones; in the substance of the pericarp are usually several longitudinal canals or receptacles (vittæ), filled with a colored aromatic oil or turpentine, which are commonly lodged in the spaces (intervals) between the ribs, but sometimes opposite them. Seed anatropous, usually coherent with the carpel, rarely loose. Embryo minute at the base of the copious horny albumen. Herbs, or rarely sufirutescent plants: the stems usually fistular and furrowed. Leaves alternate (or very rarely opposite), usually pinnately or ternately divided; the petioles mostly dilated and sheathing at the base. Flowers in umbels, usually with an involucre.

This extensive order is divided by De Candolle into three sub-orders; Orthospermæ, having the inner face of the seed and albumen plane, neither convolute nor involute; Campylospermæ, albumen with a longitudinal groove internally, or the margins involute; and Cœlospermæ, albumen involute at the base and apex.

Sub-order 1. Orthospermæ.

Tribe 1. Hydrocoiyleæ. Fruit laterally compressed: carpels convex or (rarely) acute on the back; primary ribs five, sometimes obsolete; the lateral ones either marginal or on the face of the commissure; the intermediate ones most prominent; secondary ribs sometimes persistent and filiform, sometimes almost or entirely wanting. Vittae very seldom present. Seed flattish on the face. Umbels simple or imperfectly compound. Mostly tropical. Examples: *Hydrocotyle, *Bowlesia, Centella.

Tribe 2. Mulineæ. Carpels contracted at the commissure, flattened on the back, five-jugate, forming a quadrangular fruit. The species are mostly inhabitants of extra-tropical South America. Examples: Bolax, Huanaca.

Tribe 3. Sanicideæ. Transverse section of the fruit somewhat orbicular. Carpels with five equal primary and no secondary ribs, or covered with scales or prickles, when the ribs are obliterated. Vittag none, or numerous when the fruit is prickly. Seed flattish on the face. Umbels fascicled or capitate, simple, or somewhat irregularly compound. Mostly American, between 35° N. L. and 45° S. L. Examples: *Sanicula, *Eryngium, Astrantia.

Tribe 4. Ammineæ. Fruit evidently compressed laterally, and usually somewhat didymous. Carpels with five equal filiform and sometimes slightly winged primary ribs; the lateral ones marginal; secondary ribs none. Vittæ various. Seed gibbously convex on the back, and flattish on the face, or terete. Umbels perfectly compound. Mostly inhabitants of the temperate regions of both continents. Examples: *Ammi, *Cicuta, *Sium, Carum.

Tribe 5. Seselineæ. Transverse section of the fruit orbicular or nearly so. Carpels with filiform or winged ribs, of which the lateral ones are marginal, and either equal to or a little broader than the others. Intervals with one or more vittæ, very rarely without any. Seed somewhat teretely convex on the back, flattish on the face. Umbels perfectly compound. Distribution of the species as in the preceding tribe. Examples: *Thapsium, *Conioselinum, Lichtensteinia.

Tribe 6. Pachypleureæ. Carpels compressed, lentiform,. five-jugate, with thick equal ribs. Inhabitants of Central Asia, South Africa, and the Mediterranean region. Example: Krubera.

Tribe 7. Angeliceæ. Fruit dorsally compressed, with a double winged margin. Carpels with the three dorsal ribs filiform or winged; the lateral ones dilated and forming the winged margins. Seed convex on the back, flattish on the face. Umbels compound. Mostly inhabit central and northern Europe: a few found in Northern America and Asia. Examples; *Angelica, *Archangelica, Selinum.

Tribe 8. Peucedaneæ. Fruit more or less compressed ciorsally, surrounded with a single dilated entire smooth margin, which is flattened or slightly convex, but not thickened at the edge. Carpels with five filiform or rarely winged ribs, of which the lateral ones are contiguous to the dilated margin or united with it. Seed flattened, or convex on the back. Rare in western Europe, northern America, and the Canaries; more abundant in northern India and South Africa. Examples: *Peucedanum, *Pastinaca, Anethum.

Tribe 9. Silerineæ. Fruit multijugate, the ribs but little elevated, especially the secondary; carpels compressed externally. Inhabit central Europe and northern Asia. Examples: Siler, Galbanum.

Tribe 10. Cumineæ. Fruit contracted at the sides. Carpels with five primary filiform ribs, of which the lateral ones are marginal; and four more prominent secondary ones; all of them wingless. Seed straight, flattish on the face. Umbels compound. Found in Mediterranean Europe and in North America. Examples: *Trepocarpus, Cuminum.

Tribe 11. Thapsieæ. Fruit either dorsally compressed or nearly terete. Carpels with five filiform, often bristly, primary ribs, of which the lateral ones are placed on the face of the commissure: secondary ribs four; the dorsal ones filiform and the lateral ones winged; or all of them winged (hence the fruit is either eight- winged, or only two- winged on each side). Seed flattish, or somewhat teretely convex, plane on the face. Umbels compound. Central Europe and north-western America. Examples: *Laserpitium, Thapsia.

Tribe 12. Daucineæ. Fruit lenticularly compressed on the back, or somewhat terete. Carpels with five filiform bristly primary ribs, of which the latter are placed on the flat commissure; and four more prominent prickly secondary ones, the prickles distinct or united into a wing. Seed flattened or convex on the back, flattish on the face. Umbels compound. Southern Europe and Asia, northern Africa, extra-tropical America. Examples: Artedia, Daucus.

Sub-order 2. Campylospermeæ.

Tribe 13. Elæoselineæ. Fruit cylindrical, multijugate; primary ribs filiform, the lateral secondary alate. Species Mediterranean, a single one Mexican. Example: Elseoselinum, Margotia.

Tribe 14. Caucalineæ. Fruit laterally contracted or somewhat terete. Carpels with five primary bristly or prickly ribs, of which the lateral ones are in the commissure; secondary ribs four, more prominent and prickly, or sometimes obliterated by the copious prickles filling the entire intervals. Seed involute, or with the margin inflexed. Umbels compound. Distribution as in Daucineæ; one North American species. Examples: *Caucalis, Torilis.

Tribe 15. Scandicineæ, Fruit compressed or contracted laterally, usually rostrate. Carpels with five equal filiform or winged ribs, of which the lateral ones are marginal; all of them sometimes obliterated at the base and only conspicuous at the apex. Seed teretely convex, either furrowed on the face or involute. Umbels compound. Central and southern Europe, Asia, and America. Examples: Choerophyllum, Glycosma, Tauschia.

Tribe 16. Smyrnieæ. Fruit turffid, mostly laterally compressed or contracted. Carpels with five ribs; the lateral ones marginal or placed opposite the margin, sometimes nearly obliterated. Seed involute, or sulcate on the face. Umbels compound. Abundant in eastern Europe and Asia; rare in northern and tropical America. Examples: Conium, *Cynapium, Anosmia.

Sub-order 3. Cœlospermeæ.

Tribe 17. Coriandreæ. Fruit globose, or the carpels sub-globose and didymous; primary ribs of each carpel five, depressed and ilexuous, or nearly obsolete; the secondary ones four, more prominent: all wingless. Umbels compound. Mediterranean Europe and Asia; North America. Examples: *Atrema, *Erigenia, Corion.

Many of the Umbelliferae are valuable for various purposes. Some are esculents, as Daucus carota, the carrot; Pastinaca sativa, the parsnip; Apium graveolens, celery; Petroselinum sativum, parsley, &c. The roots of Arracacha esculentum, a native of Grenada, may serve as a substitute for the potatoe. Some species yield fœtid resins, as assafoetida, from Ferula assafoetida, a native of Persia. Caraway seeds are the fruit of Carum carui; coriander seeds, of Coriandrum sativum. Many are highly poisonous, as Conium maculatum. Water Hemlock.

Lindley enumerates 267 genera, embracing 1500 species. Of these, fifty genera and about 140 species are North American.

Chærophyllum temulum, Europe (pl. 65, fig. 10); a, a lower leaf; b, lower part of the stem; c, a flower branch; d, a flower; e, the fruit.

Conium maculatum. Hemlock, Europe (pl. 65, fig. 11); a, cross-section of stem; b, flowering branch with flowers and fruit; c, involucre; d, flower; e, pistil; f, fruit; g, cross-section of achænium.

Cicuta virosa, Water Hemlock, or Cow-bane, Europe (pl. 65, fig. 8); a, vertical section of the root; b, flower branch; c, flower; d, pistil; e, achgenia; f, cross-section of ditto; g, vertical section of achænium.

Æthusa cynapium. Fool’s Parsley, Europe (pl. 65, fig. 9); a, cross-section of the stem; b, branch with flowers and fruit; c, flower; d, achænia.

Œnanthe fistulosa, Dead Tongue, Europe (pl. 65, fig. 7); a, the entire plant; b, c, flowers; d, pistil; e, involucre; f, anther; gl, fruit.

Slum latifolium. Water Parsley, Europe and Northern America (pl. 65, fig. 12); a, flowering branch; b, a lower leaf; c, flower; d, pistil; e, fruit; fh, achænium with longitudinal and transverse sections of ditto.

Order 126. Hamamelidaceæ, the Witch-hazel Family. Calyx four- or five-lobed or truncate. Petals four or five or 0, inserted on the calyx, alternating with the calycine segments. Stamens twice as many as the petals, in two rows, one of which alternates with the petals and is fertile, the other is opposite to them and sterile; anthers bilocular, introrse. Ovary adherent, two-celled; ovules solitary or several (in Bucklandia and Sedgwickia), pendulous or suspended; styles two. Fruit, a two- celled, two-valved capsule, opening by loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds pendulous; embryo straight, in the axis of a fleshy albumen; cotyledons leafy; radicle superior. Shrubs or small trees, with alternate, petiolate, feather-veined, and stipulate leaves, and small axillary, bracteated, often unisexual flowers. They are found in various parts of Asia, Africa, and America. There are ten genera, with fifteen species. Of these North America possesses two genera and two species.

Tribe 1. Hamameleæ. Stamens eight to ten, of which the alternate ones are alone fertile; filaments very short. Ovules solitary in each cell. Examples: *Hamamelis (H. virginica. Witch-hazel, U. S.), Trichochladus.

Tribe 2. Fothergillieæ. Apetalous. Stamens somewhat indefinite; all fertile; filaments very long. Ovules one, solitary in each cell. Examples: *Fothergilla, Parrotia.

Tribe 3. Bucklandieæ. Cells with several ovules. Examples: Bucklandia, Sedgwickia.

Order 127. Bruniaceæ, the Brunia Family. Calyx five-cleft; æstivation imbricated. Petals inserted in the throat of the calyx, and alternate with its segments. Stamens alternate with the petals arising from them, or from a disk surrounding the ovary; anthers introrse, two-celled, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary usually adherent to the tube of the calyx, and one- to three-celled; ovules anatropal, suspended, one or two in each cell; style simple or bifid; stigmas one to three. Fruit either bicoccous and two-celled, or indehiscent and one-celled, crowned by the persistent calyx. Seeds solitary or in pairs, suspended, sometimes with a short arillus; embryo minute, at the base of fleshy albumen; cotyledons short and fleshy; radicle conical, next the hilum. Branched, heath-like shrubs, with small, imbricated, rigid, and entire leaves, and small, often capitate flowers. They are natives principally of the Cape of Good Hope, and have no important properties. There are fifteen known genera, according to Lindley, and sixty-five species Examples: Brunia, Staavia, Ophiria.

Order 128. Saxifragaceæ, the Saxifrage Family. Calyx superior, or more or less inferior; sepals usually five, more or less cohering at the base. Petals usually five, perigynous, alternate with the lobes of the calyx, rarely 0. Stamens perigynous, five to ten or ∞, in one or more rows; anthers bilocular, with longitudinal or porous dehiscence. Disk often present, either annular or scaly. Ovary more or less completely united to the tube of the calyx, consisting usually of two carpels, cohering by their face, but distinct and diverging at the apex; styles as many as the carpels, distinct or combined; stigmas capitate or clavate. Placentas marginal (basal or apicilar), rarely central. Fruit generally a one- or two-celled capsule, the cells dehiscing at the ventral suture, and often divaricating when ripe. Seeds usually ∞, rarely definite; spermoderm often reticulated; embryo small, in the axis of fleshy albumen; radicle pointing to the hilum. Shrubs, or trees, or herbs, with alternate or opposite, usually exstipulate leaves. They are generally natives of temperate climates, and some of them characterize alpine districts. The order has been divided into the following sub-orders:

Sub-order 1. Saxifrageæ. Petals five or 0; stamens five to ten; ovary more or less adherent; styles usually two, and distinct; herbs with alternate, usually exstipulate leaves. Examples: *Saxifraga, *rieuchera, *Mitella.

Sub-order 2. Escallonieæ. Petals and stamens five; ovary inferior; style simple; albumen oily. Evergreen shrubs, with alternate, simple, exstipulate leaves, found in the temperate regions of South America (one species, Itea virginica, North America), often at great elevations. Examples: Escallonia, *Itea.

Sub-order 3. Hydrangeæ. Petals four to six; stamens eight to twelve, or ∞; anthers sometimes biporose; ovary more or less inferior; styles two to five, usually distinct. Shrubs with opposite, sometimes whorled, exstipulate leaves; flowers frequently cymose, with the exterior flower sterile and dilated. Found chiefly in the temperate parts of Asia and America. Examples: *Hydrangea, *Decumaria.

Sub-order 4. Cunoniaceæ. Petals four to five, or; stamens eight to ten, or ∞; ovary half inferior; styles two, distinct or combined: trees or shrubs with opposite leaves, having interpetiolary stipules. Natives of South America, East Indies, South Africa, and Australia. Example: Codia.

The entire order contains fifty-seven genera and upwards of nine hundred species. North America has fifteen genera and ninety species (Saxifraga alone has forty-six). Saxifraga granulata, Europe (pl. 69, fig. 2); a, tubers; b, upper part of the plant; c, coronal scale; d, sexual apparatus; e, calyx with capsule; f, vertical section of ditto; gh, seeds.

Order 129. Philadelphaceæ, the Mock Orange Family. Calyx, with a four- to ten-divided, persistent limb. Petals alternate with the divisions of the calyx, and equal to them in number; æstivation convolute. Stamens ∞ (rarely ten), in one or two rows, arising from the orifice of the calyx. Ovary adherent to the tube of the calyx; styles distinct or united into one; stigmas four to ten; ovules oo, attached to a central placenta. Fruit, a four- to ten-celled capsule, free above. Seeds ∞, scobiform, subulate, smooth, pendulous, with a loose membranous arillus; albumen fleshy; embryo straight, about as long as the albumen; cotyledons flat: radicle next the hilum, obtuse. Shrubs with deciduous, opposite, exstipulate leaves, without dots; flowers usually in trichotomous cymes. They are natives of the south of Europe, of North America, Japan, and India. They have no marked properties. The flowers of Philadelphus coronarius, Syringo, have a peculiar sweetish odor, which, to some persons, is overpowering and disagreeable. Of the single genus Philadelphus five species are found in North America.

Order 130. Grossulaceæ or Ribestaceæ, the Gooseberry Family. Calyx four- to five-cleft, regular, colored. Petals minute, perigynous, equal in number to the segments of the calyx, and alternate with them. Stamens four to five, alternate with the petals, and inserted into the throat of the calyx; filaments short; anthers dithecal. Ovary unilocular, adherent to the tube of the calyx; ovules ∞, anatropal, attached to two opposite parietal placentas; style single, two- to four-cleft. Fruit a one-celled berry, crowned with the remains of the flower. Seeds ∞, immersed in pulp, and attached to the placentas by long thread-like funiculi; spermoderm gelatinous externally; albumen horny; embryo straight, minute; radicle pointing to the hilum. Shrubs with alternate lobed leaves, having a plicate vernation. They are natives of temperate regions, and are found in Europe, Asia, and America. Many yield edible fruits, which sometimes contain malic acid. The various kinds of Gooseberry (Rihes grossularia), and Currant (Ribes rubrum and nigrum) belong to this order. It contains two or three genera, and nearly one hundred species. Examples: Ribes, Robsonia. The family is represented in North America by the genus Ribes with twenty-eight species.

Order 131. Cactaceæ, the Cactus Family. Sepals numerous, usually ∞, and confounded with the petals; adherent to the ovary. Petals numerous, usually indefinite, sometimes irregular, inserted at the orifice of the calyx. Stamens indefinite, cohering more or less with the petals and sepals; filaments long, filiform; anthers ovate, versatile. Ovary fleshy, inferior, unilocular; style filiform; stigmas numerous; ovules ∞, attached to parietal placentas equal in number to the stigmas. Fruit succulent, one-celled. Seeds ∞, parietal, or, after losing their adhesion to the placenta, nestling in pulp, ovate or obovate; albumen; embryo straight, curved, or spiral; cotyledons thick, leafy, sometimes nearly obsolete; radicle thick, obtuse, next the hilum. Succulent shrubs, with peculiar angular or flattened stems, having the woody matter often arranged in wedges. Leaves usually absent; when present, fleshy, smooth, entire, or spinous. Flowers sessile, sometimes showy. They grow in hot, dry, and exposed places, and are natives chiefly of the tropical parts of America. Some grow rapidly on the lava in volcanic countries. There are. sixteen known genera, and about eight hundred species. Examples: *Opuntia, *Mammillaria, *Echinocactus, *Cereus, &c. These genera, with numerous species, represent the order in (extra-Mexican) North America.

The plants of this order are remarkable for their succulence, for the great development of their cellular tissue, and for the anomalous forms of their stems, which sometimes are of great size. Opuntia vulgaris or prickly pear yields an agreeable fruit. The Night Blooming Cereus (Cereus grandiflorus) expands its large fragrant flowers only about ten p.m., which become withered before morning.

Cereus hexagonus (pl. 69, fig. 3); b, spines magnified.

Order 132. Ficoideæ or Mesembryanthaceæ, the Ficoid or Mesembryanthemum Family. Sepals definite, usually five, but varying from four to eight, more or less combined at the base, adherent to the ovary or distinct from it, equal or unequal; æstivation valvate or imbricate. Petals indefinite, colored, sometimes 0. Stamens perigynous, distinct, definite, or indefinite; anthers oblong, incumbent. Ovary usually plurilocular; stigmas several, distinct; ovules 00, anatropal or amphitropal, attached by cords to the placenta, which is either central or parietal. Fruit a many-celled capsule, opening in a stellate or circumscissile manner at the apex, or an indehiscent nut. Seeds 00, rarely definite or even solitary; embryo curved or spiral on the outside of mealy albumen; radicle next the hilum. Herbaceous or shrubby succulent plants, with opposite or alternate simple leaves. They are found in warm regions chiefly. The greater part of them grow at the Cape of Good Hope. The order has been divided into three sections: 1. Mesembryeæ, numerous conspicuous petals, plurilocular capsule, with stellate dehiscence. 2. Tetragonieae, petals 0, fruit woody and indehiscent. 3. Sesuveæ petals 0, capsule with circumscissile dehiscence. There are sixteen known genera, and 440 species. Examples: Mesembryanthemum. Tetragonia, Aizoon, Sesuvium. No species of this order are native to North America. Mesembryanthemum crystallinum is often cultivated in green-houses under the name of ice-plant, so called from the peculiar appearance of the leaves.

Mesembryanthemum rubrocinctum (pl. 69, fig. 5).

Order 133. Crassulaceæ, the House-leek Family. Sepals three to twenty, more or less united at the base. Petals equal to the sepals in number, inserted in the bottom of the calyx, either distinct, or cohering in a gamopetalous corolla. Stamens inserted with the petals, either equal to them in number, and alternate with them, or twice as many, those opposite the petals being shortest; sometimes one or two rows of abortive stamens; filaments distinct or united, subulate; anthers bilocular, dehiscing longitudinally or transversely. Abortive stamens or scales (sometimes obsolete), at the base of each carpel. Carpels equal in number to the petals and opposite to them, one-celled, sometimes consolidated; styles several or combined; stigmas pointed or four-cornered; ovules 00, or definite, anatropal. Fruit consisting of several follicles, dehiscing by the ventral suture, sometimes by the dorsal suture. Seeds variable in number; embryo straight, in the midst of fleshy albumen; radicle pointing to the hilum. Herbaceous plants or shrubs, often succulent, with simple, entire, or pinnatifid, exstipulate leaves. They are found in the driest situations, as on rocks, walls, and sandy plains, in various parts of the world.

Tribe 1. Crassuleæ. Carpels (follicles) distinct; dehiscent by the inner suture. Sub-tribe 1. Isostemones. Stamens equal in number to the petals. Section a. Eucrassuleæ. Examples: *Tillæa, Crassula. Section b. Rocheæ. Example: Rochea. Sub-tribe 2. Diphstemones. Stamens twice as many as the petals. Section a. Umbiliceæ. Example: *Echeveria. Section b. Sedeæ. Examples: *Sedum, Sempervirum.

Tribe 2. Diamorphecæ. Carpels more or less united, dehiscent by the separation of the dorsal portion. Examples: *Diamorpha, *Penthorum. Some of the plants of this order are acrid, as Sedum acre; Sempervivuni tectorum is known as the House-leek. There are five genera, with twenty species, in North America.

Sedum acre. Stone crop, Europe (pl. 69, fig. 1); a, the plant; b, a flower; c, the five carpels; d, one of the same; e, f, seeds; g, leaves.

Order 134. Surianacæ. Sepals five, persistent; æstivation twisted, imbricated. Petals five, alternate with the sepals, distinct, inserted into the bottom of the calyx. Stamens five, alternate with the petals, sometimes with five alternating ones, that are occasionally abortive, all inserted with the petals; filaments persistent, distinct, subulate from a broad base, hairy below; anthers two-celled, bursting longitudinally. Torus fleshy, filling up the bottom of the calyx, supporting the ovaries on its middle and the petals and stamens on its margin. Ovaries five, opposite to the petals, distinct, each with a long style arising from the inner angle near the base; ovules in pairs, collateral, erect, straight, with the foramen at the opposite extremity from the hilum (id est, orthotropus). Fruit of five coriaceous, pyriform, indehiscent carpels. Seeds solitary, uncinate, attached to the base of the carpels; albumen none. Embryo of the same shape as the seed; radicle as long as the cotyledons, at the opposite end from the hilum; cotyledons oblong, fleshy, incumbent. Sea side shrubs. Leaves simple, oblong-spatulate, thickish, pubescent, crowded at the apices of the branches, exstipulate. Flowers yellow, bracteate, somewhat terminal. Suriana, the sole genus, is represented in Florida by S. maritima.

Order 135. Paronychiaceæ, the Knotwort Family. Sepals four to five, distinct or cohering. Petals perigynous, between the divisions of the calyx, usually inconspicuous, sometimes 0. Stamens usually perigynous, sometimes hypogynous, opposite to the sepals when equal to them in number, some of them occasionally wanting; filaments distinct, rarely united; anthers bilocular. Ovary superior, with one or more ovules; styles two to three, distinct or combined. Fruit unilocular, either a utricle covered by the calyx, or a three-valved capsule. Seeds either numerous, attached to a free central placenta, or solitary and pendulous from a long funiculus arising from the base of the fruit. Embryo more or less curved, on one side of farinaceous albumen, or surrounding it. Herbaceous or somewhat shrubby plants, with opposite or alternate, sometimes setaceous and clustered leaves, which are either exstipulate or have scarious stipules. Found in barren places in various parts of Europe, Asia, and North America. They have no known properties of importance. The order has been divided into two sections: 1. Illecebreæ, with the embryo lying on one side of the albumen, and stipulate leaves. 2. Scleranthese, with a peripherical embryo, and exstipulate leaves. There are twenty-eight known genera, and nearly 120 species. Examples: *Paronychia, Illecebrum, *Polycarpon, Corrigiola, Scleranthus.

Order 136. Portulacaceæ, the Purslane Family. Sepals two, cohering at the base. Petals usually five, rarely wanting, distinct or cohering at the base, sometimes hypogynous. Stamens usually perigynous, variable in number, all fertile, opposite the petals when of the same number; filaments distinct; anthers versatile, bilocular, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary free or partially adherent, one-celled, formed by three united carpels; style single or; stigmas several. Fruit capsular, one-celled, opening by circumscissile dehiscence, or by three valves, occasionally monospermous or indehiscent. Seeds numerous or definite, or solitary, attached to a central placenta; albumen farinaceous; embryo peripherical; radicle long. Succulent shrubs or herbs, with alternate, seldom opposite, entire, exstipulate leaves, often having hairs in their axils. They are found in various parts of the world, chiefly, however, in South America and at the Cape of Good Hope. They have a great affinity to Caryophyllacese, from which they are chiefly distinguished by their bisepalous calyx, perigynous stamens, and transversely dehiscent capsule. Examples: *Portulaca, Talinum, *Calandrinia, *Claytonia, *Montia, *Calyptridium. These embrace all the North American genera, with twenty-six species. The entire order includes twelve genera, and 184 species.

Order 137. Turneraceæ, the Turnera Family. Calyx with five equal lobes; æstivation imbricated. Petals five, perigynous, equal; æstivation twisted. Stamens five, perigynous, alternating with the petals; filaments distinct; anthers dithecal, innate, oblong. Ovary free, one-celled, with three parietal placentas; ovules ∞, anatropal; style more or less cohering, or forked; stigmas multifid. Fruit a one-celled, three-valved capsule, dehiscing only half way down, in a loculicidal manner. Seeds crustaceous, reticulated, arillate on one side; embryo slightly curved, in the midst of fleshy albumen; cotyledons plano-convex; radicle pointing to the hilum. Herbaceous or somewhat shrubby plants, occasionally with stellate pubescence, having alternate, exstipulate leaves, and frequently two glands at the apex of the petiole. They are natives of the West Indies and South America. They are not put to any important use. Lindley gives two genera, including sixty species. Examples: *Turnera, Piriqueta. Turnera cistoides, a Florida species, is our sole representative.

Order 138. Passifloraceæ, the Passion-flower Family. Sepals five, combined below into a more or less elongated tube. Petals five, perigynous, often with filamentous or annular processes on their inside, which appear to be an altered whorl or whorls of petals, occasionally wanting, imbricated in æstivation. Stamens five, monadelphous, surrounding the gynophore when present, rarely ∞, usually with processes from the thalamus, interposed between them and the petals; anthers dithecal, extrorse, versatile, dehiscing longitudinally; pollen grains sometimes bursting by opercula. Ovary one-celled, often with a gynophore; ovules anatropal ∞; styles three; stigmas dilated. Fruit often stipulate, one-celled, sometimes three-valved, opening by loculicidal dehiscence, or succulent and indehiscent. Seeds ∞, attached to parietal placentas, arillate, or strophiolate; spermoderm brittle and sculptured; embryo straight in the midst of this fleshy albumen; radicle pointing to the hilum. Herbs or shrubs, often climbing, with alternate, stipulate or exstipulate leaves. The order has been divided into three sub-orders.

Sub-order 1. Paropsieæ, plants not climbing, with a sessile ovary, arillate seeds, and exstipulate leaves.

Sub-order 2. Passifloreæ, climbing plants with a stalked ovary, arillate seeds, stipulate leaves, and glandular petioles.

Sub-order 3. Malesherbieæ, plants not climbing, with a stalked ovary, style below the apex of the ovary, strophiolate seeds, and exstipulate leaves. They are natives chiefly of warm climates, and are found in America, the East and West Indies. There are fourteen known genera, and 215 species. Examples: Paropsia, Smeathmannia, *Passiflora, Tacsonia, Malesherbia. Passiflora with four species represents this order in North America.

The name passion-flower was given on account of a fancied resemblance to the appearances presented on Mount Calvary. In the five anthers, a resemblance was seen to the wounds of Christ; the triple style represented the three nails on the cross; the central gynophore was the pillar of the cross; and the filamentous processes, the rays of light around the Savior’s head, or the crown of thorns. Some species, as Passiflora edulis or Grenadilla, yield a pleasant fruit.

Order 139. Belvisiaceæ, the Belvisia Family. Calyx gamosepalous, persistent, limb divided into five thick ovate segments; æstivation valvate. Petals inserted in the tube of the calyx, united more or less, and forming three verticils, the innermost of which may be considered as an altered staminal row; the outer petaline verticil consists of five plaited lobes, each of which is seven-toothed, and has seven feathered ribs; the second petaline verticil is cut into a number of narrow segments; while the third is an inconspicuous cup-like ring, with its edge minutely divided. Stamens ∞, united at their base so as to be monadelphous, or unequally polyadelphous; filaments curved inwards; anthers dithecal, oblong. Ovary surrounded by a fleshy disk, and adherent to the tube of the calyx, five-celled; ovules two in each cell, attached to a central placenta, nucleus curved; style five-angled; stigma broad, flat, pentagonal. Fruit a large, fleshy, rounded berry, crowned by the lobes of the calyx. Seeds large, kidney-shaped; cotyledons plano-convex; radicle and plumule immersed in their substance. Shrubs, with alternate, simple, coriaceous, exstipulate leaves; and axillary flowers often in sets of three. They are tropical, chiefly African. Some of them are used as astringents. Their place in the natural system is not well determined; some placing the order next Passifloraceæ, others near Symplocaceæ, and Lindley recognising its affinity to Rhizophoraceæ. There are two genera, and four species. Ex.: Belvisia (Napoleona), Asteranthos.

Order 140. Papayaceæ, the Carica Family. Calyx minute, five-toothed. Corolla monopetalous, inserted into the base of the calyx; in the male, tubular and five-lobed; in the female, divided nearly to the base into five segments. In the section Pangieae the sepals and petals are distinct. Stamens ten, inserted into the throat of the corolla; anthers bilocular, introrse, innate, dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary free, one-celled; ovules indefinite, attached to five parietal placentas; stigma five-lobed, lacerated. Fruit usually succulent and indehiscent, sometimes capsular and dehiscent, one-celled. Seeds ∞, enveloped in a loose mucous coat, parietal; spermoderm brittle, pitted; embryo in the axis of fleshy albumen; cotyledons flat; radicle slender, turned towards the hilum. Trees or shrubs, not branching, with alternate lobed leaves, supported on long slender petioles, and with unisexual flowers. They are found in South America and in other warm countries. One of the most important plants of the order is Carica papaya, the Papaw tree, which yields an acrid milky juice, and an edible fruit. The tree is said to have the property of rendering meat tender. The order has been divided into three sections: 1. Caricese, corolla monopetalous, fruit succulent and indehiscent. 2. Modecceae, corolla monopetalous, fruit capsular and dehiscent. 3. Pangieae, corolla polypetalous. There are eleven known genera, including twenty-nine species. Examples: Carica, Modecca, Pangium.

Carica papaya, the West Indian Papaw (pl. 71, fig. 14); a, the tree with the fruit; b, male flower; c, section of do.; d, stamen; e, abortive pistil of the male flower; f, a female flower; g, pistil; h, cross-section of the fruit; i, a seed; k, partial section of do.; l, embryo.

Order 141. Cucurbitaceæ, the Cucumber Family. Calyx five- (rarely six-) toothed; the limb sometimes obsolete. Petals five (rarely six), distinct, or commonly more or less united with each other and coherent with the calyx, very cellular and often marked with reticulated veins. Stamens five, sometimes distinct, commonly united in three parcels (two and two, and one separate) so as to appear like three stamens only, rarely three and diadelphous; filaments of each set sometimes connate; anthers usually long and sinuous, or variously contorted or folded, two-celled, adnate, extrorse, commonly more or less connate. Ovary coherent with the tube of the calyx, usually of three (rarely of two or four) united carpels, sometimes one-celled by the obliteration of the partitions, or often with each carpel spuriously two-celled by the introflexion of the placenta from the axis until it reaches the dorsal suture. Fruit fleshy or juicy, rarely membranous, usually a pepo. Seeds anatropous, compressed, often enveloped by a juicy or dry and membranous arillus; the testa coriaceous; albumen none. Embryo straight; cotyledons foliaceous, palmately veined. Herbs with succulent stems, climbing by means of tendrils (which are transformed stipules, according to St. Hilaire). Leaves alternate, palmately veined. Flowers axillary, monœcious or diœcious, or rarely perfect.

Sub-order 1. Nandirhoheæ. Tendrils axillar. Three distinct styles. Three hollow cells, with many seeds ascending from the base. Example: Fevillea.

Sub-order 2. Cucurbiteæ. Tendrils lateral. Styles united. Cells full, with a parietal insertion of the seeds. Section 1. Coniandrese. Example: Coniandre. Section 2. Melothrieæ. Example: *Melothria. Section 3. Bryonieæ. Examples: *Bryonia, Citrullus, *Momordica, *Lagenaria. Section 4. Cucumerineæ. Examples: Cucumis, Cucurbita. Section 5. Telfairese. Example: Telfairia. Section 6. Cyclanthereæ. Example: Cyclanthera.

Sub-order 3. Sicyoideæ. Tendrils lateral. A single cell with a single ovule suspended from the summit. Example: *Sicyos.

Some of the plants of this order are medicinal, others afford a pleasant fruit. Cucurbita citrullus is the water-melon. The pulp of the fruit of Citrullus colocynthis is known in the pharmacopoeia as colocynth. The calibash or bottle gourd is the fruit of Lagenaria vulgaris. Elaterin is the active principle contained in the fruit of Momordica elaterium, or squirting cucumber. The cucumber, the pumpkin, the squash, and the vegetable marrow all belong to this order. There are about sixty-six genera, with three hundred species in all, of which seven genera and nine species belong to North America.

Cucumis citrullus, Water-melon (Asia) (pl. 71, fig. 11M.); a, flowering branch; b, flower; cd, stamens; e, stigma; f, cross-section of fruit; gi, embryo.

Momordica balsaminea, Balsam apple (East Indies) (pl. 71, fig. 12); a, branch with flowers and fruit; b, male flower; c, do. without corolla; d, female flower; e, cross-section of the young fruit; f, the fruit burst open; g, a seed; h, do. without the testa; i, cross-section of do.

Bryonia alba (Europe) (pl. 71, fig. 13); A, branch with male, B, do. with female flowers; C, root; a, male flower; b, do. expanded; cd, stamens; e, female flower; f, do. with the corolla cut away; g, stigma; h, fruit; i, cross-section of do.; k, seed.

Order 142. Loasaceæ, the Chili Nettle Family. Calyx four- or five-parted, persistent, spreading in aestivation. Petals five, cucullate, epigynous, alternate with the segments of the calyx, sometimes with an inner row of five, which are either similar to the outer or dissimilar; æstivation inflexed, valvate, or twisted. Stamens ∞ in several rows, distinct, or polyadelphous, each parcel being opposite the outer petals; filaments subulate, unequal, the outer ones often sterile. Ovary inferior, one-celled, with parietal placentas; ovules anatropal; styles combined into one; stigma one or several. Fruit capsular, or succulent, one-celled. Seeds without an arillus; embryo straight, in the axis of fleshy albumen; cotyledons small, flat; embryo pointing to the hilum. Herbaceous plants, hispid with stinging hairs, having opposite or alternate exstipulate leaves, and axillary one-flowered peduncles. They are American plants, chiefly distinguished for their stinging qualities, and hence the name of Chili Nettle. There are fifteen genera enumerated by Lindley, including seventy species. Elxamples: Loasa, *Mentzelia, Gronovia, *Cevallia, In North America there are of this order, Mentzelia with twelve, and Cevallia with one species.

Order 143. Haloragaceæ, the Mares-tail Family. Calyx with a minute limb, which is either three- or four-divided or entire; it is sometimes reduced to a mere rim. Petals epigynous or 0. Stamens epigynous, equal in number to the petals, or twice as many, rarely fewer; when the petals are wanting, stamens often one or two. Ovary cohering with the tube of the calyx, with one or more cells, sometimes tetragonal or compressed Style 0, what is frequently called the styles being the papulose stigmas, which are equal in number to the cells; ovules pendulous, anatropal. Fruit dry, indehiscent, membranous or bony, with one or more cells. Seed solitary or in pairs, pendulous; albumen fleshy or thin; embryo straight, or slightly curved, in the axis of the albumen; cotyledons minute; radicle superior, long. Herbs, or undershrubs, often aquatic, with large air cavities, having alternate, opposite, or whorled leaves, and axillary, sessile flowers, which are occasionally unisexual. They are found in ditches and lakes in various parts of the world. They have no properties of importance. There are eight known genera, and about seventy species. Examples: *Hippuris, Myriophyllum, Haloragis, Callitriche, *Proserpinaca. North American species twelve.

Order 144. Onagraceæ, the Evening Primrose Family. Calyx tubular, the limb having usually four, sometimes two, three, or six divisions, which cohere in various ways; æstivation valvate. Petals usually equal in number to the calycine segments, regular (rarely irregular), inserted into the tube of the calyx, aestivation twisted. Stamens usually four or eight (rarely one or two), epigynous; filaments distinct; pollen triangular, usually cohering by threads. Ovary two- to four-celled, adherent, usually with an epigynous disk; style filiform; stigma capitate or four-lobed; ovules indefinite, rarely definite, anatropal. Fruit succulent or capsular, dehiscent or indehiscent, one,- two,- to four-celled. Seeds usually ∞, exalbuminous; embryo straight, with a long slender radicle pointing to the hilum, and short cotyledons. Herbs or shrubs, with alternate or opposite, simple, not dotted leaves, and with the parts of the flower usually tetranerous. They inhabit chiefly temperate regions, and are found abundantly in Europe, Asia, and America, and sparingly in Africa.

Tribe 1. Jussieueæ. Calyx divided immediately above the ovary. Number of stamens equal to, or double that of the petals. Fruit capsular, with septicidal dehiscence, many seeded. Cotyledons straight. Examples: *Jussieua, *Ludwigia.

Tribe 2. Onagreæ. Calyx with the tube more or less elongated. Number of stamens double that of petals. Fruit capsular with loculicidal dehiscence, many seeded. Cotyledons straight. Examples: *Oenothera, *Gayophytum, *Epilobium.

Tribe 3. Gaureæ. Calyx with the tube elongated. Number of stamens double that of petals. Fruit indehiscent, nucumentaceous, one- to four-seeded. Cotyledons twisted. Examples: *Gaura, *Stenosiphon.

Tribe 4. Fuchsieæ. Calyx with the tube elongated. Number of stamens double that of petals. Fruit fleshy. Cotyledons straight. Example: Fuchsia.

Tribe 5. Lopezieæ. Tube of calyx elongated. Petals four or more. Stamens two or one. Fruit capsular, many seeded, with loculicidal dehiscence. Example: Lopezia.

Tribe 6. Circaeæ. Calyx divided into two segments immediately above the ovary: petals two; stamens two. Fruit indehiscent, two-locular, two-seeded. Examples: Circæa.

Of the above order there are about 30 genera and 450 species. North America has 12 genera and 117 species. Among the more prominent species is Oenothera biennis, the Evening Primrose.

Oenothera biennis. Evening Primrose, United States (pl. 69, fig. 6); a, a flowering branch; b, calyx; c, stamen; d, vertical section of calyx tube; e, burst capsule; f, cross-section of do.; g, seed.

Epilobium angustifolium. Willow-herb (Europe) (pl. 69, fig. 7); a, a flower branch; b, calyx with style and a stamen; c, burst capsule; d, a seed.

Order 145. Myrtaceæ, the Myrtle Family. Calyx four-, five-, six- to eight-cleft, the limb sometimes cohering at the apex, and falling off like a lid; æstiration valvate. Petals attached to the calyx, alternating with its segments, and equal to them in number, with a quincuncial æstivation, rarely 0. Stamens inserted with the petals, twice as many as the petals, or ∞; filaments distinct, or united in one or more parcels, curved inwards in the bud; anthers ovate, dithecal, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary adherent to the tube of the calyx, one- to six-celled; style and stigma simple; ovules anatropal, pendulous, or erect. Fruit dry or fleshy, dehiscent or indehiscent. Seeds usually ∞, attached to a central placenta; mostly exalbuminous; embryo straight or curved; cotyledons distinct, or consolidated with the radicle, which is next the hilum. Trees or shrubs, with opposite, rarely alternate leaves, which are usually entire and dotted, and frequently have an intramarginal vein. They are natives chiefly of warm countries, as South America and the East Indies. Many, however, are found in more temperate regions. Some of the genera are peculiar to Australia. The order has been divided into the following sub-orders:

Sub-order 1. Chamcelaucieæ, heath-like plants, with a one-celled ovary and capsule, and opposite dotted leaves.

Sub-order 2. Leptospermeæ, having a plurilocular capsule, and opposite and alternate, usually dotted leaves.

Sub-order 3. Myrteæ, having a baccate fruit, distinct stamens, opposite dotted leaves.

Sub-order 4. Barringtonieæ, having a fleshy, one-celled fruit, monadelphous stamens, albuminous seeds, opposite or verticillate leaves, not dotted.

Sub-order 5. Lecythideæ, having a plurilocular woody capsule, which either remains closed or opens by a lid, monadelphous stamens, alternate, not dotted leaves.

Several of these sub-orders are made separate orders by Lindley and others. There are 77 known genera, and upwards of 1400 species. Examples: Chamaelaucium, Calytrix, Leptospermum, Melaleuca, Metrosideros. Eucalyptus, Myrtus, Psidium, Eugenia, Caryophyllus, Barringtonia, Gustavia, Lecythis, Bertholletia. No species has yet been described from North America, although some probably are to be found in Florida.

Those plants of this order, with pellucid dots in the leaves, yield a volatile oil. Some furnish edible fruits. The clove of commerce is the flower-bud of Caryophyllus aromaticus, originally from the Moluccas. Allspice, or Pimento, is the dried berry of Eugenia pimenta, indigenous to the West Indies and to Mexico. Psidium pyriferum yields the guava. Punica granatum, the Pomegranate, is a well known ornamental species. Cream or Brazil nuts are derived from Bertholletia excelsa. Sugar from Eucalyptus, natives of New Holland, has recently excited the attention of chemists. Cajeput oil is derived from species of Melaleuca.

Caryophyllus aromaticus, the Clove Tree (pl. 69, fig. 12); a, flowering branch; b, flowers without; c, ditto with stamens; d, anther; e, calyx; f, g, buds; hk, fruit; ln, the seed.

Melaleuca cajeput, the Cajeput Tree, Borneo, &c. (pl. 69, fig. 9); a, a flowering branch; b, flower in vertical section; c, calyx; d, e, fruit.

Melaleuca fulgens. New Holland (pl. 69, fig. 10); a, a bundle of filaments, with three petals and the pistil; b, pistil.

Eugenia pimenta. Allspice, West Indies (pl. 69, fig. 11); a, a flower; b, ditto magnified; c, calyx with pistil; d, pistil with stamens; e and g, berries; f, a twig with berries; h, vertical section; ik, seeds.

Order 146. Melastomaceæ, the Melastoma Family. Calyx with four, five, or six divisions, which are more or less deep, or are sometimes united and separate from the tube like a lid. Petals equal to the segments of the calyx, perigynous, aestivation twisted. Stamens equal in number to the petals, and alternate with them, usually with intermediate sterile ones; filaments curved downwards in the young state; anthers long, often beaked, bilocular, dehiscing by two terminal pores, or longitudinally. Ovary more or less adherent to the calyx, plurilocular; ovules usually 00; style one: stigma simple, either capitate or minute. Fruit plurilocular, either capsular, with loculicidal dehiscence, or succulent, combined with the calyx and indehiscent. Seeds ∞, minute, attached to central placentas, exalbuminous; embryo, straight or curved; cotyledons sometimes unequal, flat, or convolute. Trees, shrubs, or herbs, with opposite, undivided, usually entire, often three- to nine-ribbed leaves, not dotted. They are found chiefly in warm climates. Many are natives of America and India. There are no unwholesome plants in the order, and the succulent fruit of several species is edible. A slight degree of astringency pervades all the plants of the order, and hence some are used medicinally, in cases of diarrhoea. The name Melastoma is derived from the circumstance that the fruit of some dyes the lips black.

Tribe 1. Lavoisierieæ. Anthers opening by one or two pores. Ovary free, usually smooth at the summit. Fruit capsular. Seeds straight, ovoid, or angular. Species all American (none in North America). Example: Meriania.

Tribe 2. Rhexieæ. Anthers opening by a single pore. Ovary free, usually smooth at the summit. Fruit capsular. Seeds reniform. Species all American (Rhexia, with eight species, the only North American). Example: *Rhexia.

Tribe 3. Osbeckieæ. Anthers opening by a single pore. Ovary free or adherent, usually surmounted by setae, or scales. Fruit capsular or fleshy. Seeds reniform. Old and New World. Example: Osbeckia.

Tribe 4. Miconieæ. Anthers opening by one or two pores. Ovary adherent. Fruit fleshy. Seeds straight. Plants mostly American. Example: Cidemia.

Tribe 5. Chariantheæ. Anthers opening by longitudinal slits. Ovary adherent. Fruit generally fleshy. Seeds straight. Plants American or Asiatic. Example: Astronia.

Lindley gives 118 genera and 1200 species as belonging to this order.

Melastoma malabathricum, Malabar (pl. 69, fig. 13).

Order 147. Combretaceæ, the Myrobalan Family. Calyx four- or five-lobed, lobes deciduous. Petals arising from the orifice of the calyx, alternate with the lobes, or wanting. Stamens epigynous, twice as many as the lobes of the calyx, rarely equal in number, or thrice as many; filaments distinct, subulate; anthers dithecal, dehiscing longitudinally, or by recurved valves. Ovary adherent to the tube of the calyx, unilocular; ovules two to four, pendulous; style one; stigma simple. Fruit succulent or nut-like, inferior, unilocular, indehiscent, often winged. Seed solitary. pendulous, exalbuminous; cotyledons leafy, usually convolute, sometimes plicate; radicle turned towards the hilum. Trees or shrubs, with alternate or opposite, exstipulate, entire leaves. They are natives of the tropical regions of Asia, Africa, and America. The general property of the order is astringency. Many are used for tanning, and some for dying. The fruit of Terminalia belerica, and of T. chebula, under the name of Myrobalans, is used as an astringent. The seeds of Terminalia catappa are eaten like almonds. The order has been divided into three sub-orders:

Sub-order 1. Terminalieæ, petals 0, cotyledons convolute.

Sub-order 2. Combreteæ, petals present, cotyledons plicate.

Sub-order 3. Gyrocarpeæ, petals 0, cotyledons convolute, anthers dehiscing by recurved valves.

There are 22 genera enumerated by Lindley, including 200 species. Examples: * Terminalia, Combretum, Gyrocarpus, *Conocarpus. The order is represented in Florida by Cohocarpus erecta, and Terminalia catappa.

Order 148. Vochysiaceæ, the Vochysia Family. Sepals four to five, united at the base, unequal, the upper one largest and spurred; æstivation imbricated. Petals one, two, three, or five, alternate with the divisions of the calyx, and inserted into its base, unequal. Stamens one to five, opposite to, or alternate with the petals, perigynous, one having an ovate, fertile, four-celled anther, the rest being sterile. Ovary free, or partially adherent to the calyx, three-celled; ovules solitary or in pairs, rarely numerous, amphitropal or anatropal; style and stigma one. Fruit a triquetrous, three-celled and three-valved capsule, usually with loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds usually one to two in each cell, erect, exalbuminous, attached to a central placenta; embryo straight; cotyledons large and leafy; radicle short and superior. Trees or shrubs, with opposite, entire, exstipulate leaves. They inhabit the warmer parts of America. Their properties are little known. There are eight genera enumerated, including fifty-one species. Examples; Vochysia, Qualea.

Order 149. Rhizophoraceæ, the Mangrove Family. Calyx adherent, four- to twelve-lobed; æstivation valvate, or sometimes calyptriform. Petals arising from the calyx, alternate with the lobes, and equal to them in number. Stamens inserted with the petals, twice or thrice their number; filaments distinct, subulate; anthers erect. Ovary two-, three-, to four-celled; ovules two or more in each cell, anatropal. Fruit indehiscent, adherent to the calyx, and crowned by it, unilocular, monospermous. Seed solitary, pendulous, exalbuminous; cotyledons flat; radicle long, piercing the fruit. Trees or shrubs, with simple opposite leaves, and deciduous interpetiolary stipules. They are found on the muddy shores of the tropics. There are five genera, and twenty species known. Examples: *Rhizophora, Kandelia.

Rhizophora mangle or the Mangrove, forms thickets along the muddy shores of the ocean in Florida, sending out adventitious shoots. The embryo germinates while still within the pericarp.

Order 150. Lythraceæ, the Willow Strife Family. Calyx tubular, lobed, the lobes sometimes with intermediate lobes or teeth, æstivation valvate. Petals alternate with the primary lobes of the calyx, very deciduous, sometimes 0. Stamens inserted into the tube of the calyx a little below the petals, equal in number to them, or two, three, or four times as many; anthers adnate, dithecal, introrse, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary superior, two- to six-celled; ovules numerous, anatropal; style filiform; stigma usually capitate. Fruit a dehiscent membranous capsule, surrounded by the calix but not adherent to it, sometimes one-celled by the obliteration of the dissepiments. Seeds numerous, small, apterous or winged, exalbuminous, attached to a central placenta; embryo straight; cotyledons flat and foliaceous; radicle next the liilum. Herbs and shrubs, with branches which are usually tetragonal, and with opposite, rarely alternate, entire, exstipulate leaves without glands. They are natives of Europe, North and South America, and India. The order is divided into two sub-orders:

Sub-order 1. Lytlireceæ with apterous (wingless) seeds.

Sub-order 2. Lagerströmieceæ with winged seeds.

Lindley gives thirty-five genera, including three hundred species. Examples: *Lythrum, *Cuphea, Lagerströmia.

Lythrum salicaria, the Willow Strife, is found in all quarters of the globe. Lawsonia inermis furnishes the Henna of the Arabians, a substance used in imparting an orange color. North American genera five, with ten species.

Lythrum salicaria (pl. 70, fig. 1); A, lower part; B, upper part; a, portion of flower displayed; b, an anther; ce, fruit; fg, seed.

Order 151. Calycanthaceæ, the Calycanthus Family. Sepals and petals confounded, indefinite, combined in a fleshy tube; æstivation imbricated. Stamens ∞, perigynous; anthers adnate, extrorse, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovaries several, one-celled, adhering to the tube of the calyx; ovules solitary or two, one above the other, anatropal; style terminal. Fruit consisting of achsenia, inclosed in the fleshy tube of the calyx. Seed exalbuminous; embryo straight; cotyledons convolute; radicle inferior. Shrubs, with square stems, consisting of a central woody mass, with four smaller ones around; leaves opposite, simple, scabrous, exstipulate. They are natives of North America and Japan.

The genera are *Calycanthus and Chimonanthus, with six species. Calycanthus *floridus is the so-called shrub of gardens, well known for the sweet scented flowers called Shrubs. A second species is found in California.

Order 152. Kosaceæ, the Kose Family. Calyx four- to five-lobed, the fifth lobe superior. Petals as many as the divisions of the calyx, often five, sometimes wanting, perigynous, generally regular; æstivation quincuncial. Stamens inserted with the petals, definite or indefinite; filaments incurved in æstivation; anthers bilocular, dehiscing longitudinally. Ovaries superior, either solitary or several, unilocular, sometimes uniting so as to form a many-celled pistil; ovules one, two, or more, anatropal, suspended, rarely erect; styles lateral; stigmas usually simple. Fruit either achsenia or drupes, or follicles or pomes. Seeds erect or inverted, usually exalbuminous; embryo straight, with the radicle next the hilum, and leafy or fleshy cotyledons. Herbaceous plants, or shrubs, or trees, with simple or compound, alternate, stipulate leaves, and the flowers sometimes unisexual. They are found chiefly in the cold and temperate climates of the northern hemisphere. Some are found on high mountains within the tropics, and a few occur in warm regions.

Sub-order 1. Pomeæ. Calyx campanulate or urceolate, more or less globose in fruit, when it becomes extremely thick and juicy, including and cohering with the ovaries. Ovaries two to five, or sometimes solitary, mostly coherent with each other, with two collateral ascending ovules; styles terminal, sometimes coherent; stigma simple or emarginate. Fruit a pome one- to five-celled; the cells sometimes spuriously divided by the inflexion of the dorsal suture. Seeds one to two in each carpel (many in Cydonia). Trees or shrubs (confined to temperate climates), with simple or sometimes pinnate leaves, which, except in Cotoneaster, do not contain hydrocyanic acid. Fruit usually eatable. Examples: *Pyrus, Cydonia, *Amelanchier, *Cratgegus, *Photinia, *Peraphyllum, &c. This sub-order includes some of our most important fruit, as the apple, the pear, &c. All the cultivated varieties of apple are derived from Pyrus mains, those of the pear from P. communis. The principal north American species is P. coronaria, the wild crab apple, a small tree with very fragrant flowers. The different thorns mostly belong to Crataegus, of which North America has seventeen species. The Service or June berry, Amelanchier canadensis, blooms early in spring before the leaves put out, and at a distance looks like a mass of snow. Cydonia vulgaris, the Quince, was originally a native of Crete.

Sub-order 2. Rosaceæ proper. Tribe 1. Roseæ. Calyx urceolate; the tube contracted at the mouth, at length fleshy or baccate, including the numerous distinct ovaries: the segments somewhat spirally imbricated in aestivation. Carpels (achaenia) one-seeded and in dehiscent, crustaceous, hairy, with two suspended ovules, one above the other, inserted on the whole inner surface of the thickened torus or disk which lines the tube of the calyx; styles terminal or nearly so, somewhat exserted, distinct, or connate above, rather persistent. Shrubby and prickly plants, with pinnate leaves, rarely reduced to a single leaflet, and mostly adnate stipules. Examples: *Rosa, Hultemia, Lowea. The principal genus in this sub-order is Rosa, which includes the various species of Pose. Of the genus there are eleven species and upwards, native to North America. The varieties of Scotch roses are derived from P. spinosissima; those of the dog-rose from P. canina The cabbage rose, P. centifolia, with its varieties, P. damascena, the Damask rose, P. moschata, the musk-rose, &c., are used in the preparation of Pose water and Otto of Poses. It is said that 100,000 roses, the produce of 10,000 bushels of Posa damascena, yield but 180 grains of the attar or otto.

Tribe 2. Neureadeæ. Calyx limited to the carpels, the tube short, the limb divided into five lobes. Petals five. Stamens twice this number. Ten carpels coherent with the calyx, each containing suspended, an ovule; surrounded by five to ten styles; separating at maturity by their anterior face, which opens by the corresponding suture, remaining attached by the back to the tube of the calyx. The species are all from temperate North and South Africa, herbaceous, with leaves once or twice pinnatifid. Examples: Neurada, Grielum.

Tribe 3. Dryadecæ. Divisions of the calyx five, rarely four or more, the æstivation usually valvate, often doubled by an exterior calicle produced by the coherence of the calycinal stipules. Petals of the same number with the divisions of the calyx, sometimes 0. Stamens definite or indefinite. Carpels often numerous, sometimes reduced in number, borne on a central, more or less projecting, receptacle; free, with a terminal style, or more frequently lateral, each containing one or two ovules, upright or suspended. and snbsequently a like number of dry or fleshy achania. Trees or shrubs, with leaves compound, digitate or pinnate, rarely simple. Inhabitants of temperate regions for the most part; some found at great elevations.

Sub-tribe 1. Dalibardeæ. No calicle. Stamens indefinite. Carpels numerous, with the styles terminal. Radicle superior. Examples: *Dalibarda, *Rubus. The latter genus includes the various species of Raspberry and Blackberry, of which there are twenty-three North American species.

Sub-tribe 2. Fragarieæ. Calyx calicled, with valvate æstivation. Stamens indefinite. Carpels numerous, with the styles lateral. Radicle superior. Examples: *Fragaria, *Potentilla. The former genus includes the Strawberries, of which two species are indigenous to the United States. One of these is F. vesca, the cultivated species, introduced into gardens, from Europe, nevertheless wild in the Northern States. The other is F. virginiana, the common wild strawberry. The two are readily distinguished by the fruit. The latter has the achsenia (“seeds”) completely embedded in the deeply-pitted pulp; in the former they stand out.

Sub-tribe 3. Chamærhodeæ. Calyx, with or without calicle, æstivation valvate. Stamens five to ten. Number of carpels the same, or a little greater, the styles nearly or quite lateral. Radicle superior. Examples: *Horkelia, *Sibbaldia, *Chamærhodos.

Sub-tribe 4. Sanguisorbeæ. Calyx with valvate or imbricate æstivation, with or without calicle, hardening and closing above the ripe carpel. Corolla mostly none. Stamens one to fifteen. Carpels two, rarely more. Styles terminal or lateral. Radicle superior. Examples: *Agrimonia, *Sanguisorbia.

Sub-tribe 5. Cercocarpeæ. Calyx without a calicle, aestivation imbricated. Petals five or 0. Stamens numerous. Carpel single, with the style terminal. Radicle inferior. Examples: *Cercocarpus, *Purshia.

Sub-tribe 6. Eudryadeæ. Calyx with valvate aestivation, with or without calicle. Stamens numerous. Carpels numerous, with the styles terminal. Radicle inferior. Examples: *Geum, *Dryas, *Waldsteinia.

Tribe 4. Spiræaceæ. Limb of the calyx with five divisions, more or less deep, æstivation imbricate, more rarely valvate. Petals of the same number. Stamens indefinite. Carpels five, more rarely reduced to two, and even one, free, verticillate, styles usually terminal, containing one, two, or more ovides, suspended or ascending, becoming of the same number of follicles. Trees or shrubs, more rarely herbs, with simple or compound leaves; the flowers white, yellow, or red, solitary or grouped in definite or indefinite inflorescence. They contain astringent principles, together with resin and volatile oil.

Sub-tribe 1. Spirecæ. Seeds not winged. Inhabitants of the northern hemisphere, north of the tropic of Cancer. Examples: *Spiræa, *Gillenia, *Nuttalia.

Sub-tribe 2. Quiltajeæ. Seeds winged. Inhabitants of tropical and South America. Example: Lindleya.

Sub-order 3. Amygdaleæ. Calyx five-partite, with imbricate æstivation. Petals five. Stamens numerous or indefinite. Carpel single, with style entirely or nearly terminal, containing two suspended collateral ovules, becoming one drupe. Seed with a membranaceous integument. Trees and shrubs, with the branches sometimes spined; leaves simple, often bi-glandular; flowers white or rose colored, disposed in racemes, corymbs, or panicles, often developed before the leaves. Most of the species natives of the north temperate zone, some inhabit Asia or tropical America, none found in the southern hemisphere beyond the tropics. Many of the species generally distributed by cultivation. The bark yields gum; the leaves, bark, and the kernels of many species contain hydrocyanic acid. Examples: Pygeum, Amygdalus, Persica, *Prunus. Amygdalus communis, the Almond tree, grows native in Barbary and Eastern Asia. Of two principal varieties, one (dulcis) furnishes the Sweet and the other (amara) the Bitter almond. Sweet Almonds come from Valencia and Malaga, Bitter from Mogadore. The Peach (Persica vulgaris), a native of Persia, has fruit of two kinds. Freestone and Clingstone; in the latter the pulp is adherent to the stone when ripe. The Apricot, Armeriaca vulgaris, is also Asiatic. Prunus domestica furnishes the different varieties of plum, one of which, when dried, occurs in commerce as prunes. Several species of plum are indigenous to the United States. The leaves of P. spinosa, the Sloe, are used to adulterate tea. Cherries are the fruit of Prunus (Cerasus) avium. The poisonous laurel of Europe is P. (Cerasus) laurocerasus.

Sub-order 4. Chrysobalaneæ. Calyx free from the ovary, or cohering on one side with its base. Petals and the (somewhat definite or indefinite) stamens more or less irregular in size and position. Ovary solitary, with two collateral, erect ovules, the style arising from its base. Fruit a drupe. Seed with a membranous integument. Trees or shrubs with simple, glandless, entire leaves; flowers more or less irregular in racemes or corymbs. Mostly natives of tropical America and Africa, rare in Asia. Example: *Chrysobalanus. The fruit of C. icaco is the Cocoa plum of Florida and the West Indies.

The entire order embraces about 82 genera and 1000 species, of which 30 genera and about 200 species are North American.

Potentilla anserina, Silver Weed, Europe and N. America (pl. 70, fig. 4); a, the plant; b, the flower; c, calyx with the sexual apparatus; d, calyx from beneath; e, anther.

Kosa moschata. Musk Kose, North Africa and South Asia (pl. 70, fig. 3).

Mespilus germanica, Medlar (pl. 70, fig. 2); a, a flowering branch; b, fruit; c, seed.

Amygdalus communis (var. dulcis), Sweet Almond (pl. 70, fig. 5); A, branch with flowers; B, ditto with fruit; a, flower; b, calyx; c, petal; d, pistil; e, fruit with the hull in vertical section; f, nut; g, h, seed or kernel; i, vertical section; k, l, bases of leaves.

Order 153. Mortngaceæ, the Moringa Family. Calyx five-partite; aestivation slightly imbricated. Petals five, rather unequal, upper one ascending. Stamens eight or ten, perigymous; filaments slightly petaloid, callous, and hairy at the base; anthers simple, one-celled, with a thick convex connective. Disk lining the tube of the calyx. Ovary superior, stipitate, one-celled; ovules anatropal, attached to parietal placentas; style filiform; stigma simple. Fruit a pod-like capsule, one-celled, three-valved, opening by loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds numerous, half buried in the spongy substance of the valves, sometimes winged, exalbuminous; embryo with a superior, straight, small radicle, and fieshy cotyledons. Trees with bi- or tri-pinnate, stipulate leaves, natives of the East Indies and Arabia. Some of them are pungent and aromatic. The seeds of Moringa pterygosperma. Horse-radish tree, are winged, and are called Ben-nuts. From them is procured a fluid oil, used by watch-makers, and called Oil of Ben. The root is pungent and stimulant, and resembles Horse-radish in its taste. Lindley mentions one genus and four species. Example: Moringa.

Order 154. Leguminosæ, the Pea Family. Calyx five-partite, toothed, or cleft, with the odd segment anterior; segments often unequal and variously combined. Petals five, or by abortion four, three, two, one, or 0, inserted into the base of the calyx, sometimes equal, but usually unequal, often papilionaceous, with the odd petal superior. Stamens definite or indefinite, usually perigynous, distinct or monadelphous or diadelphous or rarely triadelphous; anthers bilocular, versatile. Ovary superior, one-celled, consisting usually of a solitary carpel, sometimes of two to five; ovules one or many; style simple, proceeding from the upper or ventral suture; stigma simple. Fruit a legume, or a drupe. Seeds solitary or several, sometimes arillate, often curved; embryo usually exalbuminous, straight, or with the radicle bent upon the edges of the cotyledons, which are either epigeal or hypogeal in germination, and leafy (Phyllolobge) or fieshy (Sarcolobse). Herbaceous plants, shrubs, or trees, with alternate, usually compound leaves, having two stipules at the base of the petiole, and two at the base of each leaflet in the pinnate leaves. Pedicels usually articulated. The flowers are frequently papilionaceous, and the fruit is commonly leguminous, and by the presence of one or other of these characters the order may be recognised. The order now embraces 467 genera, and 6500 species, of which North America has about seventy genera, and 450 species.

Sub-order 1. Papilionaceæ. Sepals imbricated (or sometimes slightly valvate) in æstivation. Corolla papilionaceous or more or less irregular, rarely wanting. Stamens ten, or occasionally fewer, inserted with the petals into the bottom of the calyx, or perigynous. Radicle bent back upon the edge of the cotyledons, or straight. Leaves simple or simply compound (in Cassiese sometimes bipinnate). Flowers usually perfect.

Tribe 1. Podalyrieæ. Ten free stamens. Legume bivalve, very rarely indehiscent, and then shorter than the calyx. Cotyledons foliaceous in germination, the radicle curved on their commissure. Leaves one- to three-foliated, very rarely imparl pinnate. 1. Podalyrieæ. Examples: *Pickeringia, *Scolobus, *Baptisia. 2. Pulteneæ. Example: Burtonia. 3. Mirhelieæ. Example: Mirbelia.

Tribe 2. Loteæ. Ten stamens monadelphous or diadelphous. Legume bivalve, continuous (without articulations). Cotyledons foliaceous in germination, radicle curved. Leaves one-, to three-, or many-foliated, often paripinnate. 1. Genisteæ. Examples: Genista, *Lupinus. 2. Trifolieæ. Examples: *Trifolium, *Melilotus, Medicago. 3. Galegeæ. Examples: *Amorpha, *Glycyrrhiza, *Psoralea, *Indigofera, *Robinia. 4. Astragaleæ. Examples: *Astragalus, *Phaca.

Tribe 3. Vicieæ. Ten diadelphous stamens. Legume bivalve, continuous. Cotyledons thick, remaining underground in germination, radicle inflexed. Leaves often paripinnate, with the petiole prolonged into a bristle or tendril. Examples: *Vicia, *Lathyrus, Cicer.

Tribe 4. Hedysareæ. Ten stamens mon- or di- adelphous. Legume lomentaceous. Cotyledons foliaceous, radicle curved. Leaves one- to three-foliated, or imparipinnate, often stipellate. 1. Coronilleæ. Example: Coronilla. 2. Hedysareæ. Examples: *Hedysarum, Arachis. 3. Alhageæ. Example: Nissolia.

Tribe 5. Phaseoleæ. Ten monadelphous stamens. Legume bivalve, continuous, or interrupted by successive constrictions without articulation. Cotyledons thick, hypogean or epigean, radicle curved. Leaves of three leaflets, rarely of many pairs, often stipellate. 1. Clitorieæ. Example; *Clitoria. 2. Kennedyeæ. Example: Physolobium. 3. Glycineæ. Example: *Galactia, Glycine. 4. Diocleæ. Example: Bionia. 5. Erythrineæ, Examples: Mucunna, *Erythrina. 6. Wistariece. Examples: *Wistaria, *Apios. 7. Euphaseoleæ. Examples: *Phaseolus, *Dolichos, *Vigna. 8. Cajaneæ. Example: Fagelia. 9. Rhyncliosieæ. Examples: *Rhynchosia, *Pitchera. 10. Abrineæ. Example: Abrus.

Tribe 6. Dalbergiecæ, Ten stamens, mon- or di- adelphous. Legume indehiscent, often interrupted by constrictions. Cotyledons thick, fleshy; radicle curved, more rarely straight. Leaves pinnate, leaflets often alternate, more rarely reduced to one. Example: Cyclolobium.

Tribe 7. Sophoreæ. Ten, more rarely nine to eight free stamens. Legume indehiscent or bivalve. Cotyledons foliaceous or a little thick; radicle recurved or straight. Leaves imparipinnate or simple. Examples: *Sophora, *Cercis, *Cladrastis.

Many plants of the sub-order Papilionacese, have beautiful showy flowers, as Erythrina, Lathyrus, &c. Trifolium pratense, the common red clover, and all the clovers, peas, beans, vetches, &c., belong here. Liquorice is furnished by Glycyrrhiza glabra, a native of southern Europe. Species of Astragalus yield gum tragacanth. This is especially obtained from A. verus, a native of Persia and Asia Minor. Myroxylon peruiferuni furnishes Balsam of Peru; M. toluiferum, Balsam of Tolu. African Kino is produced from Pterocarpus erinaceus. Cowitch consists of the hairs of Mucuna pruriens. Species of Indigofera, as I. tinctoria and coerulea, yield indigo. Red sandalwood is obtained from Pterocarpus santalinus. Tonga beans are derived from Dipterix odorata. The peculiar flavor of Sapsago cheese is owing to the flowers and seeds of a species of Melilotus. Arachis hypogæa produces its legumes under ground, which are known as ground nuts. Erythrina monosperma yields gumlac. The wood of Robinia pseudo-acacia, or the Locust tree of the United States, is in much request for fence posts, &c., on account of its great durability.

Sub-order 2. Cæsalpinieæ. Flowers irregular, but not papilionaceous, petals spreading, imbricated in aestivation, upper one interior. Seeds without albumen, embryo often straight. Stems arborescent or shrubby, sometimes climbing. Leaves simple, or more frequently compound, and often bipinnate.

Tribe 1. Leptolohieæ. Calyx usually campanulate, five-fid. Petals five, somewhat unequal. Ten fertile stamens, somewhat unequal, declined or divergent. Support of the ovary free. Leaves pari- or imparl- pinnate (not bipinnate); leaflets tending to alternation. Example: Hæmatoxylon.

Tribe 2. Eucæalpinieæ. Calyx five-fid, or more frequently five-partite. Petals five, somewhat unequal. Ten fertile stamens, somewhat declined. Support of the ovary free. Leaves bipinnate. Examples: *Cæsalpinia, *Guilandina, *Gleditschia, *Gymnocladus.

Tribe 3. Cassieæ. Calyx five-partite. Petals five. Stamens ten or less, scarcely perigynous, some of them often deformed or wanting. Anthers large, oblong or quadrangular, opening by a pore at the apex, more rarely by a pore at the base. Support of the ovary free. Leaves paripinnate, more rarely with somewhat alternating leaflets, with a terminal one. Examples: *Cassia, Senna.

Tribe 4. Swartzieæ. Calyx with valvate dehiscence, sometimes bursting irregularly, sometimes divided to the base in four to five nearly equal segments. Petals five or less; sometimes reduced to one, or entirely absent. Stamens indefinite, more or less numerous, slightly or considerably unequal, inserted with the petals on the receptacle, or else distinctly (but rarely) on the calyx. Leaves imparipinnate; leaflets numerous or solitary. Bractlets mostly wanting. Example: Swartzia.

Tribe 5. Amlierstieæ. Calyx tubular inferiorly and persistent; divisions four to five, concave, imbricated, reflexed or caducous. Petals five or less, reduced sometimes to one. Stamens ten or more, or less, all, or sometimes one only, very long and folded in the bud. Support of the ovary most generally united on one side with the tube of the calyx. Leaves parirarely impari-pinnate. Example: Tamarindus.

Tribe 6. Bauhinieæ. Calyx tubular inferiorly, persistent, the divisions sometimes short and dentiform, sometimes elongated and valvate. Petals five. Stamens ten or less. Support of the ovary free or united. Leaves compound, of a single pair of leaflets, which are distinct, or else united by their borders, more rarely reduced to a single leaflet. Example: Bauhinia.

Tribe 7. Cynoinetreæ. Calyx four- to five-partite, the divisions imbricated, reflexed, or flowering. Petals four to five, nearly equal, more rarely 0. Support of the ovary free, extremely short. Ovule single or double. Leaves compound, of one or more pairs of leaflets often tending to alternation, with or without a terminal leaflet. Example: Copaifera.

Tribe 8. Dimorphandreæ. Calyx campanulate, regular, five-toothed. Five petals almost equal. Stamens five, fertile, nearly equal, alternating with an equal number of sterile ones. Leaves singly or doubly pinnate. Example: Mora.

Some species of Csesalpinieas have medicinal properties, as the Cassias, from which senna is derived. Tamarindus indicus, or the Tamarind tree, has a fruit with a laxative pulp. Ceratonia siliqua is the carob tree or Locust tree, the fruit of which is supposed to have supplied St. John in the wilderness. The Brazil wood of commerce is derived from Cæsalpinia braziliensis. Hsematoxylon campeachianum furnishes logwood. Balsam of Copaiva is derived from various species of Copaifera. The seeds of Gymnocladus canadensis or cofifee tree of the Western States, are sometimes roasted and used as a substitute for coffee. Gleditschia triacanthos is the Honey locust of the Middle and Southern States, conspicuous for its numerous sharp spines.

Sub-order 3. Mimoseæ. Sepals and petals valvate in sestivation, regular; the latter hypogynous, distinct, or more or less united. Stamens as many as the petals, or very numerous (five to two hundred), hypogynous or inserted into the base of the corolla. Embryo straight. Leaves paripinnate or bipinnate. Flowers most frequently polygamous.

Tribe 1. Parhieæ. Estivation of the calyx and corolla imbricated. Examples: Erythrophloeum, Parkia.

Tribe 2. Acacieæ. Estivation of calyx and corolla valvate. Examples: *Algarobia, *Mimosa, *Acacia. Species of Acacia furnish various gums, as Gum arable. Gum Senegal, Barbary gum, &c. The pinnate leaves of Mimosa sensitiva and pudica display a peculiar irritability when touched, and are hence called sensitive plants.

Glycyrrhiza glabra. Liquorice wood (Southern Europe) (pl. 70, fig. 14); ag.

Phaseolus vulgaris (Europe) (pl. 70, fig. 11).

Indigofera anil, Indigo (East Indies) (pl. 70, fig. 13); a, fruit and flower, bearing branch; b, a flower of the natural size; c, anthers; de, legumes; f, seed.

Genista tinctoria (Europe) (pl. 70, fig. 12); f, the stigma. The remaining figures are easily recognisable.

Coronilla varia (Europe) (pl. 70, fig. 10); a, flowering branch; b, calyx; c, vexillum; d, ala; e, carina; f, stamens; g, stigma; h, legume; i, ditto opened; kl, seed.

Acacia vera. Gum arabic tree (Northern Africa) (pl. 70, fig. 6); the different figures will readily be understood. Cassia lanceolata, Senna (Upper Egypt and Nubia) (pl. 70, fig. 7); flowering branch, half opened legume and seed.

Tamarindus indica. Tamarind tree (South Asia and Central Africa) (pl. 70, fig. 8); a, flowering branch; b, sexual apparatus; c, calyx and ovary in cross-section; d, legume, partly in section; e, seed.

Hæmatoxylon campeachianum. Logwood (central America) (pl. 70, fig. 9); a, flowering branch; b, cross-section of the young wood; c, flower; d, do. from beneath; e, portion of a flower with pistil, two stamens, a petal, and a sepal: f, sexual apparatus of natural size; gi, buds; k, a legume.

Okder 155. Connaraceæ, the Connarus Family. Flowers bisexual, rarely unisexual. Calyx five-partite, regular, persistent; gestivation imbricate or valvate. Petals five, inserted at the base of the calyx. Stamens twice as many as the petals, inserted with them, and doubtfully hypogynous; filaments united at the base. Ovary consisting of one or more separate carpels, each having a terminal style, and a dilated stigma; ovules in pairs, collateral, ascending, orthotropal. Fruit follicular, dehiscing along the ventral suture. Seeds solitary or in pairs, erect, with or without albumen, sometimes arillate; embryo with a superior radicle, remote from the liilum, and cotyledons, which are either fleshy or leafy Trees or shrub, with compound, alternate, exstipulate leaves, which are not dotted. They are tropical plants, some of which have febrifuge properties. Omphalobium lamberti is said to furnish Zebrawood. This order, as well as the orders Anacardiacese and Amyridacese, are by many considered truly hypogynous, and as belonging to Thalamiflorse. Lindley notices five genera, and forty-one species. Examples: Connarus, Omphalobium, Cnestis.

Order 156. Amyridaceæ, the Amyris Family. Flowers usually bisexual, sometimes unisexual by abortion. Calyx persistent, regular or nearly so, with two to five divisions. Petals three to five, inserted at the base of the calyx; æstivation valvate or imbricated. Stamens twice or four times as many as the petals, perigynous. Disk covering the base of the calyx, often in a ring-like manner. Ovary superior, sessile, one- to five-celled; ovules in pairs, anatropal, pendulous or suspended; style one or none; stigma simple or lobed, sometimes capitate. Fruit dry, one- to five-celled, indehiscent, or its epicarp splitting into valves. Seeds solitary, exalbuminous, with a superior radicle next the hilum, and cotyledons, which are fleshy or wrinkled. Trees or shrubs, abounding in resin, with opposite or alternate compound leaves, which are frequently stipulate and dotted. They are natives of tropical regions. There are two sub-orders:

Sub-order 1. Amyrideæ, with an unilocular ovary.

Sub-order 2. Burserecæ with a two- to five-celled ovary. Some look upon the stamens of Amyrideæ as truly hypogynous, and consider the order as allied to Aurantiaceæ.

Lindley gives twenty-two genera, and forty-five species. Examples: *Amyris, Boswellia, Bursera, Balsamodendron. Amyris floridana is the sole North American representative.

Various balsamic and resinous substances are obtained from plants of this order. One of these is gum elemi. Olibanum, or the true Frankincense, is a product of Boswellia serrata, a large Indian tree. Balsamodendron myrrha, a native of Abyssinia, supplies myrrh; other species yield Bdellium, and B. gileadense. Balm of Gilead.

Order 157. Anacardiaceæ, the Cashew-nut Family. Flowers usually imisexual. Calyx usually small and persistent, with five, or sometimes three, four, or seven divisions. Petals equal in number to the calycine divisions, perigynous, sometimes 0; imbricated in æstivation. Stamens either equal to the petals in number, and alternate with them, or twice as many or more; filaments distinct or cohering at the base, usually perigynous. Disk fleshy, annular, or cup-shaped, sometimes inconspicuous. Ovary single, rarely five or six, free or adhering to the calyx, one-celled; ovule solitary, attached by a funiculus to the bottom, or along the side of the cell; styles one to three, occasionally four; stigmas one to three or four. Fruit usually drupaceous and indehiscent. Seed ascending or frequently pendulons, from the adherence of the funiculus to the angle of the cell, exalbuminous; radicle inferior or superior, sometimes curved suddenly back; cotyledons thick, fleshy, or leafy. Trees or shrubs, with a resinous, often caustic juice, and alternate leaves without dots. The order is a sub-division of the Terebinthaceae of Jussieu. The plants inhabit chiefly the tropical parts of America, Airica, and India; some, however, are found in Europe. There are forty-one known genera and ninety-five species. Examples: Anacardium, Rhus, Mangifera, Spondias.

Many species possess a caustic and poisonous juice. Some furnish edible fruit. The Cashew-nut is obtained from Anacardium occidentale. The Pistacia-nut is the fruit of Pistacia vera, cultivated in the south of Europe. P. terebinthus supplies Chian turpentine, and P. lentiscus, the substance called mastic. Some species of Rhus, found in the United States, as P. toxicodendron, poison oak and poison vine, and P. venenata, known as poison or swamp sumach, are much to be dreaded by persons of particular constitutions, simple contact in many cases producing severe inflammation of the skin. Some (not very well authenticated) instances are on record, where simple proximity, with the wind blowing through the plant on an individual, has caused the characteristic affection of the skin. Some persons are able to handle these poisonous species of Rhus with impunity. R. aromatica has highly fragrant leaves. R. typhina, copallina, and glabra, are harmless North American species, known as sumachs, whose leaves and young shoots, with those of R. coriaria, a European species, furnish the tanner’s sumach. Some species of the order supply varnishes. Japan Lacquer is the juice of Stagmaria verniciflua; Sylhet varnish, that of Semecarpus anacardium.

Rhus cotinus, the Smoke tree. Southern Europe (pl. 71, fig. 2); a, a flowering branch; b, a flower magnified; c, ditto without the petals; d, an anther; e, f, fruit.

Anacardium occidentale. Cashew-nut, West Indies (pl. 71, fig. 1); a, branch with flowers and fruit; b, flower; c, calyx; d, staminal tube; e, ditto laid open; f, pistil; g, cross-section of the nut.

Pistacia terebinthus. Turpentine tree, Mediterranean coast (pl. 71, fig. 3); a, flowering branch; b, male flower; c, anther; d, female flowers; e, pistil; f, fruit; g, section of ditto.

Order 158. Rhamnaceæ, the Buckthorn Family. Calyx four- or five-cleft, valvate in aestivation. Petals distinct, hooded, or convolute, inserted into the throat of the calyx, sometimes 0. Stamens definite, opposite the petals. Disk large, fleshy, flat, or urceolate. Ovary superior or half superior, two-, three-, or four-celled; ovules solitary, erect, anatropal. Fruit fleshy and indehiscent, or dry and separating into three parts. Seeds erect; albumen fleshy, rarely; embryo about as long as the seed, with a short inferior radicle, and large flat cotyledons. Trees or shrubs, often spiny, with simple, alternate, rarely opposite leaves, and minute stipules. They are generally distributed over the globe, and are found both in temperate and tropical regions. There are 43 genera and 250 species enumerated. Of these four genera and thirty-four species are cited as North American by Torrey and Gray.

Tribe 1. Paliureæ. Shrubs of the Old World with alternate leaves. Fruit semi-adherent, dry, crowned by a transversely circular wing. Example: Ventilago.

Tribe 2. Frangtileæ. Trees or shrubs spread over the temperate zones; with alternate leaves. Fruit without wings, free or semi-adherent, fleshy or capsular, with the shell indehiscent or opening by an internal fissure. Examples: *Berchemia, *Sageretia, *Rhamnus, *Ceanothus.

Tribe 3. Pcmiaderreæ. Unarmed Australian shrubs with alternate leaves. Fruit wingless, capsular, the shell opening by an introrse perforation, covered by a membrane. Example: Trymalium.

Tribe 4. Colletieæ. Shrubs of temperate South America, the branches terminated by a spine, leaves decussate, sometimes almost none. Fruit wingless, free. Example: Colletia.

Tribe 5. Phyliceæ. Shrubs of the Cape and of extra-tropical Australia; unarmed, leaves alternate. Fruit wingless, adherent, and crowned by the calyx, capsular. Example: Spyridium.

Tribe 6. Gouanieæ. Lianas or herbs of the tropics, or of South Africa; unarmed. Fruit adherent, separating by shells usually winged longitudinally on the back, opening by an internal fissure. Example: Helinus.

Rhamnus catharticus or the Buckthorn, naturalized in the United States, is sometimes used medicinally. The greenish juice, when mixed with lime and evaporated to dryness, forms the color called sap green. French berries used in dyeing yellow are obtained from R. infectorius. Various species are native in North America. Jujube is the fruit of Zizyphus jujuba. The Lotus of the ancients is a second species, Z. lotus. The leaves of Ceanothus americanus were used in the revolutionary war as a substitute for tea.

Rhamnus catharticus. Buckthorn (Europe) (pl. 71, fig. 7); a, a flowering branch; b, a male; c, a female flower; d, a fruit; e, ditto with part of the flesh removed; f, the seed; g, do. in cross-section.

Order 159. Staphyleaceæ, the Bladder-nut Family. Sepals five, united at the base, colored, imbricated in aestivation. Petals five, alternate with an imbricated aestivation. Stamens five, alternate with the petals. Disk large and urceolate. Ovary two- to three-celled, superior; ovules usually ascending; styles two to three, cohering at the base. Fruit membranous or fleshy, indehiscent, or opening internally, often partly abortive. Seeds anatropal, roundish, truncated at the hilum, with a bony testa; albumen generally; embryo straight, with thick cotyledons and a small inferior radicle. Shrubs, with opposite, pinnate leaves, having stipules and stipels. The plants are irregularly scattered over the globe, and are found in Europe, America, and Asia. Some of them appear to be subacrid, while others are bitter and astringent. The species of Staphylea receive the name of Bladder-nut, on account of their inflated bladder-like pericarp. They are cultivated as handsome shrubs. Three known genera are enumerated, and fourteen species. Example: *Staphylea. Staphylea trifolia, or Bladder-nut, represents this order in America.

Ordek 160. Celastraceæ, the Spindle-tree Family. Sepals four to five, imbricated in aestivation. Petals four to five, with a broad base, and an imbricated æstivation, rarely wanting. Stamens alternate with the petals; anthers erect. Disk large, flat, and expanded, surrounding the ovary, to which it adheres. Ovary superior, two- to five celled; ovules ascending, one or numerous, attached to the axis by a short funiculus. Fruit either a two- to five-celled capsule, with loculicidal dehiscence, or drupaceous. Seeds one or many in each cell, anatropal, usually ascending, and sometimes arillate; albumen fleshy; embryo straight, with flat cotyledons and a short radicle. Small trees or shrubs, with simple, alternate, rarely opposite leaves, and small deciduous stipules. They inhabit the warm parts of Europe, North America, and Asia, and many are found at the Cape of Good Hope. The order contains twenty-four known genera, and 260 species. It has been divided into two tribes: 1. Euonymeæ, with capsular fruit. 2. Elæodendreæ, with drupaceous fruit. Examples: *Celastrus, *Euonymus, *Oreophila, Elæodendron. Some authors include the last order with Celastraceæ, as a sub-order. In North America there are three genera (Euonymus, Celastrus, and Oreophila), with five species. Euonymus americanus is called burning bush, from the bright scarlet arillodes and crimson capsules.

Euonymus europæus. Spindle tree (Europe) (pl. 71, fig. 5); a, flowering branch; b, flower; c, fruit; d, seed; e, vertical section of do.

Order 161. Stackhousiaceæ, the Stackhousia Family. Calyx five-cleft, equal, with an inflated tube. Petals five, equal, inserted at the top of the tube of the calyx, claws of the petals united, limb narrow and stellate. Stamens five, unequal, attached to the tubes of the calyx. Ovary superior, three- to five-celled, cells partially distinct; ovules solitary, erect; styles three to five, sometimes united at the base; stigmas simple. Fruit consisting of three to five indehiscent pieces, which are sometimes winged, and are attached to a central persistent column. Seeds anatropal; embryo long, erect, in the axis of fleshy albumen. Shrubs with simple, entire, alternate, stipulate leaves, found in New Holland, and not possessing any marked properties. Lindley notices two genera and ten species. Example: Stackhousia.

Sub-class 4. Thalamifloræ
I. Plate 66: Cultivated Plants of the Ranunculaceæ and Other Families
Engraver: Wilhelm Wagenschieber
I. Plate 67: Various Plants of Economic Importance, Including Tea, Wine Grape, Cotton and Cacao
Engraver: Wilhelm Wagenschieber
I. Plate 68: Cultivated Plants of Many Families, Mostly Ornamental
Engraver: Wilhelm Wagenschieber

Calyx and corolla present; petals distinct, inserted into the thalamus or receptacle; stamens hypogynous. This includes the hypogynous polypetalous orders of Jussieu, and a diclinous order (Menispermaceæ). Sometimes the petals are abortive, and it is then difficult to determine whether the plant belongs to this sub-class, or to Monochlamydeæ.

Order 162. Coriariaceæ, the Coriaria Family. Flowers unisexual. Calyx campanulate, five-parted; aestivation imbricate. Petals alternate with the calycine segments, very small, fleshy, with a keel on the internal surface. Stamens ten; filaments filiform, distinct; anthers dithecal, oblong. Ovary composed usually of five carpels, attached to a thickened receptacle or gynobase, five-celled; ovules solitary, pendulous; style; stigmas five, long and glandular. Fruit, consisting of five monospermous, indehiscent, crustaceous carpels, inclosed by the enlarged petals. Seeds pendulous, anatropal, exalbuminous; embryo nearly straight; cotyledons fleshy; radicle short and blunt. Shrubs with opposite square branches, opposite, simple, ribbed leaves, and scaly buds. They are found in small numbers in the south of Europe, South America, India, and New Zealand. Some of them are poisonous. Eight species of the single genus Coriaria are known.

Order 163. Ochnaceæ, the Ochna Family. Sepals five, persistent, imbricated in aestivation. Petals equal to, or twice as many as the sepals, deciduous, spreading, imbricated in aestivation. Stamens five, opposite the sepals, or ten, or indefinite; filaments persistent, attached to a hypogynous disk; anthers bilocular, innate, opening by pores, or longitudinally. Carpels as many as the petals, seated on an enlarged gynobase (thecaphore): ovule erect or pendulous, styles united into one. Fruit gynobasic, consisting of several succulent, indehiscent, monospermous carpels. Seeds anatropal, usually exalbuminous; embryo straight; radicle short; cotyledons thick. Undershrubs or trees, with alternate, simple, stipulate leaves, and pedicels articulated in the middle. They grow in tropical countries, and are remarkable for the large succulent prolongation of the receptacle to which the carpels are attached. They are generally bitter, and some of them are used as tonics. Lindley enumerates six genera, comprehending eighty-two species. Examples: Ochna, Gomphia, *Castela. This order is represented in North America by a single species, Castela nicholsonii.

Order 164. Simarubaceæ, the Quassia and Simaruba Family. Flowers usually hermaphrodite. Calyx in four or five divisions; æstivation imbricated. Petals four or five, spreading or connivent into a kind of tube; æstivation twisted. Stamens twice as many as the petals; filaments arising from scales. Ovary four- or five-lobed, four- or five-celled, supported on a gynophore; ovules solitary; style simple; stigma four- or five-lobed. Fruit indehiscent, consisting of four or five drupes, arranged round a common receptacle. Seeds anatropal, pendulous; embryo exalbuminous. Trees or shrubs, with exstipulate, alternate, usually compound leaves, without dots. They are found in the tropical parts of America, Asia, and Africa. Lindley gives ten genera and thirty-five species. Examples: Simaruba, Quassia, Picrsena. All the plants of this order are intensely bitter. Quassia of commerce is obtained from Quassia amara, a Surinam shrub, and from Picrasna excelsa, a native of the West Indies. It is sometimes used illegally by brewers as a substitute for hops.

Order 165. Zanthoxylaceæ, the Zanthoxylon Family. Flowers imisexual. Calyx in three, four, or five segments, with imbricated æstivation. Petals the same in number, rarely 0, usually larger than the calyx; æstivation imbricated or convolute. Stamens as many, or twice as many as the petals, not developed in the female flowers. Ovary consisting of as many carpels as there are petals (sometimes fewer), the carpels being either completely or partially united; ovules two, rarely four, in each carpel; styles more or less combined. Fruit baccate or membranous, sometimes of two to five cells, sometimes of several drupes, or two-valved capsules, of which the fleshy sarcocarp is partly separable from the endocarp. Seeds solitary or in pairs, pendulous; embryo lying within fleshy albumen; radicle superior; cotyledons ovate, flat. Trees or shrubs, with exstipulate, alternate, or opposite leaves, having pellucid dots. They exist chiefly in the tropical parts of America. Lindley numerates 20 genera, including 110 species. The North American genera are Zanthoxylum, Ptelea, and Pitavia, with five species. Z. americanus, known as prickly ash, or toothache tree, has an aromatic pungency in the leaves, bark, and berries.

Order 166. Rutaceæ, the Rue Family. Calyx having four or five segments, with an imbricated aestivation. Petals alternate with the divisions of the calyx, distinct, or cohering below into a spurious gamopetalous corolla, rarely wanting; æstivation either contorted or valvate. Stamens equal in number to the petals, or twice or thrice as many (rarely fewer by abortion or non-development), usually hypogynous, but in some instances perigynous. Between the stamens and ovary there is a more or less cup-shaped disk, which is either free or united to the calyx. Ovary sessile or supported on a gynophore, its carpels equal to the petals in number, or fewer; ovules two, rarely four or fewer in each carpel; styles adherent above; stigma simple or dilated. Fruit capsular, its parts either combined completely or partially; seeds solitary or in pairs, albuminous or exalbuminous; embryo with a supeior radicle. Trees or shrubs, with exstipulate, opposite, or alternate leaves, usually covered with pellucid, resinous dots, and hermaphrodite fiowers. The order has been sub-divided into two sub-orders:

Sub-order 1. Ruteæ with albuminous seeds, and the fruit, with sarcocarp and endocarp combined.

Sub-order 2. Diosmeæ, with exalbuminous seeds and a two-valved endocarp, which dehisces at the base, and when the fruit is ripe separates from a two-valved sarcocarp. Ruteæ are found chiefly in the southern part of the temperate zone, as in the south of Europe, while Diosnieæ abound at the Cape of Good Hope and in Kew Holland. The recently discovered Rutosma texensis is the sole representative of the Ruteæ in America. Lindley mentions 48 genera and 400 species. Examples: Ruta, Dictamnus. Diosma, Barosma, Correa, Boronia, *Rutosma.

Dictamnus albus (pl. 68, fig. 10); a, b, a flower branch and leaf; c, stamen; d, pistil; e, burst capsule; f, half of the capsule with the endocarp separated; g, endocarp with the seed; h, a seed.

Order 167. Zygophyllacæ, the Guaiacum Family. Calyx four- or five-parted, with convolute sestivation. Petals alternate with the calycine segments, with imbricated aestivation. Stamens twice as many as the petals; filaments dilated at the base, usually arising from scales. Ovary simple, four- or five-celled; divisions occasionally formed by spurious dissepiments. Ovules two or more in each cell, usually pendulous; style simple, four- or five-furrowed; stigma simple, or four- or five-lobed. Emit capsular, or rarely fleshy, with four or five angles or wings, four- or five-valved, either opening by loculicidal dehiscence, or indehiscent. Seeds few, usually with whitish albumen, sometimes exalbuminous; embryo green, with foliaceous cotyledons, and a superior radicle. Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with opposite, stipulate, usually compound leaves, which are not dotted, and hermaphrodite flowers. They occur in various parts of the world, chiefly in warm extratropical regions, as in the south of Europe, America, Africa, and India. The order has been divided into two sections; 1. Zygophylleæ, having albuminous seeds. 2. Tribuleæ, having exalbuminous seeds. Lindley mentions seven genera, comprising one hundred species. Examples: Zygophyllum, Guaiacum, Tribulus, *Kallstroema. The order is represented in North America by Kallstroema maxima alone. Jussieu includes the last four orders as sub-orders, under one general order, Zygophyllacese. The wood of Guaiacum officinale, a West Indian tree, is known as lignum vitæ. This species yields a resinous matter, known as Gum guaiac.

Guaiacum officinale (pl. 68, fig. 9); a, flowering branch; b, anthers; c, pistil; d, an ovule magnified; e, fruit.

Order 168. Brexiaceæ, the Brexia Family. Calyx small, persistent, of five coherent sepals, with an imbricated aestivation. Petals five, with twisted aestivation. Stamens five, alternate with the petals, arising from a narrow cup or disk, which is toothed between each stamen; anthers bilocular, erect, opening longitudinally and introrsely. Ovary five-celled; ovules numerous, in two rows; placentas central; style one; stigma simple. Fruit drupaceous, five-celled, many-seeded. Seeds having two distinct coverings, anatropal; embryo straight; radicle cylindrical; cotyledons ovate, obtuse. Trees with coriaceous, alternate leaves, having small deciduous stipules. They exist principally in Madagascar. Lindley associates some perigynous genera with Brexia, and places the order near Saxifragaceae. He enumerates four genera, including six species. Example: Brexia.

Order 169. Pittosporaceæ, the Pittosporum Family. Sepals four or five, deciduous, distinct, or partially united; sestivation imbricated. Petals four or live, sometimes slightly cohering, with imbricated aestivation. Stamens five, distinct, alternate with the petals. Ovary single, two- to five-celled; style, one; stigmas two to five, equal in number to the placentas. Fruit capsular or berried, with many-seeded cells, which are sometimes incomplete; dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds often enveloped in a glutinous or resinous pulp, anatropal, with a minute embryo lying in fleshy albumen; radicle long; cotyledons very short. Trees or shrubs, with simple, alternate, exstipulate leaves and flowers, occasionally polygamous. They are found chiefly in Australia. Many of them are resinous, and, in some instances, the berries are eaten. Lindley mentions twelve genera, including seventy-eight species. Examples: Pittosporum, Billardiera, Sollya.

Order 170. Tropæolaceæ, the Indian Cress Family. Sepals usually five, the upper spurred; æstivation slightly imbricate. Petals often five, hypogynous, more or less unequal, sometimes abortive; æstivation convolute. Stamens eight or ten, seldom fewer, free, almost perigynous; anthers bilocular, innate. Ovary triquetrous, composed of three to five carpels, with a single style, and three to five acute stigmas; ovules solitary, often pendulous. Fruit indehiscent, usually composed of three pieces. Seeds exalbuminous, with a large embryo, which has thick, often united cotyledons, and a radicle next the hilum. Herbaceous trailing or twining plants, having a delicate texture, with alternate, exstipulate leaves, and axillary, often gay fiowers. They are extensively cultivated on account of their showy yellow, orange, scarlet, and occasionally blue flowers. They have more or less pungency in their fruit, which is used as a cress. The unripe fruit of Tropaeolum majus, common Indian cress, has been pickled and used as capers. Their roots are sometimes eaten. Lindley includes Limnan these in this order, and enumerates six genera, including forty-four species. Example: Tropseolum.

Order 171. Oxalidaceæ, the Wood-Sorrel Family, Sepals five, equal, sometimes cohering slightly at the base, persistent, imbricate in aestivation. Petals five, equal, unguiculate, hypogynous, with a twisted aestivation. Stamens ten, more or less monadelphous, in two rows; those opposite the petals being longer than those in the outer row; anthers erect, bilocular. Ovary usually quinquelocular; styles filiform, distinct; stigmas capitate or slightly bifid. Fruit capsular, membranous or fleshy, usually five-celled, and when dehiscent five- to ten-valved. Seeds few, anatropal, albuminous, attached to a central placenta, sometimes with a peculiar elastic integument; embryo straight, as long as the fleshy albumen, with a long radicle and leafy cotyledons. Herbs, undershrubs, or trees, with alternate, rarely opposite compound (occasionally simple) leaves, which are generally without stipules. They are found in the hot as well as the temperate parts of the world, and are abundant in North America and at the Cape of Good Hope. In some cases phyllodia, or winged petioles, occupy the place of leaves. There are about six known genera, and upwards of 320 species. Examples: Oxalis, Averrhoa, Hugonia. Five species of Oxalis represent this order in North America. One of the species, O. acetosella, has an acid taste derived from the binoxalate of iotassa which it contains. Some species yield tubers which have been used as substitutes for potatoes.

Oxalis acetosella, Wood Sorrel (Europe and America) (pl. 67, fig. 10); a, plant with the rhizome; b, petal; c, stamens; d, capsule; e, do. burst; f, cross-section; gh, seed.

Order 172. Balsaminaceæ, the Balsam Family. Sepals five, irregular, deciduous, the two inner and upper connate, colored, the lower (odd) sepal spurred; æstivation imbricated. Petals alternate with the sepals, usually four, in consequence of one being abortive, often more or less irregularly united; gestivation convolute. Stamens five. Ovary five-celled; ovules usually numerous; stigma sessile, more or less five-lobed. Fruit a five-celled capsule, opening septifragally, by five elastic valves. Seeds usually numerous, suspended, exalbuminous, with a straight embryo, and radicle next the hilum. Succulent herbaceous plants with watery juice, having simple, opposite, or alternate, exstipulate leaves, and axillary irregular flowers. They inhabit chiefly the East Indies, and are remarkable for the force with which the seed vessels open when ripe. The valves give way on account of the exosmose which goes on in the cells, and they then curl up in a peculiar manner. They have usually showy flowers, but their properties are unimportant. Lindley mentions two genera, including 110 species. Examples: *Impatiens, Hydrocera. The sole North American representatives are two species of Impatiens, known as glass weed, and considered by some of the Indian tribes as efficacious in the bite of rattlesnakes.

Order 173. Likaceæ, the Flax Family. Sepals three, four, or five, persistent, with an imbricated aestivation. Petals three, four, or five, fugitive, unguiculate, hypogynous, with a twisted aestivation. Stamens equal to the petals and alternate with them (with intermediate teeth or abortive stamens), arising from a hypogynous annular disk; anthers ovate, erect. Ovary with as many cells and styles as sepals, seldom fewer; stigmas capitate; ovules anatropal, pendulous. Fruit a plurilocular capsule, pointed generally with the indurated base of the styles; each loculament or cell more or less completely divided by a spurious dissepiment, arising from the dorsal suture, and opening by two valves at the apex. Seeds solitary in each spurious cell, compressed, pendulous; albumen usually in small quantity, sometimes: embryo straight; cotyledons flat; radicle next the hilum. Annual and perennial plants, with exstipulate, simple, entire leaves, which are usually alternate. They are scattered over the globe, but are said to be most abundant in Europe, and in the north of Africa. By some authors the order is associated with Geraniaceae, from which it differs in its unbeaked fruit and exstipulate leaves, as well as the absence of joints in the stem. There are three genera mentioned by Lindley, comprising ninety species. Examples: Linum, Kadiola. There are six North American species of Linum. The principal plant of the order is Linum usitatissimum, or the Flax plant. Flax is the woody fibre procured from the inner bark of the stalk, by steeping and stripping off the outer bark. When worked up it forms the various linen fabrics. Mummy cloth is made of linen, as is well shown by its microscopical structure. The integument of the seed is mucilaginous, and the cotyledons yield linseed oil by expression.

Linum usitatissimum, Flax (Egypt originally) (pl. 68, fig. 13); a, flowering branch; b, sepal; c, sexual apparatus; d, petal; e, f, seed.

Order 174. Gekaniaceæ, the Cranesbill Family. Sepals five, persistent, more or less unequal, one sometimes spurred at the base; æstivation imbricated. Petals five (or by abortion four), unguiculate, with contorted æstivation. Stamens monadelphous, hypogynous, twice or thrice as many as the petals, some occasionally abortive. Ovary of five carpels, placed round an elongated axis; ovules pendulous, solitary; styles five, cohering round the axis. Fruit formed of five one-seeded cocci, terminated each by an indurated style, which curls upwards, carrying the coccus or pericarp with it. Seeds exalbuminous, solitary, with a curved folded embryo, and leafy, convolute, and plaited cotyledons. Herbs or shrubs with simple, stipulate leaves, which are either opposite, or alternate with peduncles opposite to them. They are distributed over various parts of the world. The species of Pelargonium abound at the Cape of Good Hope. Lindley mentions four genera, including, after separating hybrids, about five hundred species. Examples: Geranium, Pelargonium. North America possesses two genera (Geranium and Erodium), with eight species. The geraniums of the horticulturist in their different varieties, all belong to Pelargonium.

Geranium sanguineum, Cranesbill (Europe) (pl. 67, fig. 9); a, a flower branch; b, flower bud; c, petal of natural size; d, fruit; e, seed.

Order 175. Vitaceæ, the Yine Family. Calyx small, nearly entire. Petals four to five, sometimes cohering above, inserted outside an annular hypogynous disk; æstivation valvate. Stamens four to five, opposite to the petals, inserted on the disk; filaments free, or united at the base; anthers ovate, versatile. Ovary two- to six-celled; ovules erect, anatropal; style one, very short; stigma simple. Fruit pulpy and globular, not united to the calyx, sometimes one-celled by abortion. Seeds one to four or five, erect, with an osseous spermoderm, horny albumen, and an erect embryo. Climbing shrubs, having the lower leaves opposite, the upper ones alternate. Flowers in racemes, which are often opposite the leaves; floral peduncles sometimes becoming cirrhose. They inhabit the milder as well as the hotter parts of both hemispheres, and abound in the West Indies. There are seven genera and 260 species. Examples: *Vitis, *Cissus, *Ampelopsis.

Of this limited order, North America possesses the three genera enumerated above, with nine species. Ampelopsis quinquefolia is a well known climbing shrub, called American ivy or Virginian creeper, which runs along fences and up trees, and is capable of adhering to the sides of houses and walls by expansions of the extremities of the tendrils. Owing to its rapid growth and intrinsic beauty, it is in much request as an ornamental plant. The leaves in autumn acquire the deepest crimson tint of any American species. It is perfectly innocuous, although looked on with suspicion on account of a general resemblance to the poison vine (Rhus radicans), from which it may always be readily distinguished by the leaflets occurring in groups of fives and not of threes as in the latter species. The most important plants of the order are the various species of Vitis or Vine, of which there are five species in the United States. One of these, Vitis labrusca or the Fox grape of the northern States, is probably the progenitor of the varieties known as the Isabella, the Catawba, and others. Vitis vulpina, the Fox grape of the South, affords a pleasant fruit, and has probably some cultivated varieties. The remaining North American species are of little value. The native abode of the typical vine. Vitis vinifera, is not known in its whole extent. It occurs wild in many parts of Europe, Asia, and Africa, yet many localities of the kind may have been originally supplied by plants which had been introduced from other places. Most authors fix the original seat of this important species in the old Cyrenaica, in the country between the Black and Caspian Seas. Here the vine attains to a diameter of three to six inches, and mounts to the tops of the highest trees. Omitting as unsuited to this part of our work, the details of wine manufacture, we shall proceed to mention some of the principal varieties of this liquor as it occurs in commerce.

Wines are distinguished in the first place into white and red. The white are more or less yellow or brown, becoming darker by age; the red derive their color from the skins of the grapes, which are allowed to remain in contact with the juice for a certain length of time. Of the Rhenish wines the Asmannshauser is red, the Johannisberger, the Markobrunner, and the Hochheimer, are white. The Leistenwein, Steinwein, Calmuth, Würzburger, and Werthheimer, come from Franconia. The Melnicker comes from Bohemia, Moselle from Trier and Coblentz: the AfFen thaler from Baden. The principal Hungarian wines are the Tokay, Menesch, Oedenburger, and Ofen. The principal French wines are the white and red Bordeaux: Medoc, Graves, and Burgundy: the champagnes, especially the foaming, from Silleray, Epernay, &c. The Spanish wines are mostly yellowish brown, or red, and sweet, as Sherry, Malaga, Benicarlo, &c. Port is a highly prized Portuguese wine; Madeira wine, and the Constantia from the Cape of Good Hope, are much esteemed. Italian and Greek wines are generally excellent, but rarely occur in commerce.

Vitis vinifera, wine grape (pl. 67, fig. 8); a, a branch with flowers and tendrils; b, a bunch of grapes; c, ovary; d, sexual apparatus; e, a perfect flower; f, cross-section of ovary; g, pistil; h, section of ovary; ik, seed.

Order 176. Cedrelaceæ, the Mahogany Family. Calyx four- to five-cleft, with imbricated sestivation. Petals four to five, with imbricated æstivation. Stamens eight to ten, united below into a tube, sometimes distinct, inserted into a hypogynous annular disk; anthers bilocular. acuminated, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary usually four- or five-celled; ovules anatropal, pendulous; style simple; stigma peltate. Fruit a capsule opening septifragally. Seeds winged; albumen thin or; embryo straight, erect; cotyledons fleshy. Trees with alternate, pinnate, exstipulate leaves. They are found in the tropical parts of America and Asitr. Lindley enumerates nine genera, including twenty-five species. Examples: Cedrela, *Swietenia. This order includes as its most important species, the mahogany tree, Swietenia mahogoni, a native of the West Indies and of central America, and probably of Florida. Most of the mahogany wood of commerce comes from the bay of Honduras, and is brought in logs. One of the largest logs ever exported was seventeen feet long, fifty-seven inches broad, and sixty-four inches thick, weighing 30,0001bs.

Swietenia mahogoni, Mahogany tree (pl. 67, fig. 7); a, a flowering branch; b, corolla with staminal tube; c, the latter expanded; d, anther; e, pistil; f, cross-section of ovary; g, capsule; h, ditto opened; i, a winged seed.

Order 177. Meliaceæ, the Melia Family. Sepals four to five, more or less united, with an imbricated aestivation. Petals four to five, hypogynous, sometimes cohering at the base, with a valvate or imbricated æstivation. Stamens equal in number to the petals, or two, three, or four times as many; filaments combined in a long tube; anthers sessile within the orifice of the tube. Disk often large and cup-shaped. Ovary single, plurilocular, the cells often equal in number to the petals; ovules usually anatropal, one to two in each cell; style one; stigmas distinct or united. Fruit baccate, drupaceous or capsular, mnltilocular or by abortion unilocular, when valves are present opening by loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds not winged; albumen usually absent; embryo straight, with leafy cotyledons. Trees or shrubs with alternate (occasionally opposite), exstipulate, simple, or pinnate leaves. They are chiefly found in the tropical parts of America and Asia. Tribe 1. Melieæ. Embryo in a perisperm. Leaflets often dentated. Example: Melia. Tribe 2. Trichilieæ. Embryo without perisperm. Leaflets very entire. Example: Trichilia.

Of the entire order there are about forty genera and 160 species. There are none North American. Melia azedarach, however, is naturalized in the southern States. It is there known as the Pride of China.

Order 178. Rhizobolaceæ, the Souari-Nut Family. Sepals five, more or less combined; æstivation imbricated. Petals usually five, unequal, thickish. Stamens indefinite, slightly monadelphous, arising from a hypogynous disk, in a double row of which the inner is often abortive; anthers roundish, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary four- to five-celled; ovules solitary, semi-anatropal; styles as many as the cells of the ovary; stigmas simple. Fruit formed of several indehiscent, one-celled, one-seeded nuts, with a thick double endocarp. Seeds reniform, exalbuminous, with the funiculus dilated into a spongy excrescence; embryo with a very large radicle, which constitutes nearly the whole of the kernel; cotyledons small, lying in a furrow of the radicle. Trees with opposite, palmately compound, coriaceous, exstipulate leaves. They grow in the warm forests of South America. Some of them furnish oil, others yield edible nuts. Souari nuts are the produce of Caryocar butyrosum (Pekea butyrosa). Lindley notices two genera and eight species. Examples: Caryocar, Anthodiscus.

Order 179. Sapindaceæ. Flowers usually polygamous. Sepals four to five, distinct or nearly so, imbricated in aestivation. Petals as many as the sepals and alternate with them, or fewer by the abortion of one (sometimes entirely wanting), inserted outside the hypogynous disk (or row of glands) which occupies the bottom of the calyx; the inside either naked or hairy, glandular or furnished with a petaloid scale. Stamens eight or ten, rarely fewer or more numerous, inserted either on the disk or between the glands and the ovary; filaments distinct or very slightly united at the base; anthers introrse (the pistil of the staniinate flowers either rudimentary or entirely wanting). Ovary composed of three (rarely two to five) united carpels; styles partly or completely united; ovules solitary in each cell; erect or ascending; sometimes two, the upper one ascending, the lower suspended; rarely three or more. Fruit two- to three-celled, capsular, vesicular, or samaroid, or frequently fleshy and indehiscent. Seeds one to three in each cell, usually arilled, without albumen. Embryo rarely straight; the cotyledons usually incumbent on the radicle, or spirally convolute, sometimes combined into a thick mass. Trees or tendril-bearing shrubs or herbs. Leaves alternate, usually compound and exstipidate, often marked with pellucid lines or dots. Flowers small. Tribe 1. Sapindeæ. Ovary with one ovule in each cell. Embryo curved or rarely straight. Examples: *Cardiospermum, *Sapindus, Paullinia. Tribe 2. Dodonceaceæ. Ovary with two to three (rarely more) ovules in each cell. Embryo spirally convolute. Example: *Dodonæa.

The entire order embraces nearly sixty genera; of which three, with as many species, are North American. The fruit of Sapindus saponaria, known in the West Indies as Soap berries, supplies a substitute for soap.

Paullinia pinnata (South America) (pl. 66, fig. 14); ad.

Order 180. Hippocastaneaceæ, the Horse-Chestnut Family. Sepals five, usually united into a campanulate or tubular five-toothed calyx; æstivation imbricated. Petals five, or four by the suppression of the inferior one, commonly unequal and irregular, unguiculate, hypogynous. Stamens six to eight, commonly seven, distinct, unequal, inserted upon the hypogynous disk; anthers oval, versatile. Ovary roundish, composed of three united carpels, three-celled, with two collateral ovules in each cell; style filiform, acute. Fruit subglobose, coriaceous, three- (or frequently by suppression one- to two-) celled, two- to three-valved, with loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds solitary or very few, large, with a smooth or shining testa, and a broad pale hilum, somewhat campylotropous, with no albumen. Cotyledons very thick and fleshy, gibbous, cohering, remaining under ground in germination; radicle conical, curved; plumule large, two-leaved. Trees or shrubs. Leaves opposite (in Ungnodia alternate), exstipulate, compound; leaflets serrate. Flowers showy; pedicels articulated. This order, composed of the three genera Aesculus, Pavia, and Ungnodia, is North American, excepting a single species, Aesculus hippocastaneum, from Thibet. Native species of Aesculus are known in the United States as Buckeyes. The powdered seeds of A. pavia may be used like Cocculus Lidicus, to stupefy fish. The root also may be used as a substitute for soap in washing woollen cloths.

Aesculus pavia. Small Buckeye (United States) (pl. 66, fig. 15); a, a flowering branch; b, upper and lower petals; c, vertical section of ovary; d, fruit.

Order 181. Aceraceæ, the Maple Family. Calyx divided into five, rarely into four or nine parts, with an imbricated aestivation. Petals equal in number to the lobes of the calyx, with which they alternate; rarely wanting. Stamens generally eight, inserted on a hypogynous disk. Ovary free, two-lobed, two-celled; ovules in pairs; amphitropal, pendulous; style une; stigmas two. Fruit, a samara, composed of two winged carpels, each one-celled, with one to two seeds. Seeds erect, exalbuminous; embryo curved, with foliaceous cotyledons, and the radicle next the hilum. Trees with opposite, simple, lobed or palmate, exstipulate leaves. Flowers often polygamons. They are confined chiefly to the temperate parts of Europe, Asia, and Earth America. They yield a saccharine sap, from which sugar is sometimes manufactured. Acer saccharinum is the Sugar Maple of America. Acer pseudo-platanus, the Sycamore or Great Maple (the Plane-tree of Scotland), acts well as a shelter or break-wind in exposed places, as near the sea. Its sap is slightly saccharine. Its wood is used in machinery and for charcoal. The leaves are often covered with black spots, caused by the attack of a fungus, Xyloma or Kytisma acerinum. There are three known genera, and sixty species. Examples: Acer, Kegundo, Dobinea. Of these genera, the two first with thirteen species are North American.

Acer pseudo-platanus (Europe) (pl. 67, fig. 1); a, a flowering branch; b, a male; c, female flower; d, the winged fruit; e, the seed.

Order 182. Malpighiaceæ, the Malpighia Family. Sepals five, slightly united, persistent, often glandular at the base; æstivation imbricated. Petals five, unguiculate, with convolute aestivation. Stamens usually ten, often monadelphous; anthers roundish, with a projecting process from the connective. Ovary formed by three (rarely two or four) carpels, more or less combined; ovules solitary, with a long pendulous cord; styles three, distinct or united. Fruit dry or fleshy, sometimes winged. Seeds solitary, orthotropal, suspended, exalbuminous; embryo straight or curved in various ways; cotyledons foliaceous or thickish. Trees or shrubs, sometimes climbing, with simple, opposite, or very rarely alternate, stipulate leaves without dots. Hairs, when present, peltate. Flowers either perfect or unisexual. They are inhabitants of tropical countries chiefly, and a great number of them are found in South America. Lindley notices forty-two genera, including 555 species.

Section A, Diplosteinones. Number of stamens always double that of petals, some of them occasionally sterile. Styles usually two to three. The same number of ovaries united. Flowers of one form only.

Tribe 1. Malpighieæ. Fruit wingless. Example: Malpighia.

Tribe 2. Banisterieæ. Carpels provided with wings, the dorsal solely or most developed. Example: Lophopterys.

Tribe 3. Hirææ. Carpels winged; the marginal solely or most developed. Example: Molina.

Section B. Meiostemones. The whole or part of the alternipetalous stamens wanting. Style single by the abortion of two others. Ovaries distinct. Flowers of two diflerent forms on the same plant.

Tribe 4. Gaudicliaudieæ. Carpels with or without wings. Example: Gaudichaudia.

Malpighia urens (South America and West Indies) (pl. 67, fig. 2); a, flowering branch; b, calyx; c, petal; d, stamens and pistil.

Order 183. Erythroxylaceæ, the Erythroxylon Family. Sepals five, united at the base, persistent; aestivation imbricated. Petals five, hypogynous, broad and with a small scale at the base, slightly contorted in æstivation. Stamens ten, monadelphous; anthers erect; bilocular, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary three-celled, two of which are sometimes abortive; styles three, distinct, or united; stigmas three; ovule single, pendulous. Fruit a one-seeded drupe. Seed angular, anatropal; embryo in the axis of firm albumen, rarely exalbuminous; cotyledons linear, flat, and leafy. Shrubs or trees with alternate stipulate leaves. Flowers arising from numerous, imbricated, scale-like bracts. Found chiefly in the West Indies and South America. The plants of the order have tonic, purgative, and narcotic qualities. The leaves of Erythroxylon coca are used in Peru as a stimulant like opium. Some yield a dye. There are two or three known genera, and about eighty species. Examples: Erythroxylon, Sethia.

Order 184. Hippocrateaceæ, the Hippocratea Family. Sepals five, very small, united up to the middle, persistent, with an imbricated æstivation. Petals five, with an imbricated sestivation. Stamens three, monadelphous; the united filaments forming a tube or a disk-like cup round the ovary; anthers with transverse dehiscence. Ovary free, trilocular; style one; stigmas one to three. Fruit consisting either of three samaroid carpels, or fleshy and one- to three-celled. Seeds definite, about four in each cell, attached to a central placenta, exalbuminous, anatropal, with a straight embryo, and flat, somewhat fleshy cotyledons. Arborescent or climbing shrubs, with opposite, simple, somewhat coriaceous leaves, having small deciduous stipules. They are found principally in South America; a few are natives of Africa and the East Indies. The fruit of some is eatable. Lindley mentions six genera, comprehending eighty-six species. Examples: Hippocratea, Salacia.

Order 185. Marcgraaviaceæ, the Marcgravia Family. Sepals two to seven, usually coriaceous and persistent; æstivation imbricated. Corolla hypogynous, of five petals, or gamopetalous, calyptriform, entire or torn at the point. Stamens usually 00, very rarely five, hypogynous; filaments dilated at the base; anthers long, erect, introrse. Ovary single, unilocular; style one; stigma often capitate. Fruit coriaceous, indehiscent, or dehiscing by valves in a loculicidal manner, the placentas being parietal and forming spurious dissepiments. Seeds indefinite, minute, in a pulp, anatropal, exalbuminous; embryo straight. Trees and shrubs, with alternate, simple, entire, coriaceous, and exstipulate leaves. Flowers furnished occasionally with bracts, which are folded and united so as to form ascidia. They occur chiefly in the warmer parts of America. Their properties are scarcely known. There are four genera mentioned, and twenty-six species. Examples: Marcgraavia, Norantea.

Order 186. Guitiferæ, or Clusiaceæ, the Gamboge Family. Sepals two to six, or eight, usually persistent, round, frequently unequal and colored; æstivation imbricated. Petals hypogynous, equal to, or a multiple of, the sepals. Stamens hypogynous, usually 00, rarely definite, free or variously united at the base; filaments unequal in length; anthers adnate, introrse or extrorse, sometimes very small, occasionally unilocular, and sometimes with porous or circumscissile dehiscence. Thalamus, forming a fleshy, sometimes five-lobed disk. Ovary solitary, one- or many-celled; ovules either solitary and erect, or ascending and numerous, and attached to central placentas; style or very short; stigmas peltate or radiate. Fruit dry or fleshy, one- or many-celled, one- or many-seeded, either with septicidal dehiscence or indehiscent. Seeds definite, anatropal, orthotropal, in a pulp, apterous, and often arillate, with a thin and membranous spermoderm; albumen; embryo straight; cotyledons usually cohering.

Trees or shrubs, sometimes parasitical, with exstipulate, opposite, coriaceous, entire leaves, having a strong midrib, and lateral veins running directly to the margin. Flowers articulated with the peduncle, often unisexual by abortion. They are natives of tropical regions, more especially of South America. Lindley enumerates 30 genera, including 150 species. Tribe 1. Clusieæ. Ovary many-celled, one- or many-seeded. Fruit capsular. Example: *Clusia. Tribe 2. Moronobeæ. Ovary many-celled, the cells many-seeded. Fruit fleshy, indehiscent. Example: Chrysopia. Tribe 3. Garcinieæ. Ovary many-celled, the cells one-seeded. Fruit fleshy. Examples: Mammea, Garcinea, Cambogia. Tribe 4. Calophylleæ. Cells of ovary two, with two seeds, or one cell with one to three seeds. Fruit capsular or drupaceous. Example: Mesua.

Garcinia cambogia, a Malabar tree, furnishes gamboge. G. mangostena supplies the East Indian Mangosteen fruit. The Mammee apple of South America is derived from Mammea americana. A species of Clusia is found in Florida.

Carcinia cambogia, the Gamboge tree (pl. 67, fig. 4); a, a flowering branch; b, the fruit; c, cross-section; d, flower; e, pistil in section; f, a seed.

Order 187. Hypeeicaceæ, the St. John’s Wort Family. Sepals four or five, separate or united, persistent, usually with glandular dots, unequal; æstivation imbricated. Petals four or five, oblique, often with black dots: æstivation contorted. Stamens hypogynous, ∞, generally polyadelphous, very rarely ten, and monadelphous or distinct; filaments filiform; anthers bilocular, with longitudinal dehiscence; carpels two to five, united round a central or basal placenta; styles the same in number as the carpels, usually separate; stigmas capitate or simple. Fruit either fleshy or capsular, multilocular and multivalvular, rarely unilocular. Seeds usually 00, minute, anatropal, usually exalbuminous; embryo usually straight. Herbaceous plants, shrubs, or trees, with exstipulate, entire leaves, which are usually opposite and dotted. Flowers often yellow. They are distributed very generally over all parts of the globe, are found in elevated and low, dry and damp situations. They yield a resinous colored juice, which has purgative properties, and resembles gamboge. Lindley places Parnassia in this order. There are 15 known genera, and about 270 species. North America has three genera and thirty-three species. Tribe 1. Hypericeæ. No glands between the stamens. Examples: *Hypericnm, *Asyrmn. Tribe 2. Elodeæ. Glands or scales alternating with the groups of stamens. Example: *Elodea.

Hypericum perforatum is the noxious yellow flowered plant, called St. John’s Wort, and common in old fields and pastures.

Hypericum perforatum (pl. 67, fig. 3); a, flowering branch; b, calyx; c, fruit; d, lower half of a leaf magnified.

Order 188. Aurantiaceæ, the Orange Family. Calyx urceolate or campanulate, short, three- to five-toothed, withering. Petals three to five, broad at the base, sometimes slightly coherent; æstivation imbricated. Stamens equal in number to, or a multiple of, the petals; filaments flattened at the base, distinct or combined into one or more parcels; anthers erect. Thalamus enlarged in the form of a hypogynous disk, to which the petals and stamens are attached. Ovary free, multilocular; style one; stigma thickish, somewhat divided. Fruit a hesperidium, having a spongy, separable rind, and pulpy, separable cells. Seeds anatropal, attached to the axis, solitary, or several, usually pendulous, having the chalaza and raphe usually well marked; perisperm; embryo straight; cotyledons thick and fleshy. Trees or shrubs, usually conspicuous for their beauty, with alternate, often compound leaves, which are articulated with a usually winged petiole. They abound in the East Indies. There are twenty genera and nearly one hundred species enumerated. Tribe 1. Limoneæ. Stamens twice as many as the petals. One ovule only, or two collateral. Example: *Limonia. Tribe 2. Clauseneæ. Stamens twice as many as the petals. Ovules two, superimposed. Example: Marraya. Tribe 3. Citreæ. Stamens double or multiple the petals in number. Ovules many, in two series. Examples: Feronia, Citrus.

Plants of this order are characterized by having receptacles of volatile oil in almost every part. It includes the Orange, Lemon, Lime, Citron, Shaddock, &c. Citrus vulgaris yields the bitter or Seville orange. Sweet oranges are derived from Citrus aurantium. The best come from the Azores. A single tree has been known to produce 20,000 oranges. Citrus limonum supplies the Lemon; C. medica, the Citron; C. limetta, the Lime; C. decumana, the Shaddock. Oil of Bergamot is the volatile oil from the rind of the Bergamot, a variety of the Lime. Extensive groves of Orange trees are found in East Florida, south of latitude 29° 30′.

Citrus medica, the Citron (pl. 67, fig. 5); a, a flowering branch; b, stamens; c, a single bundle of stamens; d, anther; e, pistil; f, cross-section of fruit; g, h, seed.

Order 189. Olacaceæ, the Olax Family. Calyx small, gamosepalous, entire or toothed, often becoming finally large and fleshy; æstivation imbricated. Petals three to six, hypogynous, free, or adhering in pairs by means of the stamens; æstivation valvate. Stamens hypogynous, some fertile, others sterile; the former three to ten, alternate with the petals, the latter opposite to the petals; filaments compressed; anthers innate, bilocular, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary one- to three- or four-celled; ovules one to three, pendulous from a central placenta; style filiform; stigma simple. Fruit fleshy, indehiscent, often surrounded by the enlarged calyx, unilocular, monospermal. Seed anatropal, pendulous; albumen copious, fleshy; embryo small, at the base of the albumen. Trees or shrubs, with simple, alternate, exstipulate leaves, which are, however, sometimes abortive. They are chiefly tropical or sub-tropical. Little is known in regard to their properties. There are twenty-four genera and fifty-three species enumerated. Examples: Olax, Opilia.

Order 190. Ternstrœmiaceæ, the Tea Family. Sepals five or seven, concave, coriaceous, deciduous, the innermost often the largest; gestivation imbricated. Petals five, six, or nine, often combined at the base. Stamens indefinite, hypogynous; filaments free, or united at the base in one or more parcels; anthers versatile or adnate, dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary multilocular; styles two to seven. Fruit either a capsule, two- to seven-celled, opening by valves, or coriaceous and indehiscent. Seeds attached to the axis, few and large; albumen 0, or in very small quantity; embryo straight, or bent, or folded back; radicle next the hilum; cotyledons very large, often containing oil. Trees or shrubs, with alternate, coriaceous, exstipulate leaves, which are sometimes dotted. They abound in South America, and many occur in India, while others inhabit China and North America. There are 33 genera and 130 species enumerated. Examples: Ternstroemia, *Gordonia, Camellia, Thea, *Stuartia.

Species of Thea (T. viridis and bohea) furnish most of the Chinese teas. It is a matter of some uncertainty whether black and green teas are derived from different species or not. Green teas contain more essential oil and tannin than black. The principal varieties of the former are Twankay, Young Hyson, Hyson, Gunpowder, and Imperial; the latter include Bohea, Congou, Souchong, Oolong, and Pekoe. Perfume is communicated to teas by the flowers of Olea fragrans, Cloranthus inconspicuus, and Aglaia odorata. The highly ornamental Camellia japonica is a member of the order.

Thea chinensis, Tea plant (pl. 67, fig. 6); a, b, c, three varieties; d, pistil and one stamen; e, f, g, ovary.

Camellia japonica (Japan) (pl. 68, fig. 14); a, branch with a flower; b, two stamens; c, pistil; d, cross-section of capsule; e, section of seed.

Order 191. Chlænaceæ. Involucre one- to two-flowered, persistent. Sepals three, small. Petals five to six, hypogynous, sometimes combined at the base, where they are broader. Stamens ten, or indefinite; filaments cohering at the base, and united to the base of the petals; anthers roundish, free or united, bilocular. Ovary single, trilocular; style one, filiform; stigma trifid. Capsule three-celled, or by abortion one-celled. Seeds solitary or numerous, suspended, attached to a central placenta; embryo in the axis of fleshy or horny albumen; cotyledons leafy, undulated. Trees or shrubs, with alternate stipulate leaves, found in Madagascar. Their properties are unknown. There are four genera enumerated, including probably about eight or ten species. Examples: Sarcolsena, Leptolsena.

Order 192. Dipterocarpaceæ, the Sumatra Camphor Family. Calyx tabular, five-lobed, unequal, naked, persistent, and afterwards enlarged, with an imbricated a3Stivation. Petals hypogynous, sessile, often combined at the base, with a twisted aestivation. Stamens indefinite, hypogynous; filaments dilated at the base, either distinct or irregularly cohering; anthers innate, bilocular, subulate, opening by terminal fissures. Torus not enlarged in a disk-like manner. Ovary superior, three-celled; ovules in pairs, pendulous; style and stigma simple. Fruit coriaceous, unilocular by abortion, three-valved or indehiscent, surrounded by the calyx, which is prolonged in the form of long wing-like lobes. Seed solitary, exalbuminous; cotyledons often twisted and crumpled; radicle superior. Trees with alternate leaves, having an involute vernation, and deciduous convolute stipules. They are found in India. There are about eight known genera, including forty-eight species. Examples: Dipterocarpus, Yateria, Dryobalanops.

Order 193. Teliaceæ, the Linden Family. Sepals four to five, with a valvate aestivation. Petals four to five, entire, rarely wanting. Stamens hypogynous, free, or united by the enlarged border of the stalk of the pistil, usually oo; anthers two-celled, dehiscing longitudinally or by pores, occasionally some abortive. Disk often large and glandular. Ovary solitary, formed by the union of two to ten carpels; style one; stigmas as many as the carpels. Fruit dry or pulpy, either multilocular with numerous seeds, or by abortion unilocular and one-seeded. Seeds anatropal; embryo erect in the axis of fleshy albumen, with flat, leafy cotyledons. Trees or shrubs, rarely herbaceous plants, with alternate stipulate leaves. They are found chiefly in tropical regions, only a small number inhabiting northern countries. The order has been divided into two sections: 1. Tilieæ, with entire petals or 0, and anthers dehiscing longitudinally. 2. Elæocarpese, with lacerated petals, and anthers opening at the apex. Lindley enumerates thirty-five genera, including 350 species. Examples: *Tilia, *Corchorus, Grewia, Aristotelia, Elseocarpus. Five species of the two first-named genera are the North American representatives. Species of Tilia are known as Linden or Lime trees. Russian mats are made from the inner bark of the Tilia europæa.

Tilia grandiflora. Lime tree or Linden (pl. 68, fig. 6); a–[h].

Order 194. Byttneriaceæ, the Chocolate Family. Calyx four- to five-lobed, valvate in aestivation. Petals four to five or 0, often elongated at the apex, with a twisted or induplicate æstivation. Stamens hypogynous, either equal in number to the petals, or some multiple of them, more or less monadelphous, some of them sterile; anthers bilocular, introrse. Ovary free, composed usually of four to ten carpels arranged round a central column; styles terminal, as many as the carpels, free or united; ovules two in each loculament. Fruit capsular, either with loculicidal dehiscence, or the carpels separating from each other. Seeds anatropal, often winged; embryo straight or curved, lying usually in fleshy albumen; cotyledons either plaited or rolled up spirally. Trees, shrubs, or undershrubs, with alternate leaves, having either deciduous stipules or 0, and stellate or forked hairs. They abound in tropical climates. Lindley enumerates forty-five genera, embracing four hundred species. Tribe 1. Lasiopetaleæ. Calyx petaloid. Petals reduced to short scales or 0. Five anthers bearing filaments, alternating with an equal number of abortive ones. Embryo straight with foliaceous cotyledons, in a thick perisperm. Species Australasian. Example: Seringia. Tribe 2. Byttnerieæ. Petals concave or vaulted, often prolonged at the apex into a liguliform appendage. Staminal tube divided superiorly into ten strips alternately sterile and carrying one to three anthers. Embryo with cotyledons sometimes foliaceous in a thick albumen, sometimes folded or convolute without perisperm. Species belong to both worlds. Example: Theobroma, Telfairia. Tribe 3. Hermannieæ. Petals flat. Five monadelphous fertile stamens. Embryo with foliaceous cotyledons, straight or arched in a fleshy albumen. Plants common to both continents, especially abundant in South Africa. Example: *Melochia, Waltheria. Tribe 4. Domheyaceæ. Petals flat. Stamens fifteen to forty, those opposite the petals usually sterile and liguliform. Embryo with foliaceous cotyledons, often bifid and folded, in a thin perisperm. Example: Kydia. Tribe 5. Eriolcenieæ. Petals flat. Stamens numerous, all anther bearing, united into one column. Embryo with the cotyledons folded, bilobed, in a fleshy perisperm. Species Asiatic. Example: Schillera.

The only North American representatives of the order are Melochia pyramidata and Hermannia texana, found in Texas. The most conspicuous species is the Chocolate tree, Theobroma cacao. Chocolate consists of the roasted and ground beans mixed with sugar, arnotto, vanilla, and cinnamon. Butter of cacao is a fatty oil obtained by expression from the seed.

Theobroma cacao, the Cacao or Chocolate tree (South America) (pl. 67, fig. 12); a, a flower branch and a branch with fruit; b, vertical section of the latter; c, flower; d, stamen; e, staminal tube; f, pistil; g, lower stamens; hl, seeds.

Order 195. Sterculiaceæ, the Sterculia and Silk-cotton Family. Calyx of five, more or less united, sepals, often surrounded by an involucre; æstivation usually valvate. Petals five or none, hypogynous, aestivation twisted. Stamens usually ∞; their filaments variously united; anthers two-celled, extrorse. Pistil of five (rarely) three carpels, either distinct or cohering; styles equal in number to the carpels, free or cohering; ovules orthotropal or anatropal. Fruit capsular, usually with five cells, or follicular or succulent. Seeds often with a woolly covering; with a fleshy or oily perisperm (rarely 0), and either a straight or a curved embryo; cotyledons leafy or thick, plaited or rolled round the plumule. Trees or shrubs, with alternate leaves, which are either simple or compound, deciduous stipules, and often a stellate pubescence. They are distinguished from Malvaceæ by their dithecal extrorse anthers. They inhabit warm climates.

Sub-order 1. Adansonieæ, Flowers hermaphrodite. Anthers one-locular (sometimes germinate). Fruit sessile, most often with loculicidal dehiscence, rarely indehiscent. Perisperm usually almost wanting. Leaves digitate or palmate. Examples: Adansonia, Bombax, Cheirostemon, Montezuma.

Sub-order 2. Helictereæ. Flowers hermaphrodite. Anthers two-locular (evident in the bud). Fruit stipitate. Perisperm fleshy and thick. Leaves simple. Example: Helicteres.

Sub-order 3. Sterculieæ. Flowers unisexual. Leaves simple or palmate. Example: Cola.

There are thirty-four genera and 125 species, none of which are North American. Adansonia digitata, the Baobab or Monkey bread of Senegal, is one of the largest of known trees, a diameter of thirty feet having been observed. Adanson incorrectly estimated the age of this individual at 5000 years. The height is not in proportion to the diameter. Cheirostemon platanoides is the Mexican Hand plant, so called on account of the five peculiarly curved anthers, resembling claws. The silky hairs of Bombax ceiba, the silk-cotton tree, are used in stuffing cushions.

Order 196. Malvaceæ, the Mallow Family. Sepals five, rarely three or four, more or less cohering at the base, with a valvate aestivation, often bearing an external calyx (epicalyx) or involucre. Petals equal in number to the sepals; aestivation twisted. Stamens 00, hypogynous, all perfect; filaments monadelphous or polyadelphous; anthers monothecal, reniform, with transverse dehiscence. Ovary formed by the union of several carpels round a common axis, either distinct or cohering; styles as many as the carpels, united or free. Fruit capsular or baccate; carpels one- or many-seeded, sometimes closely united, at other times separate or separable; dehiscence loculicidal or septicidal. Seeds amphitropal or semi-anatropal; albumen 0, or in very small quantity; embryo curved; cotyledons twisted or doubled. Herbaceous plants, trees, or shrubs, with alternate stipulate leaves, more or less divided, and often with stellate hairs. They are found chiefly in tropical countries and in the warm parts of the Temperate Zone.

Tribe 1. Malopeæ. Carpels indefinite, crowned together in a five-lobed or amorphous head, uniovulate. Radicle inferior. Kone North American. Example: Malope.

Tribe 2. Malveæ. Carpels as many as the stigmas (five to twenty or more), uniovulate or pauciovulate, disposed in a ring around a central axis, from which they at length separate. Column antheriferous at the summit. Sub-tribe 1. Eumalveæ. Style stigmatose down the inner face. Carpels uniovulate, numerous. Ovule peritropous, ascending. Examples: *Malva, *Callirrhöe, *Napæa. Sub-tribe 2. Sideæ. Stigmas terminal, capitate. Carpels uniovulate. Example: *Sida. Sub-tribe 3. Abutileæ. Carpels three- to nine-ovulate, not bilocellate, somewhat two-valved, scarcely separating from the axis. Example: *Abutilon.

Tribe 3. Ureneæ. Carpels or cells of the ovary half as many as the stigmas (viz. five, the stigmas ten), uniovulate. Padicle inferior. Examples: Urena, *Malachra.

Tribe 4. Hibisceæ. Carpels as many as the stigmas, three to ten (usually five), combined into a loculicidal few- or many-seeded (or rarely indehiscent) capsule; the dissepiments borne on the middle of the valves. Column antheriferous for a great part of its length, naked and five-toothed at the apex. Examples: *Hibiscus, Gossypium, Abelmoschus.

Lindley enumerates 37 genera with 1000 species. North America has eleven genera and fifty-three species. All the species yield mucilage in large quantity, and none are poisonous. The Hollyhock, Althœa rosea, is an ornamental plant, as are many other species. The Sun-hemp of India is derived from Hibiscus esculentus. Okra, a substance much used in soups, is the fruit of Abelmoschus esculentus. Various species of Gossypium furnish cotton, which consists of the hairs surrounding the seed. These, when dry, exhibit to the microscope a peculiar twisted appearance, by which they are readily recognised. The Sea Island, New Orleans, and Georgia cottons, considered the best, are obtained from G. barbadense. G. acuminatum furnishes the South American cotton; G. arboreum, the Indian tree cotton; G. nanking, nankeen cotton. The nankeen color is said to be imparted by the fruit of Acacia arabica.

Gossypium herbaceum. Cotton plant (pl. 67, fig. 11); a, a flowering branch, and a (to the right hand), a flower; b, capsule with the calyx; c, capsule; d, germs; e, cross-section of the capsules; f, seeds with the cotton hairs; gm, seeds with the embryo.

Order 197. Vivianiaceæ, the Viviania Family. Sepals five, united. Petals five, hypogynous, unguiculate, persistent, with twisted æstivation. Stamens ten, hypogynous; filaments free; anthers bilocular, opening longitudinally. Ovary free, three-celled; stigmas three. Capsule three-celled, three-valved, loculicidal; seeds, two in each cell, with a curved embryo lying in fleshy albumen. Herbaceous or suffruticose plants, with opposite or verticillate exstipulate leaves. Natives of South America, having no properties of importance. Genera four, species fifteen. Examples: Viviania, Cæsarea.

Order 198. Caryophyllaceæ, the Chickweed Family. Sepals four or five, free, or united in a tube, persistent. Petals four to five, hypogynous, unguiculate, often bifid or bipartite, occasionally 0. Stamens usually double the number of the petals, or, if equal, usually alternate with them; filaments subulate, sometimes united; anthers innate, bilocular, dehiscence longitudinal. Ovary single, often stalked or supported on a gynophore composed of two to five carpels, which are usually united by their edges, but sometimes the edges are turned inwards, so as to form partial dissepiments; stigmas two to five, with papillae on their inner surface. Capsule unilocular, or imperfectly bi-quinquelocular, two- to five-valved, opening either by valves, or more commonly by twice as many teeth as stigmas; placenta in the axis of the fruit. Seeds usually 00, amphitropal, with mealy albumen, and a peripherical embryo. Herbs, sometimes suffruticose plants, with opposite, entire, exstipulate, sometimes connate leaves, and usually cymose inflorescence. They inhabit chiefly temperate and cold regions. Lindley mentions 53 genera and 1055 species, of which 11 genera and upwards of 100 species belong to the United States.

Sub-order 1. Alsineæ. Sepals nearly or quite distinct. Petals sessile. Examples: *Mollugo, *Arenaria, *Stellaria, *Cerastium.

Sub-order 2. Sileneæ. Sepals united into a cylindrical tube. Petals unguiculate. Examples: *Silene, *Lychnis, *Saponaria, *Dianthus.

Some authors separate a third sub-order, Moluginese, from Alsineæ, with the sepals alternate with the stamens, when isostemonous, instead of opposite, as in the restricted Alsineæ. Some plants of the order are poisonous. A proniinent species is Dianthus caryophyllus, or Carnation, in its different varieties.

Dianthus caryophyllus. Carnation (pl. 68, fig. 11); a, b.

Saponaria officinalis, Soapwort (pl. 68, fig. 12); a, a flowering branch: b, pistil and petal; c, pistil; d, capsule; eg, seed.

Order 198. Elatinaceæ, the Water-pepper Family. Sepals three to five, free, or slightly coherent at the base. Petals alternate with the sepals, hypogynous. Stamens hypogynous, equal to, or twice as many as, the petals. Ovary tri-quinquelocular; styles three to five; stigmas capitate. Fruit capsular, three- to five-celled, three- to five-valved, loculicidal; placenta central. Seeds 00, exalbuminous, anatropal; embryo cylindrical and slightly curved. Annual marsh plants, with hollow creeping steme, and opposite stipulate leaves. They are found in all parts of the globe. Some of them have acridity, and hence the name Water-pepper. Genera six and species twenty-two, according to Lindley. Examples: *Elatine, Bergia. Elatine with two species are North American.

Order 199. Frankeniaceæ, the Frankenia Family. Sepals four or five, cohering into a tube, persistent. Petals four to five, alternate with the sepals, hypogynous. Stamens hypogynous, equal in number to the petals, and alternate with them, sometimes more numerous; anthers bilocular, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary unilocular, with parietal placentas; style filiform, often trifid. Fruit a one-celled, usually three-valved capsule, with septicidal dehiscence. Seeds very minute, numerous, anatropal; embryo straight, in the axis of fleshy albumen. Herbs or undershrubs, with opposite, exstipulate leaves. They are found chiefly in the southern parts of Europe, in western America, and in the north of Europe. They are said to have mucilaginous and slightly aromatic properties. Genera four, species twenty-four. Example: *Frankenia. F. grandifolia, a Californian plant, is North American.

Order 200. Tamaricaceæ, the Tamarisk Family. Calyx four- or five-partite, persistent, with imbricated aestivation. Petals four to five, hypogynous, or perhaps inserted at the base of the calyx, marcescent, with imbricated aestivation. Stamens hypogynous, free, or monadelphous, equal to the petals in number, or twice as many; anthers dithecal, introrse, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary unilocular; styles three. Fruit a three-valved, one-celled capsule, with loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds numerous, anatropal, erect or ascending, comose; albumen; embryo straight, with the radicle next the hilum. Shrubs or herbs, with alternate scale-like leaves, and racemose or spiked flowers. They abound in the Mediterranean region, and are confined chiefly to the eastern half of the northern hemisphere. Many are found in the vicinity of the sea. They have a bitter astringent bark, and some of them yield a quantity of sulphate of soda when burned. The saccharine substance called Mount Sinai Manna is yielded by Tamarix mannifera. Lindley mentions three genera, comprising forty-three known species. Examples: Tamarix, Myricaria.

Tamarix germanica, Tamarisk (pl. 69, fig. 4); a, flowering branch; b, flower; c, sexual apparatus; d, staminal tube displayed; e, anther; f, petal; g, pistil; h, the fruit in the calyx; i, a single fruit; k, vertical section of ditto.

Order 201. Tremandeaceæ, the Porewort Family. Sepals four or five, slightly coherent, deciduous with a valvate aestivation. Petals four or five, deciduous, with an involute aestivation. Stamens hypogynous, distinct, eight to ten, two before each petal; anthers di- or tetra-thecal, with porous dehiscence. Ovary bilocular, with one to three pendulous ovules in each cell; style one; stigmas one or two. Fruit a two-celled, two-valved capsule, with loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds anatropal, pendulous, with a caruncula at the apex; embryo cylindrical, straight, in the axis of fleshy albumen. Heath-like shrubs, with hairs usually glandular, alternate, or verticillate exstipulate leaves, and solitary, axillary, one-flowered pedicels. They are natives of New Holland. Nothing is known regarding their properties. Lindley mentions three genera including sixteen species. Examples: Tetratheca, Tremandra.

Order 202. Polygalaceæ, the Milkwort Family. Sepals five, very irregular, distinct; three exterior, of which one is superior and two inferior; two interior, usually petaloid lateral; æstivation imbricated. Petals hypogynous, unequal, usually three, of which one is anterior, and larger than the rest, and two are alternate with the upper and lateral sepals; sometimes there are five petals, two of them very minute; the anterior petal, called the keel, is often crested. Stamens hypogynous, eight, monadelphous or diadelphous; anthers clavate, usually one-celled, and having porous dehiscence. Ovary mostly bilocular; ovules solitary, rarely two; style simple, curved; stigma simple. Fruit dehiscing in a loculicidal manner, or indehiscent. Seeds pendulous, anatropal, strophiolate at the hilum; albumen fleshy; embryo straight. Shrubs or herbs with alternate or opposite exstipulate leaves. They are found in all quarters of the globe. Lindley mentions nineteen genera, including 495 species. Examples: *Polygala, Securidaca, *Krameria, Xantophyllum. Of these genera Polygala with twenty-four species, and Krameria with four, are natives of North America. Some authors place Krameria and Xantophyllum in a separate sub-order (Kramerieæ). Plants of the order Polygalacese have some resemblance to Papilionaceae, but may be distinguished by the odd petal being inferior and the sepal superior. Polygala senega, the Seneca snake root, is a plant of various medicinal applications.

Order 203. Droseraceæ, the Sundew Family. Sepals five, persistent, equal, sometimes united at the base, imbricated in aestivation. Petals five, alternate with the sepals, nearly or quite hypogynous, marcescent. Stamens distinct, marcescent, usually as many as the petals and alternate with them, rarely two to three times as many; filaments capillary or flattened; anthers extrorse or innate; cells distinct, or somewhat connivent above, opening longitudinally, or rarely by a terminal pore. Ovary composed of two to five united carpels, one-celled; placentas parietal, or filling the base of the cell; styles two to five, usually distinct or united at the base merely, each two-parted or multifid and pencil-shaped; sometimes all united into one. Capsule two- to five-valved, loculicidal, with the valves placentiferous in the middle, or indehiscent with the placenta at the base, many- (rarely few-) seeded. Seeds anatropous; testa sometimes arilliform. Embryo short, at the base of cartilaginous or fleshy albumen. Herbs, or rarely suffrutescent plants (growing in wet places or swamps). Leaves alternate or crowded, entire, commonly furnished with glandular hairs, with a circinate vernation (except Dionsea); stipules none, or in the form of a tuft or fringe of scarious hairs at the base of the petioles. There are eight genera, with about ninety species, of which three genera and thirteen species are North American. Tribe 1. Drosereæ. Seeds with albumen. Styles one or many. All the stamens fertile. Examples: *Drosera, *Dionæa. Tribe 2. Parnassieæ. No albumen. Stigmata sessile. Some of the stamens sterile. No glandular hairs. Example: *Parnassia. The most remarkable species of the order is Diongea muscipula or Venus’ Fly-trap, a plant only found within a limited district in North and South Carolina. The two halves of the leaf are articulated on the midrib, and have a fringe of stiff hairs which interlace when the leaf is folded. Each half is furnished with two or three irritable hairs, which, when touched by an insect, cause the sudden closing of the leaf and the consequent impalement or imprisonment of the intruder. Species of Parnassia are known as Grass of Parnassus.

Order 204. Violaceæ, the Violet Family. Sepals five, persistent, usually elongated at the base, aestivation imbricated. Petals five, hypogynous, equal or unequal, generally withering, gestivation obliquely convolute. Stamens five, alternate with the petals, sometimes opposite to them, inserted on a hypogynous torus; anthers dithecal, introrse, often cohering, with a prolonged connective sometimes spurred; filaments dilated, two of them in the irregular flowers having an appendage at their base. Ovary unilocular, with many (rarely one) anatropal ovules; style single, usually declinate, with an oblique hooded stigma. Fruit a three-valved capsule, dehiscence loculicidal, placentas on the middle of the valves. Seeds 00 or definite; embryo straight, erect, in the axis of a fleshy perisperm. Herbs or shrubs, with alternate, rarely opposite leaves, having persistent stipules, and an involute vernation. They are natives of Europe, Asia, and America. The herbaceous species inhabit chiefly the temperate parts of the northern hemisphere, while the shrubby species are found in South America and India. They have been divided into two sub-orders:

Sub-order 1. Violeæ, with irregular flowers.

Sub-order 2. Alsodeieæ, with regular flowers. There are fourteen known genera, and 315 species. Examples: *Viola, *Ionidium, Alsodeia, *Solea. North America possesses three genera, and about forty species. Viola tricolor is the origin of the varieties of Pansy and Heart’s Ease.

Order 205. Cistaceæ, the Rock-Rose Family. Sepals usually five, persistent, unequal, the three inner with contorted aestivation. Petals five, caducous, hypogynous, aestivation corrugated, and twisted in an opposite direction to that of the sepals. Stamens usually 00, free, hypogynous; anthers two-celled, adnate. Ovary syncarpous, one- or many-celled; style single; stigma simple. Fruit capsular, three-, five-, to ten-valved, either one-celled or imperfectly five- to ten-celled, with loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds usually indefinite; embryo inverted, either spiral or curved, in the midst of mealy albumen; radicle remote from the hilum. Shrubs or herbaceous plants with entire, opposite or alternate, stipulate or exstipulate leaves. They inhabit chiefly the southern regions of Europe, and the north of Africa. Some of the species are remarkable for the irritability of their stamens. Many of them yield a resinous balsamic juice, which imparts viscidity to the branches. The resinous matter called ladanum or labdanum, is yielded by Cistus creticus. Of the seven genera and 185 species wdiich are assigned to Cistaceæ, North America has twelve species, and three genera.

Helianthemum vulgare (Europe) (pl. 68, fig. 8); b, the red flowering variety.

Order 206. Flacourtiaceæ, the Arnotto Family. Sepals four to seven, slightly cohering. Petals equal to and alternating with the sepals, or wanting. Stamens hypogynous, equal in number to the petals, or some multiple of them. Ovary roundish, sessile, or slightly stalked; style either none or filiform; stigmas several, more or less distinct; ovules attached to parietal placentas, which sometimes branch all over the inner surface of the valves. Fruit one-celled, containing a thin pulp, either fleshy and indehiscent, or capsular with four or five valves. Seeds numerous, enveloped in a covering formed by the withered pulp; albumen fleshy, somewhat oily; embryo axile, straight; radicle turned towards the hilum; cotyledons flat, foliaceous. Shrubs or small trees, with alternate, simple, usually exstipulate leaves, which are often dotted. The plants are chiefly natives of the warmest parts of the East and West Indies, and of Africa.

Sub-order 1. Flacourtianeæ. Placentas ramifying over the inner surface of the fruit. Tribe 1. Flacourtieæ. Fruit dehiscent. Example: Flacourtia. Tribe 2. Erythrospermeæ. Fruit indehiscent. Example: Erythrospermum.

Sub-order 2. Bixaceæ, Placentas narrow and running in lines along the parietes. Tribe 3. Bixieæ. Fruit dehiscent. Flowers hermaphrodite. Example: Bixa. Tribe 4. Carpotrocheæ. Fruit indehiscent. Flowers often unisexual. Example: Carpotroche.

The entire order embraces thirty-one genera and eighty-five species, none of them North American. The most important is Bixa orellana, the plant yielding arnotto. This is the reddish pulp surrounding the seeds, and is used to color cheese, and for various red dyes.

Bixa orellana, Arnotto tree (South America) (pl. 68, fig. 7); a, a flowering branch; b, anther; c, pistil; d, e, capsule in verticle and cross-section; f, burst capsule.

Order 207. Residaceæ, the Mignonette Family. Calyx many-parted. Petals four to six, unequal, entire, or lacerated, in the latter case consisting of a broad scale-like claw, with a much-divided limb. Stamens ten to twenty-four, hypogynous, attached to a glandular torus; filaments variously united; anthers bilocular, innate, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary sessile, three-lobed, one-celled, multiovular, with three to six parietal placentas; stigmas three. Fruit either a unilocular, many-seeded capsule, opening at the apex, so as to render the seeds seminude, or three to six few-seeded follicles. Seeds reniform, usually exalbuminous; embryo curved; radicle superior; cotyledons fleshy. Herbaceous plants, rarely shrubs, with alternate, entire, or divided leaves, having gland-like stipules. They inhabit chiefly Europe and the adjoining parts of Asia. A few are found in the north of India and south of Africa. The uses of the order are unimportant. Reseda luteola. Weld, yields a yellow dye. Reseda odorata is the fragrant Mignonette. The Mignonette is rendered suflruticose by preventing the development of its blossoms. This is the origin of the tree Mignonette, which is much cultivated in France. There are six known genera and forty-one species, according to Lindley. Example: Reseda. Ellimia ruderalis of California appears to be the only American representative.

Reseda luteola. Weld, or Dyer’s rocket, Europe (pl. 66, fig. 13); a, b, flowers and leaf; c, flower; d, capsule; e, seed; f, flower from above.

Order 208. Capparidaceæ, the Caper Family. Sepals four, often more or less cohering. Petals four, sometimes 0, cruciate, usually unguiculate and unequal. Stamens hypogynous, four to six, or 00, but in general some high multiple of four, placed in an elongated hemispherical and often glandular torus. Ovary usually stalked; style filiform, sometimes; ovules curved. Fruit unilocular, siliquseform, and dehiscent, or fleshy and indehiscent, rarely monospermous, usually with two polyspermous placentas. Seeds generally reniform and exalbuminous; embryo curved; cotyledons foliaceous, flattish. Herbs, shrubs, sometimes trees, with alternate, stalked, undivided, or palmate leaves, which are either exstipulate or have spines at their base. They are found chiefly in warm countries, and are abundant in Africa. There are 28 genera and 340 species. Six genera and eleven species are natives of JSTorth America. Tribe 1. Cleomeæ. Fruit capsular. Examples: *Cleome, *Polanisia. Tribe 2. Cappareæ. Fruit fleshy. Example: Capparis. Not found in North America.

The flower buds of Capparis spinosa, a native of the south of Europe, furnish capers. This plant is supposed to be the Hyssop of the Scriptures.

Capparis spinosa. Caper plant (pl. 66, fig. 12); a, flowering branch; b, capsule; c, cross-section of ditto; d, seed.

Order 209. Cruciferæ, the Cruciferous, or Creswort Family. Brassicaceæ of Lindley. Sepals four, deciduous, the two latter ones gibbous at the base. Petals four, hypogynous, alternating with the sepals, deciduous, cruciate. Stamens six, tetradynamous, two shorter, solitary, opposite the lateral sepals, occasionally toothed; four longer, opposite the anterior and posterior sepals, generally free, sometimes partially united and furnished with a tooth on the inside; anthers bilocular, introrse. Torus with green glands between the petals and stamens and ovary. Ovary superior, with parietal placentas, which meet in the middle, forming a spurious dissepiment or replum; stigmas two, opposite the placentas, or anterior and posterior. Fruit a siliqua, or a silicula, rarely one-celled and indehiscent, usually spuriously two-celled and dehiscing by two valves, which separate from the repluin, one- or many-seeded. Seeds campylotropous, pendulous, attached in a single row by a funiculus to each side of the placentas; perisperm none; embryo with the radicle folded upon the cotyledons which are next the placenta. Herbaceous plants, seldom undershrubs, with alternate leaves, and yellow or white, rarely purple flowers, without bracts. This order is well distinguished by having tetradynamous stamens. Most of the plants belonging to the order are European. The species, however, are found scattered all over the world.

Suh-order 1. Pleurorhizeæ. Cotyledons accumbent. Radicle lateral. Tribe 1. Ardbideæ. Siliquose. Cotyledons plane, parallel with the straight septum, linear. Examples: *Cheiranthus, *Nasturtium, *Arabis. Tribe 2. Alyssineæ. Silicules separating in two plane or concave valves. Cotyledons plane, parallel with the large and oval septum. Example: *Draba. Tribe 3. Thlaspideæ. Silicules separating in two navicular valves. Cotyledons plane, perpendicular to the straight septum. Example: *Thlaspi. Tribe 4. Euclideæ. Silicula iudehiscent. Cotyledons plane, parallel with the septum, which is sometimes wanting. Example: Euclidium. Tribe 5. Anastaticeæ. Silicula longitudinally dehiscent, crossed by many transverse septa. Cotyledons plane, parallel with the septum. Example: Morettia. Tribe 6. Cakilineæ. Silicula lomentaceous. Cotyledons plane, parallel with the septum, when present. Example: Cakile.

Sub-order 2. Notorhizeæ. Cotyledons incumbent; radicle dorsal. Tribe 7. Sisymhrieæ. Siliquose. Cotyledons plane, perpendicular to the septum. Example: *Sisymbrium. Tribe 8. Caraelineæ. Silicula separating into two concave valves. Cotyledons perpendicular to the elliptic septum, broader than high. Example: *Camelina. Tribe 9. Lepidineæ. Silicula separating into two navicular valves. Cotyledons parallel with the straight septum. Example: *Lepidium. Tribe 10. Isatideæ. Silicula indehiscent, one-locular, one-seeded. Examples: *Thysanocarpus, Isatis. Tribe 11. Anchonieæ. Siliqua or silicula lomentaceous. Example: Morisia.

Sub-order 3. Orthoploceæ. Cotyledons conduplicate; radicle dorsal. Tribe 12. Brassiceæ. Siliquose. Examples: Brassica, Sinapis. Tribe 13. Velleæ. Silicula separating into two concave valves. Septum elliptic. Example: Vella. Tribe 14. Psychiaeæ. Silicula separating into two navicular valves. Septum straight. Example: Schouwia. Tribe 15. Zilleæ. Silicula indehiscent, with one or two one-seeded cells. Example: Zilla. Tribe 16. Raphaneæ. Siliqua or silicula lomentaceous, the joints one- or few-seeded. Example: Raphanus.

Sub-order 4. Spirolobeæ. Cotyledons twice folded; radicle dorsal. Tribe 17. Buniadeæ. Silicula indehiscent, divided into four one-seeded cells by one longitudinal and one transverse septum. Example: Bunias. Tribe 18. Erucarieæ. Silicula lomentaceous, the lower joint two-celled, the upper one-celled. Example: Erucaria.

Sub-order 5. Diplecolobeæ. Cotyledons three times folded; radicle dorsal. Tribe 19. Senebierieæ. Silicula didymous, of two one-seeded cells. Example: Senebieria. Tribe 20. Subulariecæ. Silicula separating into two valves, septum elliptical, cells many-seeded. Example: Subularia. Tribe 21. Heliophileæ. Silicula elongated or oval, separating into two plane valves; septum straight or oval, cells many-seeded. Example: Heliophila.

The entire order includes about 173 genera, with 1600 species. Of these 40 genera and 240 species are North American. There are no truly poisonous plants in the order, the characteristics lying in the possession of anti-scorbutic and stimulant properties, with some acridity. Brassica oleracea is the stock from which all the varieties of cabbage are derived. B. rapa is the common turnip; B. campestris, the Swedish turnip. Sea-kale is Crambe maritima. The seeds of Sinapis nigra furnish table mustard; and of S. alba, white mustard. The Horse-radish is Cochlearia (Armoracia) rustica; Isatis tinctoria furnishes Woad; I. indigotica, Chinese Indigo. The Radish and Cress also belong here.

Sinapis alba. White Mustard (pl. 66, fig. 11); a, b, leaf, flowers, and fruit; c, sexual apparatus; d, siliqua; e, ditto opened; f, g, seed.

Order 210. Fumariaceæ, the Fumitory Family. Sepals two, deciduous. Petals four, cruciate; one or both of the two outer gibbous at the base, the two inner cohering at the apex. Stamens hypogynous, usually six, diadelphous; anther of middle stamen of each parcel bilocular, outer ones unilocular. Ovary free, one-celled; style filiform; stigma with two or more points; ovules amphitropal. Fruit either an achænium, or a two-valved, two-seeded capsule, or a many-seeded siliqua. Seeds crested; albumen fleshy; embryo minute, excentric. Herbaceous plants, with a watery juice, and alternate, multifid leaves. Although at the first sight very unlike the Poppy family, the Fumitories resemble this order in their deciduous sepals, in their seeds, and in many cases in their fruit. The two outer unilocular stamens of each parcel may be considered as forming one perfect stamen, thus making the whole number four. They are found chiefly in northern temperate latitudes. They are said to be bitter and diaphoretic in their properties. Lindley notices 15 genera, including 110 species. North America has four genera and twelve species. Tribe 1. Corydaleæ. Fruit siliquose, dehiscent, many-seeded. Examples: *Dielytra, *Adlumia, *Corydalis. Tribe 2. Fumarieæ. Fruit siliculose, indehiscent, many-seeded. Example: Fumaria.

Adlumia cirrhosa is the Alleghany vine of American gardens. Species of Dielytra are vulgarly known as Dutchman’s Breeches.

Order 210. Papaveraceæ, the Poppy Family. Sepals two, deciduous. Petals hypogynous, usually four, cruciate, sometimes a multiple of four, regular, rarely wanting. Stamens hypogynous, usually 00, sometimes a multiple of four; anthers dithecal, innate. Ovary solitary; style short or none; stigmas two, or many and radicating; ovules 00, anatropal. Fruit unilocular, either siliquæform with two, or capsular with several parietal placentas. Seeds numerous; albumen between fleshy and oily; embryo minute, at the base of the albumen, with plano-convex cotyledons. Herbs or shrubs, usually with milky or colored juice, having alternate exstipulate leaves, and long one-flowered peduncles. The plants belonging to this order are chiefly European. The species, however, are found scattered over tropical America, Asia, China, New Holland, Cape of Good Hope, &c. Lindley mentions eighteen known genera, and 130 species. North America has eleven genera, including sixteen species.

Tribe 1. Argemoneæ. Juice milky, colored. Sub-tribe 1. Bocconieæ. Petals none, or not wrinkled in the bud. Examples: *Sanguinaria, Bocconia. Sub-tribe 2. Papavereæ. Petals large, wrinkled in the bud. Examples: Chelidonium, *Argemone, *Papaver.

Tribe 2. Eschsclioltzieæ. Juice watery. Sub-tribe 3. Hunemannieæ. Capsule bivalve. Examples: Eschscholtzia, *Dendromecon. Sub-tribe 4. Platystemoneæ. Examples: Platystemon, *Meconella.

Opium is the concrete milky juice from the unripe capsules of Papaver somniferum, or Poppy and its varieties. This plant is indigenous in western Asia, but has become extensively distributed in other parts of the world. The principal active principle of opium is morphia: others are codeine and narcotine, with meconic and sulphuric acid. Sanguinaria canadensis. Blood root or Puccoon, is well known for the red color of its juice.

Papaver somniferum. Poppy (pl. 66, fig. 9); a, a flowering branch; b, bud, a sepal removed; c, pistil; d, capsule, opened at the side; e, seed magnified; f, seed of natural size; g, stamen.

Chelidonium majus, Celandine (Europe) (pl. 66, fig. 10); a, b, flower and fruit branch; c, bud; d, flower; e, stamen; f, pistil; g, capsule.

Order 212. Sarraceniaceæ, the Sidesaddle-flower Family. Sepals five, persistent, imbricated in aestivation, often with coherent bracts outside. Petals five, hypogynous, concave; occasionally the corolla is absent, and the calyx consists of four to six segments. Stamens 00; anthers adnate, dithecal, introrse, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary free, tri-quinquelocular; style single; stigma persistent, either a truncated point, or large and peltate with five angles; ovules anatropal. Capsule three- to five-celled, with loculicidal dehiscence. Seeds very numerous, small, attached to large placentas which project from the axis into the cavity of the cells; albumen copious; embryo cylindrical, lying at the base of the seed; radicle pointing to the hilum. Herbaceous plants, found in boggy places, having radical leaves, the petioles of which are folded, and cohere so as to form ascidia or hollow tubes. Scapes one- or more-flowered. The plants are found in North America and Guiana. Their properties are not known. Lindley enumerates two genera, including seven species. Examples: Sarracenia, Heliamphora. All of these are North American, excepting Heliamphora with one species, found in Guiana at considerable elevations. Sarracenia purpurea is the Sidesaddle flower of the northern States.

Order 213. Nelumbiaceæ, the Water-Bean Family. Sepals four to five. Petals numerous, in many rows. Stamens indefinite, in several rows; filaments petaloid; anthers adnate, introrse, opening by a double longitudinal cleft. Torus large, fleshy, elevated, inclosing in hollows of its surface numerous carpels. Nuts numerous, inserted, but loose, into the depressions of the torus. Seeds one to two; perisperm none; embryo inclosed in a vitellus, large with two fleshy cotyledons. Aquatic herbs, with showy flowers, peltate floating leaves, and prostrate rootstocks, found in the temperate and tropical regions of the Old and New Worlds. Lindley enumerates one genus, including three species. Example: Nelumbium. North America possesses one species, Nelumbium hiteum, found in ponds and lakes of the southern and western States, more rarely in the middle and eastern. The floating leaves are sometimes one to two feet in diameter. The tubers, when boiled, furnish an agreeable food somewhat like the potatoe, and are gathered by some Indian tribes.

Order 214. Nymphæaceæ, the Water Lily Family. Sepals usually four, sometimes compounded with the petals. Petals numerous, often passing gradually into stamens. Stamens indefinite, inserted above the petals into the torus; filaments petaloid; anthers adnate; introrse, opening by two longitudinal clefts. Torus large, fleshy, surrounding the ovary more or less. Ovary multilocular, many-seeded, with radiating stigmas; numerous anatropal ovules. Fruit many-celled, indehiscent. Seeds very numerous, attached to spongy dissepiments; albumen farinaceous; embryo small, inclosed in a fleshy vitellus, and situated at the base of the perisperm. Aquatic plants, with peltate or cordate fleshy leaves, and a rootstock or stem which extends itself into the mud at the bottom of the water. Lindley enumerates five genera, comprehending fifty species. Examples: *Nymphæa, *Nuphar, Victoria, Euryale. Nymphæa odorata is the white Water Lily found in various parts of the United States. Nupliar advena is the common Splatter-Dock. There are two other species in North America, one more northern, the other more southern. Schomburgh has recently discovered a new genus Victoria in Guiana, the flowers of which are a foot in diameter the leaves from four to six and a half feet.

Nymphæa lotus (Egypt) (pl. 58, 59, fig. 9).

Order 215. Cabombaceæ, the Water Shield Family. Sepals three to four. Petals three to four, alternate with the sepals. Stamens hypogynous, arising from an inconspicuous torus, two or three times the number of the petals; anthers linear, introrse, continuous with the filament. Carpels two or more; stigma simple; ovules orthotropal. Fruit indehiscent, tipped with the indurated styles, containing one or two pendulous seeds. Embryo small, inclosed in a vitellus (the sac of the amnios), and placed at the base of a fleshy perisperm. American aquatic plants, with floating peltate leaves. Lindley mentions two genera, including three species. Examples: Cabomba, *Brasenia. Of the two known genera, Cabomba has two species in Guiana and one in the southern United States. Brasenia with one species (B. peltata) is found in North America, and possibly in New Holland.

Order 216. Berberidaceæ, the Barberry Family. Sepals three, four, to six, deciduous, in a double row. Petals hypogynous, equal in number to the sepals, and opposite to them, or twice as many, often having an appendage at the base on the inside. Stamens equal in number to the petals, and opposite to them; anthers adnate, bilocular (dithecal), each of the loculi opening by a valve from the bottom to the top. Carpel solitary, unilocular, containing two to twelve anatropal ovules; style sometimes lateral; stigma orbicular. Fruit baccate or capsular, inclebiscent. Albumen fleshy or horny; embryo straight, sometimes large. Shrubs or herbaceous perennial plants, with alternate, compound, exstipulate leaves. The true leaves are often changed into spines. Found chiefly in the mountainous parts of the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. Tribe 1. Berherideæ, Embryo in the axis, and occupying nearly the whole length of the albumen. Shrubs. Example: *Berberis. Tribe 2. Nandineæ. Embryo minute at the base of the albumen, often oblique with respect to the hilum. Perennial herbs. Examples: *Leontice, *Podophyllum.

Lindley enumerates twelve genera with one hundred species, of which seven genera with eleven species belong to North America. Berberis vulgaris and canadensis constitute the Barberry plant, known for the acidity of the fruit, which is caused by the presence of oxalic acid. Podophyllum peltatum is the May-apple.

Berberis vulgaris, Barberry (Europe) (pl. 68, fig. 5); a, flowering branch; b, a flower; c, calyx and pistil; d, stamens; e, berry; f, longitudinal section of a berry; g, the seed.

Order 217. Menispermaceæ, the Moon-Seed Family. Flowers usually unisexual (often dioecious). Sepals and petals similar in appearance, in one or several rows, three or four in each row, hypogynous, deciduous. Stamens monadelphous, or occasionally free; anthers adnate, extrorse. Carpels solitary or numerous, distinct or partially coherent, unilocular; ovule solitary, curved. Fruit a succulent, one-seeded, oblique or lunate drupe. Embryo curved or peripherical; radicle superior; albumen fleshy, sometimes wanting. The plants of this order are sarmentaceous or twining shrubs, with alternate leaves, and very small flowers. The wood is frequently arranged in wedges, and hence the order was at one time put under the division called Homogens by Lindley. The order is common in the tropical parts of Asia and America. There are twenty-three known genera, including 202 species. Examples: *Menispermum, Cissampelos, *Cocculus. Two genera with three species represent this order in North America. The Cocculus indicus of the shops is the fruit of Anamirta cocculus. Although highly poisonous, it is employed by some brewers to give bitterness to porter. It is also nsed to intoxicate and capture fish.

Order 218. Anonaceæ, the Custard- Apple Family. Sepals three or four, persistent, often partially cohering. Petals six, hypogynous, in two rows, coriaceous, with a valvate aestivation. Stamens indefinite (very rarely definite); anthers adnate, extrorse, with a large four-cornered connective. Carpels usually numerous, separate or cohering slightly, rarely definite; ovules anatropal, solitary or several, erect or ascending. Fruit succulent or dry, the carpels being one- or many-seeded, and either distinct or united into a fleshy mass; spermoderm brittle; embryo minute, at the base of a ruminated perisperm. Trees or shrubs, with alternate, simple, exstipnlate leaves, found usually in tropical countries. Lindley enumerates 20 genera, including 300 species. Examples: Anona, Uvaria, Gualteria, *Asimina. There are four species of Asimina in the United States. One of these, A. tribola, is the Papaw of the western and middle States. Anona cherimolia furnishes the Cherimoyer of Peru. The lancewood in so much request for carriages, tishing-rods, &c., is furnished by Duguetia quitarensis, a native of Guiana.

Anona squamosa, Anona, West Indies (pl. 68, fig. 3); a, flowering branch; b, receptacle; c, stamen; d, fruit in section; e, seed; f, ditto in section.

Order 219. Magnoliaceæ, the Magnolia Family. Sepals two to six, usually deciduous. Petals two to thirty, hypogynous, often in several rows. Stamens indefinite, distinct, hypogynous: anthers adnate, dehiscing longitudinally. Carpels numerous, one-celled, arranged upon a more or less elevated receptacle; ovules anatropal, suspended, or ascending; styles short. Fruit consisting of numerous distinct or partially coherent carpels, which are either dehiscent or indehiscent, sometimes samaroid. Seeds, when ripe, often hang suspended from the carpels by a long, slender cord; embryo minute, at the base of a fleshy perisperm. Trees and shrubs, with alternate coriaceous leaves, and deciduous convolute stipules. They abound in North America, and some species occur in South America, China, Japan, New Holland, and New Zealand.

Sub-order 1. Magnolieæ. Carpels spicate on the elongated torus. Anthers long. Scales of the leaf-bud formed of convolute stipules. Examples: Talauma, *Magnolia, *Liriodendron, Michelia.

Sub-order 2. Illiciece. Carpels in a single whorl, anthers short. Leaves with transparent dots. Examples: Tasmannia, Drimys, *Illicium.

Sub-order 3. Schizandrece. Flowers monoecious, or dioecious. Pistils imbricated, spicate, or capitate. Stamens in a cluster, monadelphous, or distinct. Stipules none. Leaves entire or toothed. Stems often sarmentose. Mucilaginous, the seeds aromatic. Examples: Sphserostemma, *Schizandra.

The order, according to Lindley, contains eleven genera and sixty-five species, of which three genera and ten species are North American. The Magnolias belong principally to the United States and to China. Magnolia grandiflora has flowers six to eight inches in diameter. M. macrophylla has leaves from one to three feet in length. The cucumber tree of the middle States is M. acuminata. M. glauca is a small species found in wet places along the Atlantic coast, and possessing very fragrant white flowers. Winter’s bark is obtained from Drimys winteri, or aromatica, brought from the Strait of Magellan, in 1579, by Captain Winter. Liriodendron tulipiferum is the American Tulip tree, or Poplar, which furnishes the valuable cabinet wood, known as poplar. (The wood of Populus, or the true Poplar, is unfit for manufacturing purposes.) Several species of Illicium or Anise are found in the United States.

Illicium anisatum. Star Anise, China and Japan (pl. 68, fig. 2); a, flowering branch; b, flower from above; c, pistil and stamens; d, stamens; e, pistil; f, seed vessels; g, seed.

Magnolia grandiflora. United States (pl. 68, fig. 1); a, leaves and flower; b, a capsule burst, and a seed hanging out by the funiculus; c, d, seeds.

Order 220. Dilleniaceæ, the Dillenia Family. Sepals five, persistent. Petals five, deciduous, in a single row. Stamens indefinite, hypogynous, either distinct or combined into bundles; filaments dilated at the base or apex; anthers adnate, introrse, with longitudinal dehiscence. Ovaries definite, more or less distinct, with a terminal style and simple stigma; ovules ascending. Fruit of two- to five-capsular, or baccate unilocular carpels, which are either distinct or coherent. Seeds irillate, several in each carpel, or only two, or one by abortion; testa (spermoderm) hard; embryo straight, minute, at the base of fieshy albumen. The plants of the order are trees, shrubs, or undershrubs, having alternate, exstipulate, coriaceous, or rough leaves. They are found chiefiy in Australasia, Asia, and the warm parts of America. They have astringent properties, and some of the species afford excellent timber. Lindley enumerates 26 genera, including 200 species. Tribe 1. Dillenieæ. Anthers with linear cells. Australasian species. Example: Dillenia. Tribe 2, Delimeæ, Anthers with rounded cells. Species mostly American, some few Asiatic or African. Example: Delima.

Order 221. Ranunculaceæ, the Crowfoot Family. Sepals three to six, frequently five deciduous. Petals five to fifteen, rarely abortive, sometimes anomalous in form, occasionally with scales at the base. Stamens usually indefinite, hypogynous; anthers adnate; carpels numerous, one-celled, distinct, or united into a single many-celled pistil; ovary containing one anatropal ovule, or several united to the inner edge. Fruit various, either dry achaenia, or baccate, or follicular. Seeds albuminous, erect, or pendulous; albumen homy; embryo minute. Herbaceous, suffruticose, or rarely shrubby plants, having alternate, or opposite, simple, much-divided leaves, with dilated sheathing petioles. Juice watery. Hairs, if present, simple. Tribe 1. Clematideæ. Calyx colored, with valvate æstivation. Petals none or shorter than the sepals. Achgenia one-seeded, with the styles much elongated and plumose, the seed pendent. Generally climbing shrubs with opposite leaves. Examples: *Clematis, *Atrogene. Tribe 2. Anemoneæ. Calyx often colored, with imbricate æstivation. Petals none or plane. Achaenia one-seeded, with styles often much elongated and plumose, with pendent seeds. Herbs with leaves usually radical, the cauline alternate; flowers often involucred. Examples: *Thalyctrum, *Hepatica, *Hydrastis, *Anemone. Tribe 3. Ranunculeæ. Calyx with imbricated æstivation. Anthers extrorse. Petals with a small nectariferous scale or gland at the base inside. Seed erect, sometimes suspended. Herbs with the leaves radical or alternate; the flowers solitary, not involucred. Example: *Ranunculus. Tribe 4. Helleboreæ. Calyx with imbricated æstivation. Petals none or irregular, often tubular or bilabiate. Carpels follicular, many-seeded. Herbs with the leaves radical, or with the caulinary alternate. Examples: *Caltha, *Trollius, Helleborus, *Delphinium, *Aconitum, *Aquilegia. Tribe 5. Pæonieæ. Calyx with imbricate æstivation. Petals plane or none. Carpels fleshy or capsular, often one-seeded by abortion. Herbs or undershrubs. Examples: *Actæa, *Cimifuga, Xanthorrhiza, *Pæonia.

The entire order embraces 41 genera with 1000 species, of which 20 genera and about 140 species are North American. Some species are more or less poisonous. Aconitum napellus, or Monkshood, contains aconite. A. ferox furnishes the well-known East Indian poison, called Bikh. The seeds of Delphinium, or Larkspur, are used in some sections of country for destroying vermin on the heads of children.

Pulsatilla pratensis, Europe (pl. 66, fig. 3); a, plant without the root; b, stamens; c, receptacle with the fruit; d, section of the fruit.

Anemone hortensis, Garden Anemone, Europe (pl. 66, fig. 2).

Clematis erecta, Europe (pl. 66, fig. 1); a, stamens; b, achsenium; c, stamen; d, achsenia together.

Adonis vernalis, Europe (pl. 66, fig. 5); a, flower branch; b, a pistil; c, receptacle; d, fruit.

Ranunculus acris, Europe (pl. 66, fig. 4); a, b, flowers, leaf, and fruit; c, fruit.

Helleborus niger. Black Hellebore, Europe (pl. 66, fig. 6); a, b, leaf and flower; c, receptacle with nectaries, pistils, and one stamen, the rest removed; d, seed vessel; eg, seeds.

Aconitum stoerkianum, Europe (pl. 66, fig. 8); a, b, flower branch with leaves; c, vertical section of flowers; d, stamen; e, capsule; f, seed; g, root.

Aquilegia vulgaris. Columbine, Europe (pl. 66, fig. 7); a, root leaf; b, flower branch; c, cauline leaf; d, pistils and stamens, only three of the latter remaining; e, section of fruit; f, g, seeds.


Possible errors in the original plates compared to their descriptions.

  • Plate 55:
    • Fig. 1e also labeled 1d
    • Two figures labeled 4b and 4g
  • Plate 56: Fig. 2d labeled as 2e (also mentioned in text)
  • Plate 57: Two figures labeled 5d, 5f, 5g
  • Plate 58 & 59: Fig. 18 in table of contents but not in plate or in text
  • Plate  60 & 61: Fig. 3g missing
  • Plate 64:
    • Fig. 9c missing
    • Figs. 12d, 12f, 12g missing
    • Figs. 13d–g in plate but not in text
  • Plate 66:
    • Two figures labeled 8e
    • Fig. 13d missing
    • Two figures labeled 15c
  • Plate 67:
    • Figs. 8d–k have parts numbered but not described in text
    • Two figures labeled 11a
  • Plate 68:
    • Fig. 1c mislabeled as 1e
    • Figs. 4b, 12i, 12k missing
    • Fig. 12c mislabeled as 12e to the right of 12d
    • Unlabeled figure appears to the right of fig. 7a
  • Plate 69:
    • Fig. 2f unlabeled to the upper left of Fig. 3
    • Two figures labeled 11e
    • Two figures labeled 12b, 12f, and 12l
  • Plate 71:
    • Fig. 12a labeled as 12
    • Fig. 13A labeled as 13
    • Fig. 14a labeled as 14
    • Figs. 15a–i in table of contents and plate but not in text
  • Plate 72:
    • Fig. 12l missing