Iconographic Encyclopædia

History & Ethnology

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History & Ethnology

History, in general, is a credible narration of remarkable events, occurring within the sphere of man.

Historiology, or historic lore, is the personal apprehension or knowledge of these events; or, more comprehensively, it is a clear perception of the authentic and distinguished transactions of humanity, in their proper connexions and dependences.

Nothing but positive, actual occurrences may constitute the contents or material of history. Their form is narration; and history can claim for itself a just and reliable basis, only as it relates what is absolutely truthful. Hence two elements must enter into all genuine history: veritable facts as a foundation, and unyielding fidelity in their communication. Historical verity depends upon the correctness of the evidence supporting the facts, for we cannot become cognisant of past occurrences by intuition, much less by personal observation (’Αυτοψςα), and we dare not manufacture them to suit our purpose; historical fidelity rests upon the honest presentation of the facts. It must be obvious, therefore, that a writer of history ought to possess the highest intellectual and moral qualifications, and if either of these be wanting, his production will be defective. Pragmatic history exhibits clearly the causes and consequences of events. The practical results arising from a general review of the facts, and especially of the nature and efficient cause of events, make up the philosophy of history. By historical inquiry or investigation is meant the collection of materials for the work. Method (Historiomathy) arranges these in accordance with some ascertained plan; and the writing of history (Historiography) means, of course, giving form and style to the materials.

The sources of very ancient history are fables, legends, traditions, myths, and popular songs; grottoes, sepulchres, altars, pillars, mounds, monuments, &c.; festivals, games, and public structures erected in commemoration of some event. Of later history the materials are more abundant. In addition to public buildings, monuments, pillars, and graves, we consult inscriptions, triumphal arches, coins, medals, genealogical tables, the science of heraldry, public archives, diplomatic papers and correspondence, codes of law, annals, memoirs, chronicles, journals, magazines, and newspapers.

History presents great variety in its subject matter, and in this view it is divided into numerous departments. Thus we have Universal, Particular, and Special (Monographic) history; and these again, according to the subject under discussion, take the names of Church history. Political, or Literary history. When the writer wishes to collect and arrange the transactions in their proper order of succession, his work is called Chronology; and Synchronical history ranks the leading events of all countries in parallel positions, in the order of their dates. To this class belong “Historic Charts,” “Streams of Time,” &c. It is also divided into Synthetic and Analytic. On the synthetic method are constructed such histories as dispose in chronological order all events relating to a common topic; on the analytic, all the events are narrated together which have reference to any object of importance. So far as the transactions of a nation may illustrate its social condition, government, and constitution, their treatment is called political history; and when the discussion involves an investigation of the character, development, and genius of a people, it is called the history of civilization. In practice, however, this distinction seldom appears, as both are usually combined in the same work. From this whole subject, it will be seen that history derives important aid from Geography, Chronology, and Statistics.

On the score of time, history is usually divided into Ancient, Middle, Modern, and Recent, and each of these again into several periods.

Ancient history has two subdivisions: the Classic and the non-Classic Ages, an arrangement which we have adopted both in the letter-press and the plates.

History of the Ancient World

Rude or Non-Classic Ages

From Adam to Cyrus (until 560 B.C.)

Over the origin of the world, no less than that of man himself, there rests an impenetrable veil. Nevertheless, every nation in its primeval days formed various views about it, which were rendered in different versions by the philosophers, priests, and poets of a later day. Thus appear the myths and legends describing the creation of the world and of man; and although these are strongly colored by the peculiarities of national character, yet they bear more or less resemblance to one another, and are our only light to the almost rayless past.

The Jewish chronicles, which Christians implicitly follow, represent Adam and Eve as the common ancestors of the human race. Their first children were Cain and Abel. Cain, actuated by envy, murdered Abel, and fled westward, where he somehow established a colony, and became the father of a busy race of craftsmen and artificers. Thus Jabal was the father of such as dwell in tents and raise cattle (nomades); Jubal was the inventor of music; Tubalcain was the first artificer in brass and iron; Lamech was the founder of the art of poetry; and Naamah introduced the useful arts of spinning and knitting. Society soon became divided into castes, the stronger confirming themselves in power, and placing their weaker brethren in servitude.

After the flight of Cain, Eve bore another son, Seth. The exiled murderer, unfortunately, had not carried with him all depravity, for the corruption of morals was commensurate with the increase of population. To arrest the progress of vice, the deluge came, and, with the exception of Noah, the descendant of Seth, and his family (eight persons in all) swept man and beast from the face of the earth. Traditions concerning this flood are found in many nations, and they generally agree with each other.

After the subsidence of the waters, the family so signally preserved, turned their earliest attention to the business of husbandry and the rearing of flocks, specimens of which, together with every species of living nature, Noah had taken with him into the ark. Ham, a son of Noah, having offended the paternal dignity, fell under his father’s curse, which consigned him and his children to bondage under his brothers. This caused inequality of condition, and the patriarchal form of government grew weak and inefficient.

Noah’s other posterity, proceeding eastward, settled in the country of Mesopotamia, between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. At first they led a nomadic life; but wishing to attain a more stable position, the whose people assembled in the plains of Babylonia, and commenced the erection of a tower, whose lofty dome was to pierce the clouds, and form the rallying point for the scattered laborers and warriors, when affairs of general interest were to be discussed. But according to the legend of the Old Testament, the Deity, beholding in this movement a bold and rebellious spirit, confounded the language of the laborers, and thereby dispersed the multitude. The various parties, united now in accordance with their leading interests, abandoned the place, and founded colonies in different parts of the globe. Thus separate tribes present themselves before us as early as 2000 B.C. Thenceforth their legends grow more authentic, and make a respectable approach towards history. We now proceed to treat of them in order.

The Egyptians and Ethiopians
III. Plate 3: Tombs and Funerary Objects
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The opinion has long prevailed that the old Egyptians sprang from the African Negro stock. It has been proved, however, that the inhabitants of Africa have belonged to three different races in all history. The Negro stock predominates in the interior or west, the Caffrarian occupies the south, and the Moors, who in their form, physiognomy, and hair, resemble the handsomely-shaped nations of Europe and Western Asia, and indeed differently in possessing a dark color, settled in the north and west. Beyond question, the ancient Egyptians were descended from the Moors, as must be obvious by the numerous monuments in which the country abounds. The mummies, as well as the inhabitants represented on these huge structures, point to the same fact. The figure of the bodies and the color of the skin demonstrate the identity of origin. (Plate 3, figs. 1–4, various Egyptian faces and head-dresses; figs. 5a and b, heads of male mummies; figs. 6a and b, female heads; fig. 7, a mummy.)

Rich as Egypt is in monuments of antiquity, they contribute but slightly to her early history. What subsequently became the powerful kingdom of Egypt, was once a group of small states, each of which had its king. Of these, Thebes and Memphis were by far the most powerful. Abraham, who, during a famine in Palestine (2000 B.C.), wandered into Lower Egypt, found there a powerful and flourishing kingdom. Joseph entered Middle Egypt, 1800 B.C., and later induced his father and brothers to emigrate thither and settle in the land of Goshen. Two hundred years afterwards, their descendants, the Israelites, were forced to leave Egypt for Palestine.

The most celebrated of the early kings was Sesostris, 1500 B.C. He consolidated the whole of Egypt into one government, subdued the eastern districts of the country to the Red Sea and Ethiopia, and by gifts of money and land, secured the affections of his subjects. With an army of nearly a million men, he then conquered the Ethiopians and Troglodytes, crossed the Ganges, and is said to have overrun nearly the whole of Northern Asia, contended with the Scythians, and entered Europe from the East. Upon his return home, he directed his attention to the improvement of the country; and with his rich spoils and skilful artists from other lands, whom he brought home as prisoners, he constructed those immense works of utility and ornament, for which Egypt is so celebrated.

The immediate successors of Sesostris have left but little to rescue their names from oblivion. Cheops and his brother Chephren, and also Mycerinus the son of Cheops, have indeed handed down some vestiges of their power and wealth, in the shape of the pyramids. But they enjoy an unenviable immortality, as the erection of these massive piles was marked by tyranny, poverty, and suffering. It opened the way for dissensions at home, and invited upon a weak and oppressed people, the invasion of foreign nations. At last twelve leading princes, 666 B.C., formed a confederacy for the restoration of peace and union, and erected the Labyrinth as a sign of their own unanimity. (Pl. 3, fig. 36, entrance to the Labyrinth.) But the compact was of short duration. One of the princes, Psammeticus, uniting with a band of Greek mercenaries and pirates, expelled his allies and restored the monarchy. His son, Necho (610 B.C.), attempted to connectby a canal the Nile and the Arabian Gulf He conquered the whole country between Egypt and the Euphrates; but lost the battle with Nebuchadonazar at Circesium, 606 B.C., and thus Egypt became subject to the Babylonian empire.

Passing over the unimportant reigns of Psammis and Apries, we come next to Amasis (536 B.C.). Under this able prince, Egypt recovered much of her splendor, industry found suitable encouragements, and a brisk commerce was carried on with Greece and the islands of the Archipelago. But about a month after his decease, Cambyses, king of Persia, marched against the new monarch, Psammenitus, besieged Pelusium, which surrendered with scarcely the show of resistance, reduced the country to bondage, and placed the priests especially under the severest yoke. Egypt now remained a Persian province, until it was conquered by Alexander the Great, 331 B.C. After his death (321 B.C.), it became the inheritance of one of his generals, Ptolemy, who again elevated it to the dignity of an independent kingdom. In this form it maintained its ascendency until the battle of Actium, 31 B.C., when it changed masters again and became a Roman province.

Internal Condition of Egypt
III. Plate 1: Egypt
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Under the reign of Sesostris, the country was divided into thirty-six provinces, administered by functionaries of different grades, according to a written code of laws. The population ranged between five and seven millions, and was divided into several castes. The principal of these were the Sacerdotal Gaste, who occupied all the valuable public offices, and patronized the arts and sciences; the Warrior’s Caste watched over the external defence and internal tranquillity, constituted a complete war establishment, and was the rank from which the king was usually elected. Then followed in rank, respectively, the Agriculturists, the Herdsmen, the Tradesmen (artists, mechanics, retailers, and merchants of every sort), the Interpreters, who conducted the negotiations between the Egyptians and foreigners; and finally, the Boatmen of the Nile. Each caste lived separately, and the offspring could not rise above the rank in which they were born.

The education of the priesthood was mostly practical. It was directed to an intimate knowledge of the soil, climate, and productions of the country, and to the sciences bearing upon these subjects: Astronomy, Mathematics (especially Geometry), Architecture, Painting, Music, Botany, Medicine, and Chemistry. They knew the art of Writing, and had exclusive possession of the art of recording transactions, discoveries, &c., in symbolical pictures and figures (hieroglyphics) standing for words and ideas, decipherable only by themselves.

The religion and its various ceremonies, of the Egyptians, are in a measure represented on our plates. In addition to the stars, they worshipped the crocodile, the falcon, the ichneumon, the ibis, dog, cat, wolf, and abore all the ox (apis). Astronomy has placed the figures of animals among the constellations, and as animal worship was doubtless the result of star worship, so the psychological ideas of the Egyptians had a close relation to the same subject. Thus they assigned to the souls of the dead a journey of three thousand years over the zodiac, when they again would return to animate human bodies. This explains, also, the great care bestowed upon the preservation of the bodies by embalming. It was a powerful effort to protect against the corroding touch of time, the human tabernacle, and have it in readiness when the spirit should have accomplished its pilgrimage.

The process of embalming was conducted by a large class of persons, and formed a considerable business. The flesh was first well pressed, so as to discharge the free juices, the brain was extracted through the nose, and the body enveloped in bandages. Pl. 3, fig. 7, exhibits a mummy with the inner folds. Over these were wrapped other pieces, to the number of fifteen or twenty. The head was covered with a square sheet of linen cloth, which spread over the face and formed a species of mask. Sometimes five or six of these pieces were laid upon the face, the outer fold being painted or gilded, and representing, with some approach towards accuracy, the countenance of the deceased. The legs were fastened together, and the arms crossed on the breast, by fillets saturated with rosin; and after the entire person had been fully bandaged, with much art and symmetry, the bands were adorned with hieroglyphics (fig. 8). These fillets were, however, usually surrounded by an envelope of peculiar construction. It consisted of linen, folded many times, and stiffened by glue or paste. This was again inclosed in a coffin made of sycamore or cedar, which resembled the mummy in form and size, and consisted of two pieces fastened to each other by pegs or cords, and coated with plaster or varnish. The outside was then ornamented, and marked with hieroglyphics (fig. 9). Remains of these mummies, inclosed in wooden chests or coffins, are but rarely found at the present day. Figs. 10, 11 represent mummies in coffins; fig. 12, side view of the coffin, with the lid.

Besides human corpses, the Egyptians frequently embalmed their sacred animals, especially the Apis, if it died a natural death, and the Ibis nearly always. They inclosed the body in linen or woollen bandages, over which were fitted fine thread nets (fig. 13). A kind of embalming was followed also with smaller animals, mammalia, amphibia, &c. (fig. 14).

The mummies were deposited in cellars hewn in the rocks. Many of these sepulchres have been discovered, and are known under the name catacombs. Upon the limestone walls, numerous representations—some in sculpture, and others in painting—are found, indicating the domestic, civil, and religious condition of the people. The pyramids (pl. 1, fig. 1), of which a fuller description will be given under the head of Architecture, were also used as depositories for the dead; whilst those lofty pointed columns known as obelisks (pl. [3], figs. 34, 35), were only erected as monuments to illustrious departed.

It was considered the greatest disgrace not to be buried with solemnity. But lest the honor of a solemn sepulture should be bestowed upon the wicked, the dead were tried before a court (pl. 1, fig. 1) consisting of forty judges, whose office it was to determine whether the deceased had merited embalming and a solemn funeral, or not.

III. Plate 6: Tombs and Funerary Objects
Engraver: A. Krausse

In the neighborhood of a group of pyramids at Ghizze, not far from Cairo, stands a gigantic sphinx, hewn from a single rock. It is 143 feet in length, and 62 feet in height. Only twenty-seven feet of it now project from the ground, the remainder being concealed by the sand. The sphinx originally presented the body of a lion, with a human head (pl. 1, fig. 1; pl. 3, fig. 32; pl. 6, fig. 1); sometimes the figure of a lion covered with a veil (pl. 3, fig. 33). At the temple of Karnak, sphinxes have been found, with rams’ heads, lions’ bodies, and human hair reaching over the back and breast (pl. 6, fig. 2). The sphinx symbolized power and wisdom as the attributes of Deity; therefore the temples contain a great number of these emblems.

III. Plate 2: Ancient Middle East and the Orient
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The sculpture and painting of the catacombs already referred to, introduce us to the life and pursuits of the Egyptians, and acquaint us especially with their employments, science of warfare, musical instruments, and the furniture and implements of their houses and farms. Thus pl. 2, fig. 1, represents an Egyptian king in a short cloak, or in his war dress with a striped tunic over it; another is drawn in a carriage by two splendidly caparisoned horses led by warriors, while other attendants shade him with parasols. Other pictures represent kings in battle, or the customs observed at their birth or during their education, the offerings and presents made to them (fig. 10), and the solemnities connected with their death. Those pictures also embrace vivid representations of the priests and people, and their common pursuits. Agriculture, commerce, and trade, were the occupation of the people, i.e. of all but the caste of the priests. The priests’ dress consisted of a short linen tunic, with short sleeves, and fastened above the hips by a girdle (pl. 2, fig. 2). They wore shoes of papyrus or leather. The head was seldom covered, and the hair was curled or braided. Sometimes a linen cloak was thrown over the shoulders, but always laid off before entering a temple. The women (pl. 2, fig. 3) wore a full dress over the tunic. It was either of linen or cotton, with wide sleeves, and of various figures and colors, though white was preferred. They wore their hair carefully arranged, and adorned their heads, ears, and hands, with ribbons, buckles, and rings, in rich profusion. Their feet were neatly, though lightly covered.

The furniture of the various rooms was costly and magnificent. Precious metals and the choicest wood from foreign countries were wrought up into articles exhibiting much taste. These, together with silks and cloths of oriental texture, increased the comforts and charms of the dwellings. The beds, richly hung with tapestry, were in the form of lions, jackalls, bulls, and sphinxes; and the ottomans, divans, couches, chests, coffers, drinking vessels, &c., were of the most finished workmanship. The folding chairs had commonly feet representing necks of swans, the heads downwards; candelabra and lamps, vessels of every size, vases of gold, gilded metal, silver, and other expensive materials; all these in luxuriant abundance, of costly form, and studded with enamel and precious stones, were the usual appendages in every well regulated Egyptian dwelling. In the palaces of the nobles and kings, of course, these ornaments reached an astonishing degree of magnificence.

For a representation of these articles, we refer to pl. 3, figs. 15 and 16, urns; figs. 17–19, large stone vases; fig. 20a and b, pitchers; figs. 21 and 22, altars; figs. 23 and 24, common chairs; fig. 25, folding chair; figs. 26 and 27, arm chairs; figs. 28 and 29, divan and foot stool; fig. 30, a knife; and fig. 31, a royal sceptre. Pl. 6, figs. 3–6, altars; fig. 7, a table; figs. 8–14ab, various pitchers, goblets, and vases; figs. 15–19, bowls and drinking vessels; fig. 20, a bowl; fig. 21, a ladle; fig. 22a, a necklace; and fig. 22b, a war sceptre.

Hunting and fishing served among the Egyptians as pleasant diversions (pl. 1, figs. 6, 7AB), though sometimes they became employments; and the plate now referred to delineates the various animals of the chase, and also the peculiar styles of fishing, as the hook, line, net, and trident; and fig. 7B presents the preparing of the fish for the table. Fig. 5 represents some operations common in agriculture. The wine culture, and everything pertaining to it, is seen in fig. 8, A–D. Figs. 2–4 show the manipulations of other trades, and particularly fig. 2, workers in leather; fig. 3, cabinet-makers; and fig. 4, butchers.

The Hebrews or Jews

We shall refer at large to these people under the head of Religious Rites. For the present we merely call attention to a view of Absalom’s grave in the Valley of Josaphat (pl. 6, fig. 54).

Assyrians, Babylonians, and Medes

As before observed, the districts around the Euphrates and Tigris were peopled at a very early period. Of their first settlement, nothing is absolutely known; the Assyrians, Babylonians, and Medes, present themselves as the most powerful and ancient races in that division. Having scarcely any written accounts, we must form an idea of their civilization and luxury from the representations copied from their old monuments. Pl. 2, figs. 7, 8, magnificent costume of distinguished Assyrians; figs. 15 and 16, the simpler dress of the Medes; figs. 10 and 11, Assyrian warriors on foot; figs. 12, 13, Assyrian horsemen; fig. 9, Assyrian slaves. The head-dress was very various and splendid, as already observed. Pl. 6, fig. 32, gives an Assyrian tiara; fig. 38, a helmet; and fig. 40ab, plain Assyrian head-dresses.

Persians, Syrians, and Phrygians
III. Plate 4: Various Peoples of Antiquity
Engraver: W. Honeck

The province Persia, in the south bordering on the Persian Gulf, and in the north on Media, was doubtless the nucleus of the great Persian monarchy.

The Persians, like the Egyptians, buried their dead with great solemnity, in rock vaults. Pl. 3, fig. 40, and pl. 6, fig. 51, represent the vaults found in the neighborhood of Persepolis. The Persian apparel strongly resembled that of the Medes (pl. 2, figs. 17–20), though the women wore a peculiar head-dress (pl. 4, fig. 3). For the head-dress of the Persian kings, see pl. 6, figs. 30, 31. A laced shoe (fig. 46) covered the foot. For a fly-brush they used a bunch of horse hair, fastened to a carved handle (fig. 47). The Persian trumpet (fig. 48) was straight; and their dishes and vessels sometimes plain (fig. 50), at other times costly (fig. 49). Pl. 4, fig. 13, represents a Syrian; and pl. 6, fig. 52, the so called rock-grave of Midas.

The ancient Phrygians adopted a simple style of clothing (pl. 4, fig. 8) They covered their heads either with the capes of their full wide-sleeved cloaks, or with a peculiar cap (pl. 6, fig. 39). At their public solemnities, as festivals, sacrifices, &c., they wore a dress with tight sleeves, and over this another, which was embroidered and had no sleeves. Ribbons and wreaths adorned their heads; and they usually wore boots, laced in front. The upper part of the leg was left bare (pl. 7, fig. 14).

Celts, Scythians, and Sarmatians
III. Plate 5: Scenes of Germans and Gauls
Engraver: Henry Winkles

According to the Greek historians, the Celts lived in Western Europe. The Romans called them Gauls, and under this name particularly, they have rendered themselves illustrious for energy and powder.

It is highly probable that they occupied the districts around the Caspian Sea, whence they emigrated about the time of the elder Tarquin, overrunning the South and West of Europe. Pl. 6, fig. 28, a Sarmatian head-dress; fig. 29, the tiara of a Scythian king.

Indians and Chinese

By many writers the Indians are regarded as the most ancient people extant, because about them we have the earliest records of their state of civilization; but their annals are involved in the usual obscurity which marks all chronicles of remote antiquity. Modern East India is the scene of their pursuits; and much information may be gathered from their architecture, temples, monuments, and sepulchres.

We give (pl. 3, fig. 37) a ground plan of an Indian pyramid, used as a tomb; fig. 38, elevation of the same; and fig. 39, a section. Other interesting monuments of ancient Indian architecture will be represented on the plates illustrating Architecture.

The dress of the Indians, mostly made of silk and cotton, was not remarkably gaudy. The head coverings were melon-shaped, as pl. 6, fig. 33, female head-dress, and figs. 34, 36, male head-dresses; or cylindrical (fig. 37); or simply a hood (fig. 35) extending down below the neck. Their fans were made of peacocks’ and pheasants’ feathers (fig. 43); also, the fly brushes (figs. 44, 45). They did not display much skill in their ornaments, if we may judge from a necklace (fig. 41), or from a belt (fig. 45b).

Of China we shall treat more at large hereafter. We here only describe the emperor’s dress (pl. 6, fig. 42). He wore a pearl in his cap (the cap buttons are used even in modern times, to mark the rank of the Chinese), and a yellow silk under-dress, on which was stamped the five-clawed dragon, which none but the emperor might wear. The warriors differ but slightly in dress from the other classes (pl. 2, fig. 5). Their armor consisted of the short sword, and the bow and arrow, and they wore a species of helmet or leather cap, as a defence to the head and face.

Ethiopians

We have already spoken of this tribe, when treating of the Egyptians. They are alluded to in the earliest known legends, and they seem to have spread over a vast extent of territory. In the progress of time, however, the name was applied separately to the nations living in modern Nubia, Abyssinia, Adel, &c., as far as Cape Prasum (Dulgado).

Of all these states, Mero was the most distinguished for industry, civilization, and refinement. In no ancient country, perhaps, were religion and its ceremonies more respected. See (pl. 6, figs. 23, 24) the head-dress of Ethiopian monarchs.

A large peninsula, formed by the rivers Astaboras (Laccazze) in the west, and Astaphus (Bahr el Abiad), properly an arm of the Nile, in the east, composes the modern kingdom of Senaar in Nubia, and the northern portion of Abyssinia. This was the ancient Meroe, where, at an early date, the priests formed a very powerful caste.

West of Meroë was the land of the Nubians, beyond these the Sembritians, while the Macrobians occupied the south along the coast of the Indian Ocean. The Troglodytes, a race of traders and cattle breeders, lived on the coast of the Red Sea, from the limits of Egypt to Cape Dire. During the rainy season they retired to large caves in the rocks.

Ancient Numidia answered to modern Algiers. It contained several important cities, among which we name Cirta, the capital. Pl. 6, fig. 25, represents the head-dress of a Numidian king.

Mauritania lay westward from Numidia, from which it was separated by the River Ampsaga. It constituted the north-western portion of Africa, and had a valuable and extensive coast on the Mediterranean. Its inhabitants, the Moors, were unequalled in horsemanship, and the use of the bow and lance, like their modern descendants. Pl. 4, fig. 2, shows the apparel of an ancient Mauritanian.

The Carthaginians, a North-African nation, sprang from a colony of Phoenicians. The city was founded by Dido, queen of Tyre. As we shall return to the Carthaginians when speaking of Rome, we close this notice by a reference to (pl. 6, figs. 55–57) Carthaginian coins, exhibiting also the common head-dress of the citizens; and pl. 4, fig. 1, the costume of a Carthaginian king.

Arabians and Armenians

Legend generally attributes the origin of the xirabians to Ishmael, the son of Abraham and his bond-woman Hagar. The Arabians designate as the father of their race, Kahton or Joctan, the ancestor of Abraham. The northern provinces can never have been occupied by any powerful state, as will appear from Moses’ expeditions, and the easy conquest of the country by David and Solomon. Yet the whole peninsula was never completely subjugated by any foreign conquerors. The vast deserts, the free and daring spirit of the nomadic tribes, have guarded the soil, Pl. 4, fig. 7, an Arabian warrior.

Ancient Armenia comprehended not only the districts and the sources of the Rivers Euphrates, Tigris, Kyros, and of the Araxes to its junction with the Kyros, but extended to the Caspian and Black Seas, and reached far into Asia Minor. With its neighbor Assyria, it succumbed first to the Median sway, afterwards to Persia, and never again recovered its independence. Commerce was the favorite pursuit of this people. Pl. 4, fig. 4, Armenians, man and boy; figs. 5, 6, Armenian warriors.

From Cyrus to Augustus (560–530 B.C.)

The Partians

Parthia was a small province lying to the south-east of the Caspian. Originally it formed a part of Hyrcania, a province of the Persian empire. Under Arsaces it rose to the rank of a kingdom. His successors, the Arsacidae, resided in Hecatompylos. Like Thessaly in Greece, Parthia was celebrated for its excellent horses. The Parthians were distinguished for their admirable riding, and the use of the bow. They led a wild, roving life. Pl. 4, fig. 14, a Parthian.

The Celts and Scythians

We have previously said that a portion of the Celts or Gauls overran Western Europe. Another branch invaded Italy, and settled along the shores of the Adriatic, while another horde peopled Gallia and a large portion of Spain. Some even penetrated north, and crossed into Britain. Thus the great Celtic root comprehended several important stocks, which branched out in various directions, experienced singular vicissitudes, and by frequent grafting, lost much of their original character. We now introduce the following tribes.

  1. The Getæ. This tribe, descendants of the Scythians, inhabited that part of Thrace lying between Mount Heemus and the River Ister (Danube). They were a brave and hardy race, and vigorously contested every inch of ground with the Romans; but were at last compelled to surrender to the emperor Trajan, who joined their country to Dacia.
  2. The Dacians. These also lived between Haemus and the Danube, and were distinguished equally with the Getae for courage. They possessed a strong and almost unconquerable nationality, and had peculiar customs; but they too yielded before the all-subduing might of the Romans under Trajan. Pl. 4, figs. 9, 10, Dacian warriors; figs. 11, 12, Dacian women. Pl. 6, fig. 27, common head-dress of the Dacians.
  3. The Celtiberians (pl. 4, fig. 15) were a mixed tribe of native Iberians and roving Celts, Who lived in the districts washed by the Iberus (Ebro) and the upper part of the Durius (Duero) in Spain.
  4. The Iberians (Spaniards) (fig. 6, an Iberian woman) were a tribe living originally near the Straits of Gibraltar, but who afterwards over-spread a large portion of the peninsula.
  5. The Gauls possessed nearly all modern France, North Italy, part of the Tyrol, Carniola, and some districts of Central Italy. They were of Celtic extraction, and, prior to the invasion of the Romans, totally rude and uncivilized. They conducted their religious ceremonies in the dense forest, whose strong oaks served as temples; their sacrifices were accompanied by the gloomy songs of the bards, who also during battle sang, at the head of the combatants, their wild strains of victory and war. Pl. 5, fig. 4, Gauls from the district of Narbonne, and a bard; fig. 5, a Druid and a warrior of Gallia Belgica; fig. 6, a native of Gallia Celtica, near Marseilles; and figs. 7, 8, a common and a noble Gaul in the time of the Roman supremacy.
  6. Britain was first discovered by the Phœnicians, who carried on a commerce in tin with the natives. The first inhabitants had come from the continent, and gradually overspread the whole island; but at a later period were repulsed and dislodged by the Belgae, who, landing on the east, compelled their adversaries to confine themselves to the north and west. When the Romans invaded the island, they took them for aborigines, and named them Britons. Penetrating to the north, they were driven back by the furious Picts and Scots, whose descendants to this day inhabit the Scottish Highlands, the Hebrides, and a considerable portion of Ireland. Pl. 4, fig. 17, a female impersonating Britannia.
The Germans

If Tacitus may be credited, the Germans have always dwelt in the country bearing their name. They were genuine aborigines.

They worshipped the earth-descended Tuisco (Teut) and his son Mannus as their prime ancestors. From the sons of Mannus sprang three leading tribes: the Inagævones near the North Sea, the Istcevones on the Rhine, and the Hermiones in the interior and south. To these Pliny adds other powerful tribes: the Vindili near the Baltic, and the Peucini in Hungary. Some writers lean to the opinion that the Celts had dwelt in the country before the Germans, who entered it from the south-east. At a very early period, we see not only the names of tribes here mentioned, but many others of less importance.

The first grand historical movement of the Germans occurred about 114 B.C. They now appear restless and discordant, harassing and plundering each other; and one body, dissatisfied with their location, emigrating southwards to the Danube, invaded the Roman lines, and scattered death and ruin in their track. They conquered the Romans lying at Noreia in Styria, 113 B.C., but instead of pressing into Italy, they crossed the Rhine and entered the Gallic territories. These hordes bore the name of Teutons and Cimbri.

The subjugation of Gallia was easy and rapid. The Teutons were still carrying on sanguinary battles with the Belgæ, while the Cimbri, abandoning Gallia, penetrated as far as Marseilles, where they encountered and completely routed a Roman legion, 109 B.C. This successful battle was followed by several others, and in the year 105 B.C., on the banks of the Rhone, they overwhelmed the whole of the Roman forces. Again they failed to profit by their good fortune. Instead of a direct invasion of Italy, they marched to Spain to subdue the Celtiberians; but when they returned, 102 B.C., without accomplishing their object, and now commenced the invasion of Italy, they found the Romans well prepared to meet them, and so unfortunate were their repeated contests for the Teutons, that their forces were almost annihilated.

The Cimbri followed their brethren in an effort to subjugate Rome (101 B.C.), but met with small success, and finally relinquished the plan. Their defeat terminated the war, and a quiet of several years’ duration succeeded. Civil war, however, still prevailed in Germany for some time, until at length the tribes on the Upper Elbe, Vistula, and Danube, formed the confederation known as the Suevian Union, whose power seemed invincible. A branch of it, the Marcomanni, from the district between the Danube and the Neckar, under Ariovistus, 72 B.C., went to the aid of the Sequani and Arverni against the Ædui, both Gallian tribes. Their aid decided the conflict in favor of the Sequani, who were now compelled to give up a third part of the country to their allies, who settled there, and drew after them more Germans, neither Romans nor Gauls daring to interfere. But when they became too troublesome, the helpless Gauls invoked against their oppressors the aid of Julius Caesar, who, when Ariovistus had refused to negotiate, attacked him at Besançon, 58 B.C., and completely routed the Germans; Ariovistus escaped with a few adherents across the Rhine. Caesar won a similar battle against the German tribes, the Usipiti and Tenchtheri, who had crossed the Rhine. He gave up his idea of penetrating further into the country when he learned that the whole Suevian Union were arnaino; themselves against him. Meantime Rome had won many battles in other lands, and had succeeded in gaining the friendship of some German tribes; several tribes, especially the Ubii, even fought with their forces. When the Roman republic was changed into a monarchy, and the idea of a universal dominion had taken deep root in the Romans, they resolved to subjugate the whole of Germany. In the pursuit of this ruling idea, the Roman army soon distinguished itself along the banks of the Danube, subdued Noricum, Rhaetia, and Vindelicia, and reduced them to Roman provinces, 15 B.C.

We break here the thread of German history, purposing to resume it at a subsequent period. A brief glance at their character and manners may not be uninteresting.

The ancient Germans were a gigantic race, with fair hair, blue eyes, a clear white skin, and a piercing and haughty glance. From their early youth they were trained to the endurance of hardships, in their rough climate, which rendered them indifferent to suffering and fatigue. They possessed an astonishing power of endurance. Immediately after birth, infants were plunged into cold water, in the presence of the family and of warriors (pl. 5, fig. 2). The children went naked, and were bathed in cold water by their mothers; men, women, boys, and girls, constantly invigorated themselves by bathing in the rivers.

The prevailing characteristics were patriotism, truth, chastity, courage, hospitality, and love of order and discipline. Marriage with them was a sacred institution, and virtue and modesty were, above all things, expected of every bride. The youth who loved a maiden offered her his hand for lawful alliance, and the parents blessed the union. The parties then exchanged presents; the bride offered the bridegroom various pieces of armor, and he in turn presented her with oxen and cows, a bridled horse, shield, lance, and sword. Pl. 5, fig. 3, ceremony of a German wedding.

In time of peace the Germans abandoned themselves to idleness or play; sometimes they indulged in the excitement of the chase. The free Germans disdained agricultural labor; they left the care of husbandry to menials, and the domestic concerns to the women. They lived chiefly on the flesh of wild and domestic animals, fruits, milk, &c. They made beer from barley, mead of wild honey and water, and only on the Rhine was wine drunk. They wore no ornaments except their arms. Arrayed in these they even appeared at their banquets, of which all were very fond, and which frequently degenerated into revels.

Their dress, like their dwellings, was simple and unadorned. The men wore a mantle manufactured from bast or the skin of wild beasts. The women dressed in a garment gaudily colored, without sleeves, and fastened by a girdle. Their long, beautiful hair flowed loosely over their shoulders.

Architectural taste seems to have been little known among the Germans. They generally lived in huts, constructed of rude logs and mud, and covered with thatch; not a few would seek shelter merely in caves, especially in winter. Pl. 5, fig. 1, a German family in their dwelling.

Four great classes marked their social arrangements. 1. The superior, wealthy aristocracy. These held great property, controlled the legislation, and furnished the leaders in battle. 2. The common freemen, enjoying less respect and influence than the former, and limited as to their property in goods and slaves. Though of inferior position, they constituted a powerful body. 3. The tenants (Clientes, Lassi), who received from the proprietors of the soil a small tract for cultivation, and paid for it in corn, cattle, and cloth. 4. Slaves. These were bought and sold at pleasure, and labored only for the profit of their owners, who possessed over them the power of life and death. On the whole, however, the German slaves were not so cruelly treated as those of the Greeks and Romans.

The superiors formed commonwealths, several of which were grouped in a district, several districts making a county, which was ruled by a count. In time of war several united counties elected a duke. Only a few tribes were governed by kings. The German warriors usually fought on foot, horsemen only being found where horses were bred. Pl. 4, fig. 18, a German war leader (duke); fig. 19, a warrior.

Religious ideas consisted mainly in the worship of nature. However, the Germans also adored godlike characters, as Thor, Wodan, and Freia. They reverenced no visible objects, and erected no temples. Their sacred places were groves and woods, where they built their altars and offered their sacrifices. Their system included priests and priestesses, and ecclesiastical authority often extended beyond any jurisdiction which the civil magistrate would dare to assume. The priest could scourge a citizen in the name of the Deity; he generally opened the legislative assembly, commanded silence, and held the banner of the tribe in battle. The priestess confined herself within the sphere of prophecy.

The dead were burnt upon a funeral pile, amid the shrieks and lamentations of their surviving relatives. If the deceased was a young man, his arms and horse were consumed with him. After the fire had gone out, the ashes and the bones of the body were carefully collected, and buried beneath a light sod. They believed in the immortality of the soul, and therefore would meet death without fear or terror.

Their ideas of heaven (Valhalla) were rather sensual. It was peopled only with German heroes, who continued their warlike pursuits, intermingled with banquets and revels.

The Classic Ages

The Greeks (Έλλ̃ηυες, Hellenes) from their Settlement to the Period of the Roman Supremacy

Historians unite in the opinion that the greater part of ancient Greece was colonized by the Pelasgians. They were even considered as the aborigines of several provinces, as of Arcadia. It is, however, more likely that the Arcadians came from. Asia.

Greece presents four grand natural divisions: Hellas, Macedonia, Epirus and Thessaly, and the Peloponnesus.

The southern division, Peloponnesus, contained the districts of Arcadia, Achaia, Argolis, Laconia or Sparta, Elea, and Messenia. In Hellas, or Greece Proper, were Attica (Athens), Boeotia, Phocis, and Ætolia.

The Greeks are generally represented as rude and uncultivated, yet from the accounts which have reached us of their ancient architecture, religious ceremonies, and discoveries, we infer a degree of civilization among them, even in the most ancient times. Probably not more than five generations had lived in Thessaly, when Deucalion arrived there. A general deluge had driven him and his men from the deserts of Parnassus. His followers named themselves Hellenes, after his son Hellenes. Spreading themselves over Greece, and mingling with the Pelasgi, their name became by degrees predominant throughout the country. At a later period, the Æolians, Dorians, lonians, and Achseans stand out prominently in history; some Greek historians mention new accessions of emigrants from Asia and Egypt, in 1580 and 1350 B.C. These various elements gradually combined into a harmonious whole, still preserving, however, some traces of their original manners and descent.

An ardent spirit of heroism soon became characteristic of the people. Great glory was attached to the names of Hercules, Jason, Perseus, and Theseus. They were indeed so highly reverenced by their posterity as to be made demi-gods. Bold lyrical strains celebrated their services to mankind; rehearsed the adventures connected with the Argonautic Expedition, 1300 B.C.; the campaign against Thebes, 1225 B.C., by the allied powers of Peloponnesus; and finally, the various excursions in quest of booty along the coast of Asia Minor. The whole of the two centuries, 1400–1200 B.C., was so marked by valorous exploits, and a devoted attention to the practice of warfare, as to have received the appellation of the Heroic Age. It was only by Agamemnon’s confederacy with all the Greek states, in view of an attack upon Troy, 1191–1184 B.C., that Greece became a consolidated nation. After the fall of this city, the history of Greece becomes more reliable. On their return, the Greeks turned their arms against each other. The Dorians (Heraclidse) invaded the Peloponnesus, 1100 B.C., whence they had formerly been expelled by the inhabitants (the Pelopidae). Wearied with internal strife, many of the Greeks moved over to the coast of Asia Minor. The numerous small kingdoms, no longer able to sustain themselves, fell to ruin. With the exception of Sparta, they became republics, every city constituting the nucleus of a separate independent state.

Though this tended to sever the Greeks from each other, they nevertheless possessed several incitements to union. Their language and religion, their annual sports, the Olympic games, and especially the Amphictyonic Council, served as national bonds which could not be easily sundered. Art and science began to be developed; a spirit of freedom took firm hold of the popular mind. Yet party strife rose high among them; and having no state laws in common, they were not formidable antagonists to foreigners, except when mutual interest compelled them to make common cause, and to form strong alliances.

Sparta and Athens held the supremacy over the other states. Each of these powers named its constitution from its own lawgivers: Lycurgus, and Draco and Solon. Sparta, after a bloody contest of fifty years, conquered Messenia, and thus laid the foundation of her subsequent eminence. Athens suffered from civil broils between the lower and higher orders, until Pisistratus assumed the reins of power, 561 B.C. Fresh disturbances arose under Hipparchus, a son and successor of Pisistratus. Hipparchus was banished, 510 B.C. Ostracism was introduced, but the measure did not restore quiet, which was still more interrupted by a war with Sparta. Ostracism was the system of banishing too powerful citizens for ten years. The votes for this banishment were written on shells, which was the cause of the appellation (ὀδτρακου, a shell).

After all, these commotions may have had their use in the preservation and training of a superior courage, a quality soon to be brought into requisition by the Greeks, who were called to defend their liberties and homes against the hosts of Persia. In the tedious and sanguinary wars that followed, the Greeks displayed a rare intellectual and physical energy, which nothing but intense patriotism and zeal for liberty could have prompted. Then the Greek mind seems to have received its first high and glorious impulse: an impulse which called forth the most perfect works of the Fine Arts.

With the introduction of art and refinement came also their almost invariable accompaniments: luxury, extravagance, licentiousness. The Persian campaigns opened the way to oriental voluptuousness, which tended greatly to the degeneration of the Greeks.

Fears of foreign subjugation had united the states in defensive alliance; but when the danger had subsided, the former internal animosities returned with increased acrimony, viz. the discord of the neighboring provinces, caused by envy and jealousy, and the special interests which separated the smaller states from those of Sparta and Athens. When Sparta ceased to promote the contest against Persia, Athens persevered, until, at the expense of her allies, the islands of Scyros, Naxos, and Thasos, she acquired the sovereignty of the seas, and even dictated peace to Asia, 449 B.C. Under Pericles, her power continued to rise, and her neighbors, Megara, Euboea, Samos, and Corinth, felt her oppression in no small degree. Sparta found herself disregarded, and her power diminished. In all the states, contentions arose between the aristocracy and the democracy. Sparta lent assistance and protection to the aristocratic party (the oligarchy), while the democracy found strong support in Athens. Thus Sparta still retained influence over some states, and even subdued several. At length all the forces of the Peloponnesus rose against Athens, 431 B.C., which was compelled to yield, and henceforth Sparta held the supremacy of Greece from 404–371 B.C. For this success she was indebted to the genius and talents of Lysander.

The inhabitants of the conquered cities and islands soon felt the yoke of the rude Spartans. A new war with Persia required great subsidies, which had to be furnished partly by them, a circumstance which made this dominion still more painful.

Agesilaus wanted to penetrate boldly into Persia, and would probably have completely overwhelmed that empire, if the Persians had not succeeded by bribery in counteracting his plans, while they more and more agitated the Greek people at home. The war of Corinth ensued, 394 B.C. The Spartans fought the memorable battle at Coronea, and won a splendid victory over the Thebans. But Corion of Athens defeated the Spartan fleet at Cnidus. Athens, after this, had the superiority, and envy induced the Spartans to conclude a dishonorable peace with Persia, 387 B.C. This treaty took its name from Antalcidas, the Spartan Ambassador by whom it was negotiated.

Thebes was forced to Join it, and soon felt the insolence of the Spartans, who, during divisions among the democrats and aristocrats in Thebes, took possession of this city, and besieged Cadmea. But the fall of Sparta soon ensued. Under Epaminondas the Thebans gained a glorious victory, 371 B.C., and Thebes rose to be the first and most important state of Greece. With the death of Epaminondas, 362 B.C., the flames of civil strife in Greece were temporarily smothered.

About this time a new power sprang into note, and became a dangerous opponent to Greece. The Macedonians, under Philip I., after having conquered the neighboring territories, made themselves masters of Greece, 338 B.C. This monarch, however, treated the Greeks with forbearance and kindness, and gained their co-operation in his plan of punishing the Persians; but before any important results had accrued, his life was brought to a close, and his kingdom descended to one more formidable than himself, his son Alexander the Great. The subjugated people once more arose, but were soon compelled to humble themselves before the powerful conqueror, the Spartans excepted, who refused to acknowledge the sway of Alexander, as they had before that of Philip. Alexander now accomplished his father’s plan of uniting with the Greeks in an expedition against Persia. He was victorious, and thus became master of Asia Minor, 334 B.C.

After his death, 322 B.C., the Greeks again attempted to liberate themselves from the tyranny of Macedonia. This effort, however, was not only vain, but their state of bondage became even more abject. However, disturbances in Macedonia afforded several Greek states an opportunity of disengaging themselves more or less from that empire. They formed the Achæan league, 281 B.C., which was followed by the league of the Ætolians. These confederacies maintained for a while the dying spirit of freedom, and served as a strong check to the encroachments of Macedonia. But nothing could appease the old jealousies which gave rise to fresh discords. The war of Cleomenes resulted, 227–221 B.C., and it was followed by that of the Ætolians, 221–217 B.C. Thus, Philip III. of Macedonia acquired the ascendency, and maintained it, until the Romans succeeded in gaining adherents, and caused the formation of two leading parties: the Roman and the Macedonian (the old Ætolian), 211 B.C. The latter were by far superior, until their forces were completely routed at Cynocephalæ, 197 B.C., and the Greeks proclaimed their independence at the Isthmian games, 195 B.C.

The Ætolians, meanwhile, unwilling to submit to the guardianship of the Romans, invoked the aid of Antiochus III., king of Syria, against their new oppressors, but were obliged, by a disgraceful peace, to acknowledge the power of Rome, 189 B.C. The Achaean league furnished the only remaining obstacle to the Roman arms; but after many a contest and much oppression, it fell and was dissolved. All Greece, under the title of Achaia, became a Roman province, 146 B.C. Athens, as a reward for her devotion to the Romans, enjoyed several privileges, but when she sided with Mithridates, king of Pontus, in his quarrel with the Romans, she was attacked, subdued, and plundered, and forever deprived of her hberties, 81 B.C. Thus sank at last this beautiful abode of art and science.

The social arrangements and internal relations of the Greeks in the Heroic Ages, were based upon unions formed by families and tribes: at the head of the state, as of a family, one was chief (king). He represented the highest authority of government; he led the army in war; kept up order and discipline according toestablished usage; presided at the sacrifices made in the name and in behalf of the state; and made general provision for the maintenance of religious ceremonies. His office was hereditary, though in a great measure the succession was regulated by the voice of tiie people and the will of the gods. The chief qualities demanded in the candidates were, bravery, physical strength and beauty, generosity, and experience. Such qualities, which their predecessors had possessed, contributed towards giving them with the people the name of having descended from the gods. Various privileged classes, as it were, the nobility of the state, held rank next to the king. Those among them who were distinguished by age, experience, and courage, and other brilliant qualities, were allowed to assist the king with their advice and admonition in public affairs, and to restrain him from acts of tyranny; but the great mass of the people enjoyed no share in the government.

After the heroic ages, we find this form of government entirely abolished in some states, and in others tending to decline. As the history of Greece is sufficiently comprehended under the accounts of Sparta and Athens, so their constitutions may serve as fair specimens of all the rest. We may remark, generally, that in the principles of political government, the Doric states imitated Sparta, and the Ionic, Athens.

The constitution of Sparta was a mixture of monarchical and representative powers. Kings indeed were chosen and invested with royal prerogatives; but their acts were in a measure controlled by the popular assembly. This body had an undisputed vote upon all propositions emanating from the two kings and twenty-eight elders, each of whom must be at least sixty years of age. They were termed the Council of the Elders. The kings performed the functions of priests, and in battle marched at the head of the army.

Another class of magistrates took the name of Ephori (supervisors). They were five in number, and were elected annually. The kings were bound to submit to their judgment, and might even be dethroned at their pleasure.

Lycurgus was the great Spartan lawgiver. The basis of his constitution was equality among all citizens. The uniformity of fortune which this required he endeavored to produce by a an equal distribution of landed property. As means to this end he also propounded laws regulating clothing, food, and dwellings, the substitution of iron for a gold and silver currency, and the education of youth towards a common aim, that of becoming brave warriors.

The constitution of Athens emanated from Solon. His system contemplated not so much the quality as the liberty of the people. No ruler was admitted; Athens was a genuine republic.

The people were divided into four classes, differing from each other not less in number than in rank and importance. 1. The free citizens, whose numbers were not allowed to exceed 20,000. 2. The free commoners, immigrants to whom the prerogatives of the free citizens were refused, but who received protection from the latter. 3. Strangers, persons who merely sojourned for a short while in the city, without making it their place of residence. 4. Slaves, most of whom were captives of war, and who were subjected to actual bondage. They met with a kinder treatment in Athens than in the other states.

By the Athenian constitution the administration of the government was vested in the Assembly of the People, the Archons, the Grand Council, and the Areopagus.

The Grand Council consisted of 400 members, chosen annually, by lot, from the citizens. They were required to be of unimpeachable integrity, and at least thirty years of age. On them devolved the actual charge of the government. They also proposed laws, but had to give an account to the people every year, and to undergo the penalty which the assembly of the people had a right to impose upon them in case of bad administration.

The Archons, who before the time of Solon had been almost as kings, under his code only exercised judicature in special branches of jurisdiction.

The Areopagus had existed ever since the most ancient times as a kind of tribunal for capital crimes; but Solon assigned to it the charge of supervising the management of the state, the conduct of public officers, and the observance of laws and morals, &c. This court even acquired the power of rejecting decrees of the popular assembly, when it deemed them unjust or unlawful. Thus it formed a barrier to the people’s passions and thoughtlessness. The Areopagus was chosen from former archons whose administration had given no cause for complaint. It numbered more than 300 members, who, when once elected, retained their dignity for life. They held their sessions publicly in the open air, which gave their proceedings an air of authority and solemnity. Pl. 8, fig. 5, the Areopagus in session.

Solon had paid particular attention to the administration of justice, and laid it down as a principle to let the greatest possible number of judges vote in cases of litigation. Besides this, the power lay in the people to ostracize or banish for ten years a man whose ambition appeared to threaten the liberties of the state. The Athenians, finally, had a written system of jurisprudence, which was highly prized. Part of it was even subsequently incorporated in the laws of the Roman and other nations.

An account of all matters relating to Grecian warfare will be given under the head of Military Sciences, and the religious ceremonies will be treated of under Mythology. Here we only refer to pl. 27, figs. 19, 20, Greek War-leaders.

The laws of Lycurgus prohibited the Spartan citizens from carrying on any trade. War and hunting constituted honorable employments. The helots (slaves) tilled the soil, and also provided for the necessaries of life. Rough iron, and sometimes iron coin, constituted the sole currency. Simplicity of manners, and frugality of living, continued to characterize the Spartans up to the close of the Peloponnesian war; but after that date, when an intercourse began to grow up between Asia and Greece, the infection of eastern luxury reached even to Sparta, and the early poverty was succeeded by a season of private and public wealth.

The wealthy Athenian citizens had always devoted themselves more to public than private affairs, leaving the care of agriculture and trade to the slaves. Many, however, would inspect their workmen, nay, participate in manual labor, especially in husbandry. Mining was left to the slaves. Besides marble quarries, silver was found in great abundance in the mines of Mount Laurion. The poorer citizens would follow some trade, whilst the opulent had factories where their slaves were set to work. The rights of labor were unrestricted. Several circumstances conspired to favor commerce, and thereby trade; among these we may mention the happy position of the country, and the admirable harbor of Athens. Commerce might have risen to still greater importance had not the Athenian love of conquest given another aim to their pre-eminence at sea. Besides, there was a law prohibiting the importation and exportation of certain products in time of war.

The currency used in trade was of gold, silver, copper, and iron. Originally these metals were not coined, and the value was estimated by the weight. But at the time of Solon coins had come into general use, and in Athens they were stamped with an image of Minerva with the owl. The Athenian currency served as a model for that of surrounding states, and throughout all Hellas the talent and minawxre used as conventional standards of value: 1 talent = 60 minæ (about $1000); 1 mina = 100 drachmas; 1 drachma = 6 oboli; 1 obolus = 8 chalci; 1 chalcus = 7 lepta. Gold coin bore a proportion to silver of 1 : 10; at other times 1 : 12, 12\(\frac{1}{2}\), and even 15. Down to the half obolus silver was used; the quarter obolus sometimes silver, and sometimes copper; while the smaller coins were made of copper only.

Prior to the time of Solon coins of the same denomination were heavier than under him and his successors, for he coined 100 drachmas from the same amount of metal that used to give 72 or 73 drachmas. The drachma of Ægina did not suffer reduction, and in Euboea the coin underwent less alteration than in Attica.

III. Plate 11: Tombs, Urns, and Coins
Engraver: Henry Winkles

For fac-similes of several Grecian, Macedonian, and other coins, see pl. 11, fig. 24, a double drachma, didrachma, obverse of a silver coin of Ægina; fig. 25ab, Syracusan coins; fig. 26, obverse of a Theban silver coin; fig. 27ab, Alexandrian silver coin of four drachmas; fig. 28ab, silver coin of Crotona; fig. 29ab, golden octodrachma of Ptolemseus I.; fig. 30ab, Athenian silver tetradrachma; fig. 31ab, silver tetradrachma of Alexander the Great; fig. 32ab, gold double drachma of Philip II. of Macedon; fig. 33ab, gold drachma of Hiero II.; and fig. 34ab, Parthian silver drachma of Arsaces VI.

Manners and Character of the Greeks. The Greeks of the heroic age lived midway between barbarism and civilization; but owing to favorable circumstances, they had, unlike other nations, the advantage of a free development. It cannot be denied that quarrels were adjusted by the law of retaliation, and violent and bloody scenes frequently occurred; but so sensitive was the susceptibility to praise or censure, that even the superiors did not venture to risk their characters by deeds of oppression. Hospitality was always a religious virtue; and wandering minstrels, who were held in high esteem by people and princes, contributed essentially towards the moral refinement. The public games were another powerful bond of nationality. The grand games were four; the Olympic, Delphic, Nemean, and Isthmian, all possessing at first only a local importance, but afterwards raised to the rank of national festivals. They became a centre of union for the most distant states, for to them repaired visitors from all parts of the country, by land and by sea.

The Olympic games were celebrated in the grove of Altis, in Pisatis. They derive their name from the sacred edifices called Olympia, which were situated near the grove. The games were held at intervals, of five years. They lasted from the 11th to the 15th day of the month of Hekatombseon, at the time of full moon after the summer solstice. They were celebrated in honor of the Olympian Jupiter. During the solemnities hostilities were universally suspended. Racing originally formed the leading contest, though, at a later period, other exercises were added. Special judges were appointed to decide who had won the prize, and if they failed to agree, the case was submitted to the grand Olympic Council. The only reward of the victor was an olive wreath or crown.

III. Plate 9: Grecian Games
Engraver: Henry Winkles

These games were established by Klimenos, about fifty years after Deucalion, and suppressed by the Emperor Theodosius, 394 A.D. From 776 B.C., time was reckoned by Olympiads. Pl. 9 represents several scenes connected with the Olympian performances. Fig. 7, a ball-slinger; fig. 8, a discus-slinger (the discus, or quoit, was a heavy stone or iron disk, and the play consisted in throwing it in a curved line to a fixed mark); fig. 9, a ring or hoop-racer; fig. 10, archers; fig. 11, a lancer; fig. 12, a leaper; figs. 13 and 14, rope-walkers; fig. 15, wrestlers; fig. 16, boxers; fig. 17, foot-racers; figs. 18–20, horse and chariot racing.

Apollo is said to have founded the Delphic or Pythian games after he had slain the dragon and taken possession of the Delphian oracle. That was the reason why these games were always consecrated to him. This festival was celebrated on the Crisssean Plain, near Delphi, and like the Olympian, occurred every fifth year, in the spring of the third Olympic year. At first the exercises consisted of music upon the guitar alone; the flute was admitted subsequently, and so were gymnastic performances. They were regulated by the Amphictyonic Council.

Tradition ascribes the founding of the Xemean games to Hercules, son of Alcmena, after his defeat of the Nemean lion. He dedicated these to the Nemean Jupiter. They were celebrated in the grove of Nemea, between the cities of Cleonse and Philus, and occurred twice in each Olympiad.

The origin of the Isthmian games is attributed to Sisyphus, who wished to honor with becoming solemnities the death of his nephew Melicertes, or Palæmon. Theseus subsequently revived them, and dedicated them to Poseidon. They were celebrated where the isthmus commences, running from Corinth towards the Scironian rocks. The exercises consisted, as in the three othei-s, of musical and gymnastic contests and horse-races. They took place twice in each Olympiad.

Education. While all Greece enjoyed a fair celebrity for art and sciences, to Athens belongs the glory of precedence in this respect. The education of a young Athenian lasted until his twentieth year. It was intrusted to the parents, particularly the mother, until the age of seven. At that period the boy passed into the hands of a tutor, who took him to the public schools. Special care was bestowed on the production of a perfect physical and mental organization. The instruction aimed at a high order of liberal and generous feelings and sentiments, and was made up of the arts that bore reference to the Muses, chiefly of music, poetry, eloquence, and gymnastic exercises. The youths studied also the elements of their native tongue, as well as grammar; and later they attended upon the sophists and philosophers, whose information was sought principally with regard to its practical usefulness. Pl. 7, figs. 17 and 18, a philosopher and a poet. Originally, rhetoric and philosophy did not compose part of national education; but after the Peloponnesian war, when the influence of a good orator became obvious, the schools of the rhetoricians and philosophers were crowded. Gymnastic exercises would sometimes commence at the early age of seven years. They were performed in the three gymnasia erected by the state. These buildings were large, and surrounded by beautiful gardens. They contained spaces for the exercises, and large rooms for the philosophers, rhetoricians, and sophists. At eighteen took place the declaration of manhood, and the young man was bound over to the service of his country. At twenty he entered upon the full enjoyment of all his rights as a citizen. Pl. 7, fig. 3, a Grecian youth; pl. 10, fig. 1, the academic grove at Athens; pl. 9, fig. 1, a game of manual skill; fig. 2, swinging.

The domestic life of the Greeks during the heroic ages was simple, though among the upper classes it was not wholly destitute of a certain elegance. Their food consisted of wheat and barley bread, fruits, milk, the flesh of oxen, sheep, swine, goats, deer, also of poultry and fish. Wine and water constituted the customary drink. Great banquets were among their chief amusements, and served as celebrations of religious and private festivals. The guests were arranged around the table according; to a certain order of rank, and the pleasures of the feast were enhanced by singing, dancing, and instrumental music.

The men wore a garment of cloth, without sleeves, which was lifted, when required by their occupation, by a girdle. Over this was thrown a mantle, suspended by a clasp to the shoulders. The inner garment was preferred of snowy white and of fine texture; the mantle, on the contrary, which served also as a covering at night, was of thick cloth, but, nevertheless, richly ornamented. Except during war and in travelling, the feet and head were uncovered. Long hair was worn by the men. The women exchanged the old Doric vestment, with its double girdle or sash, for the simple Ionian garment. This was made of linen or cotton, and consisted of an under robe, with sleeves, above which was worn a state-dress; the latter was very wide, and woven with great art. It also covered the head, and was secured by numerous clasps. At a later period this mode of living and of dressing underwent various changes.

III. Plate 8: Greek and Roman Scenes
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The fare of the Spartans was simple in the extreme, having no object but the mere assuaging of hunger and thirst. The black soup, a dish composed mainly of blood and onions, was common in earlier times. After the death of Agesilaus, however, Sparta began to acquire a taste for Asiatic luxury. Athens, too, sober and frugal at the time of Solon, from the days of Pericles adopted a costly method of living. During meals the company reclined, according to their rank, upon soft and luxuriant couches, and incense and other fragrant odors perfumed the halls, while vessels of silver and gold glittered upon the tables. The guests were anointed with costly balsam, and their heads festooned with garlands. Various amusements took place during the repast. Pl. 8, fig. 2, dancers; pl. 9, figs. 23 and 24, dice; figs. 21 and 22, theatrical masks; figs. 5 and 6, female jugglers. The Greeks had quite a fondness for magic and jugglery. At the close of the feast a libation of wine was poured out to the gods.

The Spartan dress prescribed by Lycurgus was characterized by great simplicity. The clothing was frequently nothing more than a short mantle; the head was sheltered by a broad hat, a plain sandal covered the foot, and the hand grasped a stout club. The women as yet retained the old Doric habit: a light, thin garment, which did not even quite cover the thighs, as it was left open on the two sides. The natural feeling of feminine delicacy was early suppressed, and women strengthened their bodies by vigorous exercises, with a view to the production of healthy, vigorous children. Later, their freedom of manners degenerated into licentiousness, and they too got a taste for luxury and prodigality. The Ionic style was distinguished for fullness, and training of the state-dress. The hair was tastefully dressed in clustered curls, fastened by costly pins.

Some Greeks wore a state-dress of linen, others one of woollen material. Later, this habiliment was also changed in Athens for the Dorian one, which was shorter and lighter. Usually the dress was uncolored, but at public solemnities a yellow one was worn. The sandal protecting the foot was fastened by a strap. When hunting the Greeks wore a kind of boot.

III. Plate 7: Grecian Costumes
Engraver: Henry Winkles

After the Peloponnesian war the Athenians also introduced a considerable luxury in dressing, such as numerous ornaments for the head and feet, costly colored shawls, and special clothes for the different seasons. The women of Athens appeared in public with a long flowing robe of wool or linen, fastened round the waist by a splendid girdle or sash. In the other states, also, this costume gradually supplanted the Dorian one, which was much freer. In this period women began to put rouge on their cheeks and to paint their eyebrows; they also adorned their heads with flowers. Pl. 7, fig. 2ab, two Grecian girls; fig. 3, a youth; fig. 4, a spinner; fig. 5, a songstress; fig. 6, an Amazon; fig. 7, female half-dress; figs. 8–13, several Greek female garments; fig. 14, dress of a Phrygian; figs. 15, 16, two Greeks from Mount Ida; pl. 9, fig. 4, a Bachante, or priestess of Bacchus; fig. 3, a dancer.

We pass on to the dwellings of the Greeks; and first, the houses of the princes, as being the finest and most costly. The residence of Ulysses, for instance, was surrounded by a wall crowned with battlements. The visitor entered the domestic halls, and passed by a double-gate to the front-yard, which was paved and surrounded by a veranda. Next followed a suite of rooms for various purposes. The actual dwelling-house contained baths and other conveniences, besides the hall for the men and the apartment where the queen worked, attended by her servants, and which had several contiguous rooms.

When the city was in its infancy, the houses of the wealthy citizens did not differ materially from those of the poorer people. They were small and simple, whereas the city in its prime was embellished by large public structures, and in the time of Alexander the Great the private edifices reached no ordinary elegance. The houses did not rise above two stories, and had in their centre a yard surrounded by a colonnade. The apartments of the men and women were separated. Pl. 8, fig. 4, interior of a dwelling-house.

III. Plate 10: Grecian Garden and Artifacts
Engraver: Henry Winkles

In the age of luxury, the household furniture and vessels of primitive simplicity were replaced by others of more costly material and finish. The elegant forms, fine paintings, and richly wrought vessels were most remarkable. The bowls, goblets, censers for frankincense, &c., sometimes earthen, but mostly of brass and silver, were gorgeously wrought, and frequently of gold set with precious stones. Among all the objects of art of this kind which remain from those days, none have attracted greater attention than the Etruscan vases. They derive their name from Etruria, partly because the Greeks highly prized the vases there made, and partly on account of their design, which was supposed to be of Etruscan origin. They have been brought to light in Campania as well as in Greece, especially in the vicinity of Athens. The material is a fine red clay, the form graceful, and the tracery beautiful, easy, and well drawn. The colors are red on a ground of black. A few have black figures on a red ground, but they are supposed to be the earliest specimens. Pl. 10, fig. 17.

We give in pl. 10 a general view of the Etruscan pottery, implements, and furniture; figs. 2–6, chairs and seats of various forms; 7, a round table; 8, water-basin; 9, large water font; 10–12, small drinking vessels; 13–18, vases of several kinds; 19–21, other vases and jars; 22, a jug; 23, bottle for wine or other liquids; 24–27ab, spoons, ladles, and dippers; 28ab, lamps; 29, 30, candlesticks; 31–34, various candelabra; 35, scales; 36, 37, hatchet and axe; 38, a mallet; 39, a hand-saw. Next follows a list of toilette furniture for Grecian women. Fig. 40, a casket for ornaments; 41, a sun-shade; 42, a fan; 43ab and 44, metallic mirrors; 45–54, boxes, combs, hair-ties, armlets, eardrops, &c.

In concluding matrimonial alliances, the Greeks attached more importance to the wishes of the parents than to the inclinations of the parties to be united. The youth who asked for a maiden’s hand sent presents to her parents. If he was accepted he led his bride home in a solemn procession, preceded by torches. A number of young people of both sexes danced and sang, and the festivity closed with a banquet. A man was allowed to have a plurality of wives, but the principal consort always enjoyed the domestic supremacy.

Marriage was established in Sparta for public utility; it was a union designed to supply the state with vigorous citizens and defenders. Celibacy and marriage below rank were considered criminal offences. The women were highly respected by their husbands, and were allowed to show themselves in public. That was not the case with the women of Athens; they lived retired, and only appeared in public on rare occasions. They were seen, for instance, at the national festivals, and behaved with great dignity. For the most part they selected the domestic circle as the fittest place for the display of their activity.

Previous to a wedding ceremony the betrothed and their parents offered solemn sacrifices to the patrons of matrimony, Jupiter, Hero, Artemis, and the Parcse. The marriage ceremonies in course of time became more varied; thus the practice of washing the feet of the bride was introduced. Pl. 8,fig. 1.

In all ancient nations a sacred regard was always felt for the dead, and it found its best expression in ceremonies of sepulture. Immediately after dissolution, the relatives closed the eyes of the corpse, and had it washed and anointed. It was then wrapped in the habiliments of the grave, and laid out for the visits of friends. Dirges were sung, and the grief expressed by symbolical actions. The body was then solemnly consumed. In Sparta the obsequies were simple; public demonstrations of bereavement were prohibited, and the period of mourning confined within eleven days. Only the graves of those who had died in the service of their country were allowed monuments and inscriptions.

Among the Athenians, the body of the deceased, after anointing, was folded in a costly robe, and decked with green boughs and flowers. It was then laid out to public view. Before sunset the procession started for the grave. It was headed by a band of music, and none of the friends under sixty years of age might walk in it. In early times it was customary to bury the corpse, but afterwards it was generally burned. The ashes were carefully collected and deposited in an urn. Next followed a libation, accompanied by loud and prolonged wailing. A meal generally closed the funeral solemnities.

The Ceramicus was the common place of burial. The earliest graves among the Greeks were simple caves, or high mounds or elevations above the corpse. These afterwards gave place to tombs, rising several feet, and not seldom surrounded with a balustrade. Marble monuments frequently rose above the dead. The grave-stones of celebrated characters showed ornamental views of the chase, game, contests, races, and sacrifices; and in the interior Hung beautiful lamps. Paintings and mosaic work gave a pleasing appearance to the whole tomb. Pl. 11, fig. 1, stone tombs of Tarquinii, an old city of South Etruria; fig. 2, tombs of Assus in the district of Cephalonia; fig. 3, tombs of Ceræa, of which fig. 4 presents the ground plan; figs. 5, 6, elevation of the grave of Orcla; figs. 7, 8, ground plan of the same; figs. 9, 10, elevation and ground plan of graves in Telmessus; figs. 11, 12, tombs of Falerii; fig. 13, elevation of monument in Agrigentum; fig. 14, section of the same; fig. 15, sepulture, with figures and vase; figs. 16–20, various urns; figs. 21–23, tripods.

The Etruscans and Romans

Long before Italy came into possession of the Romans, it was inhabited by different tribes, several of whom, later, constituted the Roman people. They came from the north and north-east, and each horde as it entered pushed its predecessors further south, until the whole peninsula was appropriated. We have room only for a glance at the most prominent of these original settlers.

  1. The Illyrians. These, at an early period, secured a hold in the south, and exercised a species of authority over the various smaller nations around them. The districts of Bruttium and Lucania contained the Œnotrians, Chonians, and Morgetians; while in the east from Metapont to Mount Garganus, dwelt the Messapii, Salentinians, Calabrians, Peucetians, and Daunians. The lUyrian stock appeared further north also. The Pelignians appear as descendants of the Illyrians and Sabines; and Herodotus gives the names of Illyrians to the Venetians.
  2. The Siculi originally possessed Latium; but in the general movement south, they changed their residence, and at last settled in Sicily, giving their name to the island.
  3. The Aurunci occupied the region of country lying between the Tiber and the Sicilian Straits, and from the Apennines westwards to the sea coast. Some of their descendants afterwards received the name of Volscians.
  4. The Sabines, with their descendants the Sabelles, a free, hardy mountain race, occupied the Apennines around Amiternum, in the centre of Italy. The courageous and faithful Samnites, Pelignians, and Marsians, the indolent and cowardly Picenians, the law-loving and deeply religious Sabines, and the plundering and murderous Lucanians, were all united with the Sabelles.
  5. The Umbrians were a strong nation, possessing the province of Umbria and other districts in the east of Etruria, and between the Apennines and the Tiber.
  6. The Etruscans differed in every respect from the above-mentioned tribes. They divided the people into two castes, superiors and servants. Prior to the founding of Rome they had acquired wealth and influence by commerce and piracy, but from 500 to 470 B.C., they lost their supremacy on the seas, and were no longer terrible to others. Most authors assign them a Pelasgic origin; they built the old cities on the mountains, and were finally conquered by new settlers from the east.
  7. The Pelasgimis.
  8. The Latins. At an early period, the Pelasgians, Sabines, Umbrians, Ausonians, and Siculians, commingled in the kingdom of Latium, and from the union originated the Latins. With the history of this people begins that of Rome itself.

History of Rome

Tradition affirms, that when Latinus was king of Latium, a Trojan prince, Æneas, landed in Italy, and founded the town of Lavinium, which he named after Lavinia his wife, the daughter of Latinus. But this provoked the jealousy of Turnus, king of the Rutulians. In the war which ensued, Latinus fell, although victorious, and Æneas reigned over the Latins and Trojans, until, in a subsequent war with the Rutulians and Tyrrhenes, he also was killed.

Thirty years after the foundation of Lavinium, Ascanius, the son of Æneas, built the town of Alba Longa, the parent city of Rome. Between Ascanius and Romulus fifteen kings reigned, under whom cities and villages sprang up rapidly.

The fourteenth king, Procus, left two sons, Numitor and Amulius, who were to reign alternately. But Amulius, in order to secure the whole power to himself, banished Numitor, put to death his only son, and compelled his daughter Rhea Silvia to become priestess of Vesta, thus binding her to perpetual celibacy. His scheme, however, did not succeed; for Silvia, notwithstanding, gave birth to the twin boys, Romulus and Remus, whose father, according to the myth, was the god of war. Mars. In his rage, Amulius ordered the boys to be thrown into the Tiber, which at that time had overflowed its banks. The basket which contained the (children was deposited by a servant in shallow water, and when the river subsided, the little pair were left high and dry upon the shore. A she-wolf, happening to find them here, suckled them. Faustulus, a royal shepherd, discovered them in this condition, and took them home to his wife, by whom they were carefully reared. While in his family, they followed the business of shepherds, and frequently mingled in the contests of the rustic factions.

During one of these skirmishes, Remus was captured, and dragged before his grandfather, Numitor. The latter discovered his origin, and ascertained from Faustulus the circumstance of his singular preservation from drowning. Remus, uniting with his brother, organized a force which expelled Amulius and restored Numitor to the throne. Of the latter they obtained permission to build a city on the spot where they had lived as shepherds. It was situated on the banks of the Tiber, on the Palatine hill, and received the name of Rome (754 B.C.). While it was building, a dispute arose, in the course of which Remus was killed, and Romulus became absolute monarch.

The language, manners, and constitution of early Rome, indicate that probably other tribes soon made their appearance in the neighborhood, especially Sabines and Etruscans. Then the number of inhabitants was increased by offering refuge to the fugitives and the malcontents of other states. This caused an excess of male over female inhabitants, and Romulus, with a view of obtaining women, invited a large number of Latin and Sabine families to attend a festival which he proclaimed in honor of Neptune; and, during the progress of the games, he caused a band of Roman youths to carry off a number of maidens, whom they compelled to become their wives. This involved the Romans in a war with their neighbors, in which the Latins were defeated; but the Sabines penetrated as far as the Forum, and were only persuaded by the stolen wives to make peace with the Romans. The Sabines settled on the Capitoline hill, which they had taken, and united with the Roman people under the name of Quirites. Romulus, and the Sabine king, Titus Tatius, governed jointly, until the latter was murdered at Lavinium, when Romulus again acquired the sole power. Not long after, his own life was brought to a close. There is a strong probability that he was killed by the senate, who made the people believe that he had been carried to heaven to take a place among; the sods. He was deified under the name of Quirinus.

A year after the death of Romulus, the people elected a king, Kuma Pompilius (716–673 B.C.), a wise and peace-loving prince, to whom Rome owed many beneficial institutions and regulations. He was followed by the warlike Tullus Hostilius (673–640 B.C.), who vanquished the Albans, levelled Alba Longa to the ground, and transferred its citizens to Rome, where he made them settle on the Coelian hill.

His successor, Aucus Martins (640–617), was more pacific. He enacted laws favorable to agriculture, and reinstated the religious ceremonies which had fallen into neglect. The Latins revolted against his government, but he quickly subdued them, demolished several of their cities, and made a number of their inhabitants cultivate the Aventine hill. He extended the Roman possessions to the sea, and founded the town and port of Ostia at the mouth of the Tiber, thus laying the foundation of Roman commerce and navigation. He was succeeded by Tarquinius Priscus (617–578), a Greek, and an ardent lover of the fine arts, who adorned and beautified the city with great taste. During his reign, Rome increased in power by successful wars against the Sabines, Latins, and Etruscans. The sons of Ancus Martius at last murdered him for havingrobbed them of the succession. The murderers, however, did not succeed him, for Servius Tullius, son-in-law of Tarquinius, ascended the throne (578–534). This king enlarged Rome by annexing to it the Quirinal, Yiminal, and Esquilinal hills; he revised the Roman constitution, and made treaties with the unconquered Latin towns, Gabii, Ardea, and others. At the instigation of his unnatural and imperious daughter, Tullia, he was murdered by his own son-in-law, Tarquinius Superbus, who succeeded him on the throne, reigning from 534-510, with arbitrary power and great cruelty. He raised Rome to be the first in the confederacy of the Latin provinces, made peace with the neighboring tribes, and improved the city. By a stratagem he also brought the city of Gabii into the possession of Rome. He forfeited the throne by his despotic acts, for a people so conscious of freedom could not long endure the arbitrary will of any individual. On ascending the throne he had caused some of the most influential Patricians to be put to death. Lucius Junius, a relative of Tarquin, and son of one of the murdered Patricians, had himself escaped death only by feigning idiocy, whence he received the name of Brutus. He had long planned the downfall of tyranny. When, therefore, Sextus, the son of Tarquin, offered violence to Lucretia, the virtuous wife of Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, and she, not able to survive such dishonor, put an end to her life, Brutus threw off the mask, and uniting himself with Publius Valerius, Collatinus, and other patriots, assembled the people, showed them Lucretia’s bloody corpse, related the infamy of Sextus, and described all the tyranny of the king, who was just then engaged in a war with the Rutulians. When the enraged people were ripe for vengeance, Brutus proclaimed the banishment of the king and his family, and royalty was abolished, 510 B.C.

Thenceforth Rome became a republic. In the place of king, two consuls at first called prætors, held the chief command. Brutus, and Collatinus, the husband of Lucretia, were the first magistrates under the new system. But Home did not long enjoy peace. The banished tyrant was not idle. From his first place of refuge, Gabii, he betook himself to Etruria, planned a conspiracy in Home, and actually succeeded, by the help of an Etrurian delegation, in finding assistants in the city itself, among whom were two nephews of Collatinus, two nephews, and even two sons of Brutus; but the plot being discovered, the conspirators expiated the crime with their lives. Brutus even pronounced sentence of death upon his sons, and they fell under the axe of the executioner. Collatinus wishing to spare his nephews, suspicion of his patriotism began to be entertained both by Brutus and the people; he was therefore regularly deposed, and Publius Valerius succeeded to the oflSce. Valerius rendered himself so popular with the masses that they gave him the name of Publicola (friend of the people). He issued an amnesty for all the partisans of Tarquinius, and thus a great number of noble citizens were restored to the Roman state. But Tarquin had not yet relinquished hopes of regaining his throne; and, with the assistance of the town of Veil, now attacked Pome in person. In the battle which took place near the grove of Orsia, Brutus was killed, but the Romans obtained the victory, which, however, was not very decisive. While Tarquin was seeking further assistance, Valerius, the remaining consul, continued to administer the government alone. He did not act from ambition, but from a desire to accomplish his plans of internal improvement without the opposition of another consul. At the expiration of his year, and when he had carried out his plans, he issued orders for the election of two consuls. The choice fell upon himself and T. Lucretius, the brother of Lucretia.

In the meantime, Tarquin obtained aid from Porsenna, king of Clusium, a powerful city of Etruria. This monarch marched with a great force against Rome. But now the Romans displayed all their valor and patriotism. Horatius Codes saved the city, by defending, single-handed, the bridge across the Tiber, until it was cut down behind him. Mucins Scævola went by stealth into the camp of the enemy, with the intention of killing Porsenna. By mistake, however, he only stabbed his secretary. In consequence of this deed, he was sentenced to suffer death by fire; but the courage which he showed, by holding his right hand, during a speech to the king, over a pan with glowing coals, and suffering it to be entirely consumed, made such an impression on Porsenna, that lie hastened the conclusion of peace with Rome, though not on very favorable terms to that city.

Upon his return to Clusium, Porsenna sent one of his sons to attack the Latin city of Aricia. This expedition failing of its object, the Romans endeavored to liberate themselves. Porsenna abandoned his efforts in behalf of Tarquin, and allowed Rome to throw off the Etruscan yoke. But all these events had reduced Rome to a state of decay, which encouraged thirty Latin and Sabine cities to form a confederacy and revolt against Rome. In this perplexity Rome was obliged to elect a Dictator, to whom was intrusted, for a time, sole dominion. He possessed the power of fortune and life over the citizens. Titus Lartius first held the office, 449 B.C. Under him and his successor, Aulus Posthumius, the Romans vanquished the insurgents, especially in the memorable battle near Lake Regillus, where the two sons of Tarquin were killed, and he himself, childless, and without hope of regaining the throne, retired to Cumge, where he died. The Romans and Latins finished by forming a union, 495 B.C., in which both parties obtained equal privileges, and incurred mutual obligations.

With the removal of external difficulties, the old feud revived between the Patricians and Plebeians. It lasted for many years, and crippled the wealth and energies of the republic. The Patricians were forced to yield to the enraged people; and, in order to prevent further abuse of the consular power, two Tribunes were chosen from among the Plebeians. Their persons were sacred, and they had the power of the veto over any law tending to oppress the people.

In the following year (494 B.C.), the number of tribunes was increased to five, and afterwards to ten, and new prerogatives were at the same time accorded. Thus step by step did the Plebeians rise in influence and power, until they secured a list of privileges equal to those of the Patricians. They also obtained the appointment of two Ædiles, chosen from among themselves to act as guardians of public safety, and as assistants of the tribunes.

The struggle between the several classes having at length ceased, the Romans could prepare to meet the attacks of their enemies, of whom the Volsci were the fiercest. During the constant wars, the labors of husbandry had been much neglected, whereby Rome was exposed to famine. Hunger itself was endured with tolerable patience, and in seasonable time a supply of grain arrived from Sicily. This relief caused the strife between the classes to break out more violently than ever, for in the senate, Coriolanus proposed that the corn should be sold at cheap rates to the Plebeians only on condition that they would surrender the privileges they had recently acquired. His impeachment followed before the tribunes, who condemned him to perpetual banishment. He immediately fled to the Yolsci, whom he easily persuaded to begin a new war with Rome. Many other exiles also made common cause with them against Rome. With a large force they invaded Latium, 488 B.C., plundered a multitude of cities, and committed the fiercest outrages on the property of the Plebeians, while the Patricians generally escaped. Coriolanus at last attacked Pome, which would doubtless have submitted, had the terms offered been less humiliating. In the midst of the carnage, a deputation of Roman matrons, among whom were the mother and the wife of Coriolanus, proceeded to his tent, and by their remonstrances and entreaties, saved the city from impending destruction. Coriolanus retired to die in exile. But the class feuds continued to rage with increased violence. The contests with the neighboring states also continued, but were of less consequence than the perpetual strife for supremacy at home. After a number of years, the Plebeians secured to themselves several privileges of the Patricians; and dignities of the state which the latter had possessed exclusively, soon became accessible to the Plebeians. The people were animated by a new spirit; complaints and troubles ceased, the possession of real estate attached them strongly to their country, and Pome was sufficiently invigorated to resume her quarrels with surrounding nations, and thus to extend her dominion by conquest.

Four different times, 361, 360, 358, and 349, B.C., she vanquished the Gauls who roamed about Northern Italy; she also carried on a war of seventy years with the Samnites, who were finally subdued and rendered tributary, 290 B.C. In like manner, the Latins, 338, the Hernici, 308, and the Volsci and Æqui, 304, in succession, yielded to the progress of the Roman arms, and agreed to furnish troops for the defence of the country. The Tarentines, Samnites, Lucanians, Bruttians, Peucentini, and Salentines, all passed under the yoke of Pome, so that in 266 B.C., the Roman standard waved over the whole country, from the Pubicon in the north to the Sicilian straits in the south.

Thus far, physical force and might in battle constituted the chief glory of the Romans. Science and art had accomplished but little. Having succeeded in humblinoj all Italy, the Romans now began to seek other theatres for the display of their courage; and Carthage, Macedonia, Greece, and Syria, came gradually to acknowledge their supremacy.

The republic of Carthage had extended her dominion vastly. She ruled over nearly all Northern Africa and South Iberia. The sovereignty of the Mediterranean and most of its islands was also hers, and she had even a strong foothold in Sicily; and although Pome and Carthage had concluded treaties of commerce, the rival powers had long watched each other with increasing jealousy. As Pome gradually extended, her conquests in a southern direction, she occasionally came in contact with the Carthaginians, whom she especially grudged the supremacy in Sicily, her own valuable granary in time of need. She could no longer allow the rapid aggrandizement of her powerful neighbor. A pretext was not long wanting for the commencement of hostilities. A body of Campanian warriors had been hired by Agathocles, tyrant of Sicily. They boastfully called themselves Mamertines (sons of Mars). After the death of their employer, they roamed about the island without distinct purpose, until they were enlisted by the citizens of Messana. But they killed their employers and took possession of the town. With a view of revenging this outrage, Carthage and Syracuse, long inveterate enemies, desisted from mutual hostilities, and uniting their forces, besieged Messana. The Mamertines applied fur assistance to the Romans, who granted it, took possession of the place, vanquished Hiero, king of Syracuse, and the Carthaginians, and then marched their forces upon Syracuse. But Iliero preferred an alliance with Rome to the impending contest, and their united strength was now directed against the Carthaginian cities in Sicily, 263 B.C.

Hitherto the Romans knew nothing of naval warfare. After the capture of Agrigentum, however, they began building their first fleet under Duilius, and gained a victory at sea, 259 B.C. The war was now prosecuted with spirit and vigor in Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia. Another victory opened the way to Carthage. Regulus penetrated to the very gates of the city (256 B.C.), but was defeated and taken prisoner by Xantippus, and for a time fortune seemed to desert the Roman arms. Several fleets were lost in war or by tempests. Nevertheless, Rome continued the war by land and sea, and was at length victorious under the consul Lutatius Catulus, by whose success Carthage had to yield possession of Sicily and the smaller islands, and to submit to other humiliating terms. Thus ended the First Punic War.

Carthage, however, soon recovered strength by fresh conquests in a diftereut direction, and had especially found in Spain a new source of power and wealth. Hamilcar Barcas commenced the subjugation of Spain, but fell in the effort, 229 B.C. He was succeeded by his son in-law, Asdrubal, and at length, 221 B.C., the supreme command was assumed by his son Hannibal. He laid siege to Saguntum, a city of Spain, which was under the protection of Rome, in spite of remonstrances on the part of that power, which, in consequence, immediately declared war. Hannibal longed for an opportunity to redeem an early vow of perpetual hostility to Rome, and was desirous of making it the theatre of his martial exploits. The Romans had already sent one army to Spain and another to Africa, when Hannibal crossed the Pyrenees, marched through Gallia, passed the Rhone, and then the Alps, in spite of the season (it was the month of November), and appeared on the plains of Upper Italy, a terror to Rome. This forced march cost him the lives of 30,000 men, and many horses and elephants; the remnant of his forces consisted only of 26,000 men. In three engagements he was victorious, and then proceeded towards Rome. But conscious of his diminished strength, and feeling how imprudent it would be with such reduced forces to attack the city, Hannibal retired over the Apennines, and through the morasses of the Arno and Apulia to Lower Italy.

In the meantime, the Dictator, Fabius Maximus, hung upon the flanks of the enemy, harassing all his movements, but avoiding a general engagement. He would infallibly have taken the Carthaginian army captive, had not Hannibal, by a cunningly devised stratagem, deceived the Romans as to his movements, and thus gained time to escape from the toils which were closing around him.

The senate, wearied with the procrastination of Fabius, and distrustful of him, appointed Minucius, who had the command of the horsemen, to lead half the forces, and invested him with the power of dictator. He attacked Hannibal, but was defeated, and would have been annihilated, but for Fabius coming promptly to his rescue. The consuls of the year 216, Paulus Æmilius, and the inconsiderate Terentius Yarro, sought to terminate the war by a bold stroke; but they met with a terrible defeat. Paulus Æmilius, with 50,000 Romans, lay dead on the field. This battle secured to Hannibal the support of Southern Italy; but he still delayed marching on Rome with his forces, in spite of the favorable moment. Being without succor from Carthage, he endeavored to recruit his army in Campania, which province, like most tribes of Southern Italy, had broken allegiance to Rome. But here his warriors degenerated and became effeminate. He then negotiated with Philip of Macedonia, and won the new king of Syracuse to the interests of Carthage. This caused the invasion of Sicily by a strong Roman army under MarceUus, who captured Syracuse, after a siege of three years (214–212), and made the whole of Sicily, as well as Sardinia, a Roman province. Hannibal, leaving Capua (in Campania), advanced towards Rome, but soon retired again, and even lost Campania. His brother Asdrubal’s army, which was sent to reinforce him, was completely routed near Sena (207), and Hannibal was obliged to retire to the southernmost point of Italy.

Cornelius Scipio, a celebrated Roman hero, conquered the whole of Carthaginian Spain, 210–206, and negotiated alliances with the African neighbors of Carthage, Masinissa and Syphax, which became vastly useful to him in 205, when he, then consul of Rome, transferred the seat of war from Sicily to Africa. Victory upon victory was won by his indomitable warriors, and he at length threatened the city of Carthage itself, whose citizens, apprehending the greatest evil, recalled Hannibal from Italy. Having speedily collected a strong force of horsemen, Hannibal defeated Masinissa, but lost the battle of Zama (202); and in 201, Carthage was constrained to accept the peace dictated by Rome. Thus ended the Second Punic War. Scipio was henceforth known by the surname Africanus.

The power of Rome was now re-established, and she was again enabled to carry war into the countries of her enemies. Her first effort was to punish Philip of Macedonia for his alliance with Hannibal. She sent a strong army into Epirus, and after four years of varying success (200–197), was at length completely victorious, dictating another peace, eventful in its consequences.

Antiochus, king of Syria, having also lent assistance to the Carthaginians, next fell under the vengeance of the Romans, who made war upon him, which, after a short duration, also terminated in their favor, 190. A second Macedonian war against Perseus, was closed by Æmilius Paulus, at the battle of Pydna (168), and in 148 that empire was reduced to the condition of a Roman province.

In our account of Greece, we have already shown on what terms Rome was with that country. Rome no longer hesitated to proclaim herself mistress of the world, and boasted of her power. To her Carthage was at last destined to succumb. By deceit and perfidy Rome provoked a war, and after three years of incredible exertions, the city of Carthage was utterly destroyed (thus ending the Tuird Punic War). The territory became a Tyoman province, and the name was merged in that of Africa, 146 B.C. Some more conquests were made. Rome, occupying, 200 years before, so frail and precarious a position, now stood forth mistress of the world, having extended her sovereignty over all Italy, Sicily, Spain, Sardinia, Corsica, Portugal, Africa, Liguria (Genoa), Gallia Cisalpina, Macedonia, Achaia (Greece), and Asia Minor.

When all foreign excitement had ceased, the old quarrels between the Patricians and Plebeians were renewed. The poor groaned under the oppressions and the assumptions of the rich, and the parties gave vent to their fury in bloody civil wars. A general demoralization also contributed towards the ruin of the republic.

At this time, the wars with the Cimbri and Teutones took place, and the Romans here also were the victors (102–101). To this conflict succeeded the Social War (91–89 B.C.). The Marsi, Peligni, Picentines, Samnites, Lucanians, &c., conspired against the republic. Rome expended some of her best blood and vast treasures, and at last suppressed the rebellion. Next Mithridates VI., in Asia, rose against Rome. Sylla was intrusted with the command of the troops destined for this war; this preference galled Marius, who contrived, by the influence of the tribune Sulpicius, to obtain for himself the command. Sylla, immediately leaving Capua with six legions, appeared suddenly before Rome, 88 B.C. After a violent combat with the Marian faction, he entered the city; procured the outlawry of Marius and eight of his principal adherents; restored the influence of the aristocracy; caused the election of two consuls (Caius Octavius and Cinna, the latter a friend of Marius); and went himself as proconsul to Greece. Marius, after his proscription, had fled to Africa, but even in the ruins of Carthage he was denied refuge. Sylla had scarcely left Rome when new troubles broke out there. Cinna was removed from his office and banished, but soon returned, with Marius, at the head of an army which they had succeeded in enlisting, and Rome was forced to open her gates to them (87). Sylla’s adlierents were slaughtered, and Marius and Cinna made themselves consuls; the former died soon after (86).

In the meantime, the expedition of Sylla resulted victoriously. He completely conquered Athens, 87 B.C.; overthrew Archelaus, the commander of Mithridates, at Cheronea and Orchomenus, 86 B.C.; and crossing to Asia, concluded an advantageous peace with Mithridates, 85 B.C.

Valerius Flaccus, the successor of Marius in the consulate, now proceeded from Rome in order to oppose Sylla; but many of his adherents deserted to Sylla. Flaccus was murdered by his own subaltern leader. Flavins Fimbria. Sylla only turned his forces against this same Fimbria after having ratified the peace with Mithridates. The troops of Fimbria soon deserted him, going over to Sylla; and Fimbria, in despair, made one of his own warriors stab him. Sylla, after taking the oath of allegiance from the troops, landed at Brindusium, 83 B.C. Metellus, and the youthful but ambitious Pompey, joined him. After a brief struggle with the adherents of Marius, he conquered Rome, 82 B.C, had himself elected dictator for life, and began a deliberate retribution. He banished his enemies, and confiscated their goods; doomed conspicuous offenders to massacre; and strove to crush the last remnant of democratic power. When all this was accomplished, he voluntarily resigned the dictatorship, 79 B.C.; and retiring to Cumse, lived only for his pleasure, and died the year after his abdication, of the consequences of his debauchery, 78 B.C.

Whilst the republic was increasing in extent and power in foreign lands, a conspiracy broke out at home, 63 B.C., which threatened the very existence of the republic. Lucius Sergius Catilina formed the design of murdering the consuls, and spreading revolution throughout Italy. He succeeded in gaining for his schemes great numbers of the people, and even a large body of the noblest and most distinguished men. Cicero, then consul, discovered the conspiracy, and by his eloquence and authority in the senate, caused Catilina to be convicted of treason, and obtained against him the sentence of death. But Catilina fled from the city, and after a short time, fell in the battle against the consular legate, Petreius, at Pistoia, 62. Cicero obtained the honorable title of Father of his country.

Pompey, returning from Asia, met with an enthusiastic reception from the people at his triumphal procession; but the senate refused to confirm the grants of land in Asia which he had promised to his soldiers. This opposition induced him to cast himself upon the popular favor.

At this period, the prætor, Julius Cæsar, returned from his province of Spain, where he had subjugated all the tribes as far as the Atlantic Ocean. His influence prevailed in reconciling Pompey and his rival, Crassus; and uniting them with himself in the administration of the government, lie formed a Triumvirate. In the distribution of offices, Cæsar obtained the provinces of Cis- and Trans- Alpine Gallia, with the command of four legions for five years. He immediately set out to his station, with the design of subduing other countries; encountered the Helvetians, Belgians, and Aquitanians; crossed the Phine, and fought with the German hordes under Ariovistus; penetrated into Germania and Britain, and laid the foundation of its future subjugation; and, during these exploits, organized an army which might one day, if required, be employed against Rome itself.

In the course of these wars, he obtained, through the friendship of Pompey and Crassus, an extension of his proconsulship in Gallia for five years. Pompey was appointed to Spain and Africa, while the rich and grasping Crassus received Syria. The latter began a war against the Parthians, in which he fell, with 30,000 men, near Carræ, 53 B.C.

Pompey, now too late, became aware of the growing ascendency of Cæsar. As a check upon his rival, he managed to have himself elected consul without colleagues (52). He acted as in possession of individual power; secured, the next year, the election of the consuls from among his friends; and, while he himself was consul in Pome, governed Spain as a province. He required Cæsar to disband his army and return himself to Rome, if he had any claims to the consulship.

The tribune, Curio, however, bribed by Caesar, proposed that both consuls should dismiss their armies. Caesar disbanded two legions, but the senate demanded the dispersal of the entire army. Curio and Antony interposed objections, and, when threatened with imprisonment, fled to Cæsar’s camp, at Ravenna, Cæsar being considered the protector of democracy in opposition to the haughty Pompey. He passed the Rubicon in arms, a step which no commander had ever before ventured upon, without the permission of the senate. Pompey, who had made no preparation to oppose his march, fled to Epirus. He had boastingly said, that he only needed to stamp with his foot on the ground, and legions would be at his command. In sixty days, all Italy was in the possession of Caesar, and the troops of Pompey in Spain were partly vanquished by his warlike skill, and partly won over by his eloquence.

In the meantime Pompey had raised an army in Macedonia of 70,000 men. Returning victorious to Rome, Caesar departed immediately for Greece. At first he fought with indifferent success, but finished by completely defeating Pompey at Pharsalia, 48. Pompey fled to Egypt, where he was soon after murdered.

Cæsar followed the vanquished hero. He intended to reinstate Queen Cleopatra, who had been banished to Syria; but he was pressed hard by Ptolemeus, until the latter was accidentally drowned. Cleopatra won him by her charms; he decided the disputes about the succession in her favor, and remained a year at her court.

At length a revolution in the Bosphorus by Pharnaces called Cæsar to Asia. Pharnaces being murdered, he suppressed the rebellion without a single battle. His victory, however, over the party of Pompey in Africa was not so easily won, but at last he gave them a total overthrow at Thapsus, 46 B.C. Scipio, Juba, king of Numidia, and the republican Cato of Utica, destroyed themselves in despair at their defeat.

Cæsar was now chosen dictator for ten years. He ordered new colonies for 80,000 citizens to be founded, and the cities of Corinth and Carthage to be rebuilt, and then set out for Spain, in order to crush the rest of Pompey’s party. He accomplished this only with great effort, 45 B.C.

His fifth triumphal procession followed his return home. He was hailed “Father of his Country,” and created dictator and imperator for life, and consul for ten years; and, to complete his honors, the senate conferred upon him the additional offices of sole censor and pontifex maximus. His person was declared inviolable, and thus he had unlimited authority, though the people were deceived by the republican form that was still retained. He was exceedingly popular, and the senate was subordinate to his will. He was almost idolized. The unbounded homage disgusted even himself. But a true republican spirit was yet alive in some men. And when a proposal was made that Caesar should receive the title of king in all conquered countries, Brutus and Cassius headed a conspiracy, 44 B.C. The conspirators approached his golden chair in the senate, and under the pretence of preferring a petition, tore off his mantle, and pierced him with twenty-three wounds. When Cæsar saw among his murderers his friend Brutus, he covered his face with his mantle, and expired near the base of Pompey’s statue. Instead of joy and freedom, the republic was now pervaded by new terrors and anarchy. The senate fled; but the new consuls approved the murder. Marcus Antonius, however, aroused the indignation of the citizens, and the assassins were compelled to fly for their lives. Antonius strove to become Caesar’s successor, but he found a powerful competitor in the young Caius Octavianus, the nephew and heir of Cæsar. Antonius wanted to withhold his inheritance from him, but he was supported by the senate. The people also adhered to him, and Cicero and the army were soon won. So Antonius left Rome, and went to the Cis-Rhenish Gallia, with the intention of wresting this province from Decimus Brutus, 44 B.C. Cicero declared him a traitor to his country. The consuls Hirtius and Pansa were sent to meet him; they conquered, but fell, at Mutina, 43 B.C. Antonius fled to Trans-Bhenish Gallia. Octavianus led the army in triumph back to Pome, and claimed the consulship. His ambitious views now began to be apparent, but still he actually, in 43 B.C., formed a new triumvirate, with Antonius and Lepidus. The latter was a man of little worth, but had risen high by favorable circumstances. They resolved to divide the provinces among them, to avenge the murder of Julius Cæsar, and in fact to destroy the republican party. To obtain money proscriptions followed. Lepidus even sacrificed his brother; Antonius his uncle; and Octavianus his former protector Cicero, who received the death-blow, 42 B.C.

Brutus and Cassius had gone from Asia to Macedonia. Antonius made a successful onset upon Cassius. Brutus, however, quickly compelled Octavianus to retreat. Cassius, taking the horsemen of Brutus who hastened to his succor to be enemies, and supposing all was lost, killed himself. At the end of twenty days, Brutus risked a new battle, but losing it, committed suicide. Thus the last republicans died one after another. The youngest son of Pompey had also fallen shortly previous in the war of Sicily.

The triumvirs now turned their arms against each other. Lepidus at first supported Octavianus, and therefore laid claim to increase of power; but the latter easily persuaded his army to desert him, and succeeded in expelling him from the triumvirate.

Antonius, the conqueror at Philippi, crippled the strength of Asia, made Herodes tetrarch of Judea, and bade Cleopatra appear before his court in Sicily, to defend herself against the charge of having befriended Cassius; but when she appeared in most luxuriant apparel at Tarsus, he became a slave to her charms, sent his wife back to her brother Octavianus, and gave away entire kingdoms to the Egyptian queen. This induced the senate to declare war, ostensibly against her, but really against Antonius.

To this expedition Octavianus was chosen. After disciplining his warriors by several victories over the Pannonians and Dalmatians, 35–33 B.C., he set out against his brother-in-law. The rival armaments at length met at Actium in Acarnania. Antony’s force was superior to that of Octavianus. A naval battle began, and for a long time the issue appeared doubtful. At length Cleopatra, withdrawing with her fleet, was followed by Antonius, who meanly preferred flight to an honorable death. The fleet surrendered the same day, and the land forces seven days afterwards.

Antonius, forsaken by his troops as well as by Cleopatra, perished by the sword; and Cleopatra, too proud to grace the triumph of Octavianus, caused her own death by the bite of a viper. Egypt was now reduced to a Roman province, 30 B.C. The battle of Actium decided the fate of Rome; the republic was at an end, and Octavianus returned to Rome as sole governor, with unlimited power.

Rome under the Emperors

At the time of Octavianus Augustus, the Roman dominions had reached an unprecedented extent. After having vanquished all his opponents, Octavianus, now more commonly known by the name of Augustus, displayed great affibility, moderation, and clemency, and sought to conceal the appearance of his unlimited power. He preserved the external form of a republican constitution, yet, at the same time, concentrated all the principal dignities and offices in his own person. In this way he became in fact emperor (Cæsar), without assuming the title, which was first done by his successor. He called around him prudent, active, and intelligent counsellors, among whom we may mention Agrippa, Cilnius, Maecenas, and Valerius Messala; and by their aid sought to restore repose and order, introduce wholesome regulations, and arrest the course of prodigality and corruption. Avoiding any new wars, he aimed only at securing the provinces. Thus he entirely subdued Egypt, 30 B.C.; Mæsia, 27 B.C.; Rhætia, Noricum, Vindelicia, and Pannonia, 15 B.C.; and Spain, 25 B.C. His efforts with the Arabians, however, failed, and the attempt against the Germans beyond the Rhine succeeded no better. Germany then extended from the Rhine to the Vistula, and from the Danube to the North Sea and the Baltic. Its natives were as wild as their own forests, and by their rough exercises and simple fare they acquired a physical vigor which astonished the inhabitants of other countries. Hunting and war constituted their highest pleasures, and when they had peace at home they immediately fell with savage ferocity upon the Roman provinces, and thus became dangerous neighbors to the Romans.

To chastise this predatory race, Augustus despatched his step-son, Drusus, with a vast army against them. He conquered the country of the Cherusci, from the North Sea to the Visurgis (Weser) 11 B.C. But the Germans soon recovered all they had lost, and compelled Drusus to retreat. He next proceeded from Moguntia towards the Elbe, and fought with the Catti, but a fall from a horse ended his life, 9 B.C. His brother Tiberius, and other commanders, continued his undertaking, and for a while hoped, by erecting strong castles and introducing the Roman language and customs, to maintain themselves. But Arminius (better known as Herrmann, a young prince of the Cherusci, educated at Rome, placed himself at the head of the Germans, and destroyed three Roman legions under Varus, who fell by his own hand. This took place 9 A.D., in the Teutoburg Forest, a mountain ridge in Northern Germany (now in Westphalia).

Germanicus, the son of Drusus, 14–16 A.D., achieved several important victories over the Marsi, Catti, and Cherusci, when the jealous Tiberius recalled him, and sent him to Syria, abandoning the design of conquering Germany. Augustus died 14 A.D. His son Tiberius, already co-regent, succeeded to the throne. With him begins a line of tyrants, in the worst sense of the term. The whole reign of Tiberius (15–37 A.D.) presents little more than a constant display of cruelty, dissimulation, and rapacity.

After his assassination, Caius Caligula reigned four years (37–41 A.D.), in whose disposition the height of cruelty was combined with unparalleled folly. As an example, we may mention his attempt to appoint his favorite horse to the consulship. Like his predecessor, he was assassinated.

Claudius succeeded to the throne. Murder constituted his amusement, and he loved to protract the sufferings of the dying. His wives and liberated slaves reigned more than himself. He was poisoned by his own wife Agrippina, 54 A.D.

He was, if possible, surpassed in cruelty by his successor Hero, 54–68 A.D., who murdered his own mother, persecuted and destroyed the Christians, and set fire to Rome for his own amusement, in order to enjoy the sight of unusual distress. With his cruelty he combined a ridiculous degree of vanity. At length the people rose against him in open rebellion, when he fled, and ordered one of his liberated slaves to inflict upon him a mortal wound.

During a period of less than two years, 68–69 A.D., three emperors, Galba, Otho, and Yitellius, succeeded each other, all of whom met with violent deaths.

Flavins Vespasian, 69–79 A.D., restored order and security, increased the dignity of the senate, retrenched public expenditure, and appropriated, in spite of his uncommon economy, money to the rebuilding of public edifices, promoted arts and sciences, and reduced rebellious provinces to subjection. After Augustus, he was the first emperor who met a natural death.

Titus Flavius Yespasian ascended in. peace the throne of his father, 73-81 A.D. His reign, though short, was blissful.

Very different in character was his brother Domitian, 81–96 A.D. He was a monster of vice and cruelty, and was murdered.

He was succeeded by Nerva,96–98. He is the first of a succession of the noblest emperors:—Trajan, A.D. 98–117; Adrian, A.D. 117–138; Antoninus Pius, 138–161 A.D.; and Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, 161–180 A.D.

During his administration, the southern Germans (the Marcomanni) poured in great numbers into Italy. The empire was at that time suffering from pestilence; many legions were destroyed, and it became necessary to recruit the army with slaves and gladiators. The land was laid waste. The emperor contended with the enemy for thirteen years, with alternate good and bad fortune, and even sold the furniture of his palace to meet the expenses of the war. He died of the plague before the termination of the contest, at Sirmium, on the Danube, 180 A.D.

Under the ignorant and vicious Commodus, his son and successor, the weakness of the empire increased, and became more perceptible to watchful neighbors. The Romans lost their spirit of freedom, exhibited the most wanton profligacy, and cast off all fear of the gods. The soldiers, who stood high in favor with the emperor, abused their influence, became mutinous, changed the emperors at discretion, and were bribed into bestowing the best offices on most unworthy persons. Party strife, invasions of the barbarians, and revolutions of the oppressed provinces, alternately harassed the country, whose power and wealth sank rapidly.

In one hundred and twenty years, from 180–300 A.D., no less than thirty-six emperors reigned over Rome. Of this number twenty-seven were assassinated, three fell in battle, and only six died a natural death.

At the close of this stormy period, the Roman people began to fear that the gods had forsaken them for ever. Their appeals for mercy and succor had all failed. Such a withdrawal of divine protection caused strong suspicion of the power of the old gods, and inclined them more and more towards Christianity, which offered them more solace. The emperors and their governors chastised with increasing severity the converts to the new doctrine, until the course of conversion embraced the emperor himself. Constantine made a public profession of Christianity, 323 A.D., and soon after proclaimed it as the religion of the state. This emperor removed the seat of government to Byzantium (330 A.D.), which he greatly enlarged and beautified, naming it after himself, Constantinople, thus accelerating the decline of imperious Rome.

Constantine died, 337 A.D., and left the empire to his three sons, Constantinus II., Constantius, and Constans. Their avarice and jealousy soon led to fraternal discord and war, of which their captains did not hesitate to avail themselves to procure their own advancement. Constantius survived his brothers, and raised Julian to the dignity of his co-regent, 356. Julian prosecuted a successful war with the Greeks and Allemanni, and, on the strength of his popularity, aspired successfully to the sole command. Constantius turned his forces against him, but dying, Julian ascended the throne, 261 A.D.

Julian returned to Paganism, and tried to obstruct Christianity, but died on an expedition against Persia (363).

After Julian, followed in rapid succession, Jovian, Valentinian I., and his sons, Gratian and Valentinian II. During their reigns, the throng of people on the frontiers of the Roman empire increased. At the same period, the Mongolian Huns emerged from the highlands of Central Asia, and crossing the Yolga, pressed on in exhaustless multitudes, their irresistible torrent sweeping all before it. Urged on by the swarms behind them, they soon desolated the rich fields of the Ostrogoths, obliging the latter to fall upon the Visigoths, and compelling them to abandon their cultivated homes on the Dniester, and settle south of the Danube. This change brought the Goths into contact with the Roman governors, who pressed them hard, when the enraged hordes turned against Constantinople. They defeated Valens at Adrianople, where he was killed on the field, 378, and advanced towards Achaia. Gratian appointed Theodosius in Spain, Augustus of the East and lilyrium. The new emperor, Theodosius the Great, 379–395, made peace with the Goths, and gave them lands in Thracia and Phrygia. After the deposition and murder of Gratian by his captain, Maximus (383), of Maximus by Theodosius (388), the assassination of Valentinian II., and the subjection of his successor, Theodosius remained the sole and last emperor of the united Roman empire. He died 395, and after his death the empire was divided between Arcadius, who received the East, and resided in Constantinople, and Honorius, who, residing at Ravenna, governed the West.

Laws, Institutions, Manners, and Customs of the Romans

The people were divided into freemen and slaves. Slavery had its origin in war, its first subjects being war prisoners. (Pl. 13, fig. 1, an exhibition of captives in the Forum at Rome.) Next came their descendants, and such as had forfeited their civil rights by crime; but above all, many slaves were bought; for, when the Roman sway extended itself, the number of slave-dealers augmented rapidly, and thousands of Greeks and Asiatics were sold in open market. The slaves were viewed not as persons, but as chattels which the masters might sell, transfer, or mortgage at pleasure. Slaves born in the house, or such as manifested shining and useful capabilities, generally received a milder treatment; but the others were the victims of a cruelty so unbounded, that it had at different times to be checked by special laws.

A solemn act of liberation promoted them to the rank of citizens. This act consisted either in placing the name of the slave on the list of citizens kept by the Censor, or in bequeathing to him his liberty by will and testament. However, the freedman was still bound to render his former master certain services as client, and he was punished according to law in case of ingratitude.

Political freedom enured to the Romans either by birth or by acquisition. Those who were born free possessed the largest liberty, and the full privileges of citizenship; while those who were enfranchised still remained, in a measure, dependents of the city authorities.

The Roman constitution, originally municipal, retained this character through all the changes of the monarchy, republic, and empire. Unimpaired civil privileges belonged at first only to such as held their residence within the limits of the city. During the first century, permanent settlers only rose to the grade of citizens, and they were eagerly received under the kings as well as at the beginning of the republic, as the wars considerably diminished the numbers of the citizens. But by degrees, as the state increased, and the true spirit of republicanism had grown strong, so that it became an object of ambition to be a Roman citizen, only few were admitted to this honor. Later, entire cities obtained the right of citizenship without interfering with their own municipal privileges. All Italian tribes who had been allies obtained that right after the Social War; Julius Cæsar gave it to Gallia; and, in the process of time, even foreign cities and provinces gradually rose to similar equality, until finally all freemen of the Roman empire became Roman citizens. (Pl. 12, fig. 10, Roman citizen and his wife.)

To express the grand totality of the citizens, the term Roman People (Populus Romanus) was employed. They exercised their political rights, especially the passing of laws and the election of officers, in assemblies, to which they gave the name of Comitia. In this assembly inhered the whole authority (Majestas), and it was responsible to no one.

The senate, chosen from the people, constituted the legislative body, while the executive power was lodged with the magistrate.

Members of the senate constituted a social order (ordo senatorius). At a later period, another rank appeared, in the persons of knights (ordo equestris). The remaining population formed no particular class, or at least had no special denomination.

The knights originally consisted of such citizens as had served in war, as horsemen; and, as their profession involved considerable expenditure, it was open, of course, only to the wealthy. The possession of a certain fortune, without regard to his connection with either the Patrician or Plebeian order, qualified a man for election to knighthood. The consent of the highest authorities (kings, consuls, censors, or emperors) was required for the admission to the knightly order. This order, in later times, enlarged their prerogatives, and at the courts of justice took their seats with the senators. By their wealth they secured to themselves the farming of the revenues (the most profitable pecuniary speculation at that period), and they became so strongly united by undertakings of common interest, that even in the times of the emperors they were able to maintain themselves as an order.

The senate, as the first legislative body, originated with Romulus, and was composed entirely of the Patrician class. The members were called Senators, or Patres, and at first numbered only one hundred. They were afterwards increased to one thousand, but Augustus reduced them to six hundred. Though at first (until 306 B.C.) none but the Patricians were eligible to the office, the position was, later, also accessible to the Plebeians, and finally the order of knights furnished the majority of the members of the senate. The prerogatives of the senators were not always the same, but the following appear to have constituted their general duties: 1. They regulated the service of religion. 2. They managed the finances. 3. They appointed officers to the provinces: in the times of the emperors only: to certain provinces. 4. They could invest individuals with the highest executive power. 5. With them was lodged the power to conduct negotiations and appoint ambassadors. 6. They bestowed public honors, especially that of triumphal processions. 7. They administered part of the criminal jurisdiction. 8. They appointed the dictator. 9. Lastly, until the legislation of the Decemvirs, they dictated peace and war, and possessed a general command over the army.

As signs of his rank, a senator wore gaiter boots of black leather, to the top of which was affixed a silver or ivory C (centum=100; the original number of the order), and a tunic, marked on the breast with a perpendicular strip of purple. The senators had a conspicuous seat at all the grand spectacles. While on a tour through the provinces, they were attended by an escort of lictors, and might claim honors equal to those of the resident ambassadors. (Pl. 12, figs. 6, 7, senators clad in their Togas.)

The term Magistratus applied both to the offices of state collectively, and to the incumbents of the several offices. These were considered as great dignities, and were filled by public election.

After the expulsion of the Tarquins, the people annually chose two consuls. At first they were called praetors, and during the year for which they were elected, possessed regal power. While engaged in public deliberations, they occupied a splendid chair of office (pl. 16, fig. 6). They carried an ivory rod as a sign of authority, and wore a robe edged with purple (toga prætexta). The two consuls enjoyed the chief authority alternately. The principal consul was always preceded by twelve lictors, carrying fasces laureati, or bundles of rods, with an axe in the centre, adorned with laurel twigs (pl. 14, figs. 15, 16); the other was followed by the lictors without fasces.

In the time of the emperors the consuls wore an official dress (trabea), but the office relinquished much of its power to that of the emperor. When the patricians were obliged to admit plebeians to the consulship, 366 B.C., they availed themselves of the frequent absence of the consuls in war to create the patrician dignity of prætor, and to confer upon that office the management of the jurisdiction.

During the reign of Servius Tullius, a law was enacted requiring a census to be taken every fifth year. For this purpose the people were assembled in the Campus Martins, and all were bound, on penalty of the loss of freedom and property, to report their names, ages, wealth, families, and social condition. In the commencement of the republic the consuls had the charge of this census, but from 444 B.C., it was intrusted to two special censors, who also had to watch over the public morals, could deprive a senator of his seat or a knight of his dignity, and, on some occasions, curtail the rights of other citizens. An appeal from their verdict lay to their successors, and even to the people. The censors exercised supervision over the public buildings, and farmed out the public revenues. The censoria. dignity vested finally in the person of the emperor.

When great danger threatened the commonwealth, the Romans appointed a Dictator. The senate was judge of the exigency which demanded the creation of this office. The power of the dictator was very extensive. Without seeking the consent of the senate, or fearing the opposition of the tribunes, he decided all affairs of the state, and possessed the authority of life and death. After the Macedonian war, however, no instance occurred of the choice of a dictator. Twenty-four lictors preceded him, as well within the city as beyond its walls. Only when there was a dictator, and by him alone, a magister equitum was appointed. It was his business to command the horsemen, and act, as it were, as adjutant-general to the dictator.

The above mentioned officers formed the grand council. Other subordinate and occasional officers were: the præfect of the city (præfectus urbis), acting during the absence of the consul; decemviri (council of ten), appointed to frame a code of laws; tribuni militum (council of war); and triumviri (council of three).

The Tribunes of the People (tribuni plebis) belonged to the minor council. They had to guard the rights of the citizens against encroachments, and their persons were inviolable. At first they only had the right of protest against the arrogations of consuls or senators, but they soon extended their power. Their functions ceased with the republic. Under the emperors their dignity amounted to nothing but the mere title.

Other offices of the minor council were the Ædiles plebeii et curules, Quæstores, &c., who had to regulate the market-prices, the transfer of property, &c.

Under the emperors the Præfecti prætorii (governors of the emperor’s palace) held a high rank.

We mention finally the commanders of the fleets (præfecti classium) and the commander of the seven cohorts which guarded the city (præfectus vigilum).

For the assistance of these officers we find, 1, the scribe, who recorded the legislative acts, and preserved the public documents and archives; 2, the notarii, who recorded public transactions; 3, the præcones, who called the people to the assemblies, delivered the proclamations in these assemblies, conducted auctions, &c.; 4, lictores, who preceded or followed the higher officers in their processions, and executed the judgments against convicts; they bore the fasces already described (pl. 12, fig. 9, a lictor); 5, accensi and viatores, who occupied with certain magistrates the place of praecones and lictors. The latter had originally been messengers who summoned the country senators to the meeting of the senatorial body.

Upon their first entrance on the stage of history, the Romans sought pre-eminence in war, and accordingly the interests of the warrior and those of the state were identical. The consciousness of their strength as warriors made them exercise their civic privileges without detriment to the public spirit of order, which was guarded by a great simplicity of manners, a deep reverence for religion, the stringent nature of the domestic and public laws, and by the high authority of the magistrate. We may characterize the early Romans as being endowed with indomitable valor, contempt of death, love of renown and patriotism, a deep contempt for imbecility, and an aversion to intellectual culture. But when Rome commenced establishing her world-wide empire, and extending it often by ignoble means, the genuine Roman character was gradually changed and finally lost. Some subjugated Italian tribes contributed to the degeneracy of the Roman people, and Oriental luxury increased the evil. And when Carthage, Corinth, Macedonia, and Asia, yielded up their treasures to the conquerors, extravagance reached a pitch such as would not have been expected from the former character of the Romans. Riches, extorted by fraud and violence, were wasted by the most influential men in the most outrageous manner. The wealthy freely abandoned themselves to drunkenness and debauchery, while the masses of the people were exposed to the horrors and miseries of poverty and disease. They would have starved but for occasional alms which they received from the public treasury, or from the bounty of some of the rich citizens. In the midst of such degradation, it is clear that the populace were easy subjects of bribery, fit instruments for those who needed their assistance in order to secure public honors.

At this period of licentiousness and profligacy the taste for the arts and sciences first manifested itself. It was called forth by the treasures of art which the Romans had brought home as booty, and by the influence of Greek scholars, who were the guests of the wealthy citizens of Rome. The young men henceforth received a Greek education.

Husbandry or agriculture, from the first, constituted the principal branch of industry. To this was soon added the raising of cattle, and consequently the cultivation of grass lands. Much care also was bestowed upon the gardens and vineyards. The mechanical trades were generally despised, and mostly conducted by the poorer classes, foreigners, and slaves. Still the number of mechanics was not inconsiderable. The same low opinion was entertained of commerce. But as the number of knights increased, they assumed the control of commerce and the farming of the revenues. Manufactures did not flourish extensively at Rome, the people contenting themselves for the most part with imported articles.

The traffic of the Romans, like that of all other ancient nations, was limited to barter and purchase with uncoined metals. Servius Tullius first instituted cast coins, but not stamped. The coins were clumsy quadrangular plates of copper, alloyed with tin or zinc. Silver coins came into use 269 B.C., and gold 207 B.C. The principal unit in the Roman money, was the æs, as, libra, or pound. It was originally a pound in weight, and was divided into twelve ounces (unciæ). The Roman pound was to the Paris pound as 32: 21, and was about equal to eleven ounces avoirdupois weight. The names of the coins were as follows: \(\frac{1}{12}\) of an as = 1 uncia; \(\frac{2}{12}\) or \(\frac{1}{6}\) = 1 sextans; \(\frac{3}{12}\) or \(\frac{1}{4}\) = 1 quadrans; \(\frac{4}{12}\) or \(\frac{1}{3}\) = 1 triens; \(\frac{5}{12}\) = 1 quincunx; \(\frac{6}{12}\) or \(\frac{1}{2}\) = 1 semissis (semi-assis); \(\frac{7}{12}\) = 1 septunx; \(\frac{8}{12}\) or \(\frac{2}{3}\) = 1 bes (bis-triens); \(\frac{9}{12}\) or \(\frac{3}{4}\) = 1 dodrans; \(\frac{10}{12}\) or \(\frac{5}{6}\) = 1 decunx, or dextans; \(\frac{11}{12}\) = 1 deunx.

The as suffered one reduction after another, until, from its original weight of a pound, it was depreciated to \(\frac{1}{36}\) of a pound. The common impression on an as was a Janus bifrons on one side, and on the reverse the rostrum of a ship. An as libralis (as æris gravis, as æneus) was equal to about 40 cents, and after its last depreciation, only little over one cent. The denominations of the as multiplied, were:—dupondius, sestertius, tressis, quatrussis, quinquessis, &c., up to centussis.

Silver coins, as above remarked, came into use 269 B.C. The pound of silver was worth about $13 20. It was subdivided into 100 denarii, worth at difterent times from 10 to 18 copper as each. The denar was also called bigatus or quadrigatus, on account of the coinage representing a double or quadruple span.

The half-denarius had on one side an image of the goddess of victory, and was therefore called victoriatus. The quarter denarius was called nummus sestertius (semis-tertius), and was marked LLS, or IIS, or HS, meaning duæ libræ et semissis.

Gold, when first introduced, counted 96 gold denarii (aurei) to the pound, but towards the close of the republic only 40. The value of gold as compared with silver was originally as 10: 1; in the best days of the republic as 12\(\frac{1}{2}\): 1; and under the emperors as 14: 1. An aureus, or solidus, as it was called during the empire, was worth 25 denarii.

Large sums of money were usually reckoned by asses or sestertii. The denarius was originally assayed and stamped after the Grecian drachma; hence the Roman writers frequently use the word drachma for denarius, even at the time when the denarius had much depreciated in value, and bore to the drachma the proportion of 28: 25. One thousand sestertii were called a sestertium (about $35). A very common coin was the sextans. The quadrans was also much used: it bore the image of a ship.

III. Plate 15: Scene in Roman Colisum and Roman Coins
Engraver: Henry Winkles

We give fac-similes of several coins. Pl. 15, figs. 2–10, copper pieces; figs. 11–15, silver coins; figs. 16–19, gold pieces, all belonging to the time of the republic (consular coins); figs. 20–25 exhibit the currency of the empire, viz., fig. 20, a copper piece; figs. 21–24, silver pieces; and fig. 25, a gold piece. Pl. 18, figs. 43–46, matrices for coins and medals; and figs. 47–56, Gallic coins and medals.

In the training of the young, in ancient times, the improvement of the body rather than of the mind was considered of importance. It consisted for the most part in instilling early the habits and principles of an honest citizen; also in rehearsing old ballads and the laws of the Twelve Tables. But when arts and sciences had been introduced by the Greeks, they procured Greek slaves (pædagogi) to instruct them in the elementary branches, whereupon they were sent to schools to acquire knowledge of different kinds, as grammar, rhetoric, philosophy, and mathematics, without, however, neglecting regular gymnastic exercises. At the age of fifteen the young Roman was declared a citizen, and solemnly invested with the toga virilis (pl. 12, figs. 11, 12, Roman youths). After the ceremony he continued his previous style of training, but enjoyed access to the conversation of great men, was present at public transactions, and by foreign travel, especially visiting Greek cities, he completed his preparation for the duties of manhood and active life.

The dress of the Romans was at first very plain; consisting of the toga and tunic for both sexes. These remained the costume of the men, but the increase of luxury made many additions to the attire of the females. The toga was a wide gown, or mantle, of an almost circular form, without sleeves. It covered the left arm, but permitted the right to be free. It was usually of wool, but the color and ornaments varied according to the circumstances of the wearer.

Other and peculiar dresses were the following: the læna, lacerna, and pænulla, mantles used in winter, or in travelling; the sagum, or sack, a short thick cape, worn in war; the paludamentum, a Grecian purple cloak, worn by the commander-in-chief; the trabia, a species of toga wo:rn by the knights and augurs.

The tunic was worn under the toga. It was usually white, sometimes colored, without sleeves, and of wool. It was fastened with a girdle (cingulum) and reached below the knees. It constituted the only clothing of the poor, and it served, without the toga, as a suitable apparel in the house of the wealthy. The tunic of the senators (pl. 12, figs. 6, 7) was marked upon the breast by a broad purple stripe, that of the knights by a narrow one (clavus).

Except in journeying, or during bad weather, all the Romans went bareheaded. The feet were covered in the house by leathern sandals (solea crepida), in walking or travelling by shoes more or less high (calceus).

The hair and beard were allowed to grow prior to the introduction of Greek fashions, when the beard was shaved, and the hair cut, anointed, and curled.

III. Plate 12: Rome
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Distinguished and wealthy Roman women usually wore, besides the under-garment (indusium), a costly dress (stola), and over this a sort of cape (pallet). They also adorned their persons with rings, necklaces, ear-drops, head-dresses, ribbons, &c. Pl. 12, figs. 13–15, Roman matrons; fig. 16, a Roman maiden; figs. 17–29, head-dresses of Roman matrons and maidens; figs. 30–32, head-dresses of the men. The dresses of the emperor and empress did not vary essentially from those of the nobility. We represent, pl. 12, fig. 1, a Roman emperor without his arms; fig. 2, the same in his war-cloak; fig. 3, the emperor arrayed for the sacrifices; figs. 4 and 5, Roman empresses.

III. Plate 16: Roman Furniture and Tools
Engraver: Henry Winkles

In early times the dwellings of the Romans were very plain and small; but after the Punic wars, and particularly in the time of Sylla, private mansions of great magnificence were erected. The country-seats especially showed much elegance. The dwellings had flat roofs, and only one story.

The fare of the ancient Romans was prepared with the greatest simplicity and frugality; but in later years richness and costliness increased also in this respect. Towards the end of the republic, and in the days of the emperors, their luxury and voluptuousness excelled even that of the ancient Asiatics. For their meals the rich Romans had special apartments. The tables were quadrangular, and had on both sides soft couches. In the time of the Cæsars the table took the form of a semicircle (pl. 16, a Roman feast; figs. 2 and 3, couches). Originally wine was rarely drunk by the men, and altogether avoided by the women; but, subsequently, both Italian and foreign wines, and especially those from Greece, were habitually drunk at meals. Various games and amusements were indulged in during the meals, as dice, buffoonery, music, and dancing (pl. 16, figs. 58–62, various forms of dice).

III. Plate 17: Roman Tombs, Sarcophagi, and Artifacts
Engraver: Henry Winkles

A number of vessels, ornaments, and domestic utensils, are represented in pls. 16 and 17. Thus pl. 17, figs. 8–10, urns and vases finely wrought figs. 11 and 12, large water-bowls; figs. 13–15, vases on tripods; figs. 16–19, candelabra; figs. 20–22, pitchers and flasks; figs. 23ab, 24–26 bowls; figs. 27–30, lamps; figs. 31–33, torches; fig. 34, case for the preservation of manuscripts; fig. 35, basket; figs. 36–41, kitchen utensils figs. 42–46, drinking vessels; figs. 47 and 48, knife handles; figs. 49 and 50, sickles; fig. 51, congius, or measure for liquids (8 congii =1 amphora, 1 congius = 161.3625 cubic inches); fig. 52, grain measure (modius, bushel); fig. 53, granite bath; figs. 54 and 55, skimming ladles; figs. 56–59 articles connected with the toilet; pl. 16, fig. 4, folding chair; fig. 5ab, chairs; fig. 7, table; figs. 8 and 9, candelabra; fig. 10, Palladium (vessels supported by statues of Minerva); fig. 11, font; figs. 19–21, bowls; figs. 22–25, fonts supported by tripods; fig. 26, sarcophagus; fig. 27, domestic altar; figs. 28–34, clasp-pins and rings for women; figs. 35–47, finger and ear-rings; figs. 48, 49, styli, instruments for writing and engraving; figs. 50, 51, seals; figs. 52ab–57, keys; figs. 63–65, knife and fork handles.

III. Plate 18: Scenes and Artifacts from Gaul and Various Monuments
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The Carthaginians, Phrygians, Sarmatians, Germans, Gauls, and other nations, who either submitted to the Romans or formed alliances with them, adopted many of the Roman customs and fashions. In pl. 18 are represented relievos which exhibit sundry costumes, also coins, utensils, ornaments, &c. Fig. 1, Gallic matrons and their dresses; fig. 2, antique bas-relief from Marseilles; fig. 3, bas-relief from Narbonne; fig. 4, one from Metz; figs. 5 and 6, two from Langres and Paris respectively; fig. 7ab, old Gothic coin; fig. 8ab, Gallic coin stamped after Greek models; figs. 11 and 27, Gallic keys; fig. 12, fragment of a Gothic frontlet; figs. 13–16, coverings for the feet; figs. 17 and 18, lamps; figs. 19 and 20, candelabra, fig. 21, a chime of bells, figs. 22–26, table, chairs, and couch; figs. 28–30, table vessels; figs. 31 and 32, fork and spoon; figs. 33 and 34, ear-drops; fig. 35ab, rings; fig. 36, necklace; fig. 37, seal; figs. 43–46, matrices or dies for coins and medals; fig. 61, Cussy column, i. e. an octangular pillar, surrounded by statues of the Roman gods. It stands on a meadow, near the French village of Cussy-la-Colonne, in the district of Beaune, department of Cote d’Or, and is, unquestionably, a specimen of old Roman art.

Without permission of the senate, no marriage but that of Roman citizens and matrons was lawful; and at first the intermarriage of patricians and plebeians was prohibited. Before the celebration of the nuptials, a solemn betrothal took place, at which the bridegroom placed a ring upon the finger of the bride, after the consent of the fathers had been given, and in presence of all the relations.

On the evening of the wedding, the bride was wrested with apparent force from her motlier’s arms, and covered with a veil. She was then conducted by three boys with torches, and escorted by relatives and friends to the house of the bridegroom. Here she smeared the door-posts with grease to prevent evil enchantments, and was then lifted by the attendants over the threshold. She carried from home a distaff, with spindle and wool, and received on entering the keys of the house, fire, and water. Then followed the festive entertainment, accompanied with singing and dancing. Nuts were scattered among the people. On the next day followed a thank-offering, by the newly-espoused, to the Lares or Penates (household gods).

Divorces were at all times permitted on the part of the husband; but in the early ages, owing to the strict mode of living, seldom occurred. Under the emperoi-s divorces frequently took place for the most frivolous reasons, on both sides.

The festivals of the Romans were partly celebrated by private families, partly by the whole people. The public games ranked among them; their primary and original importance lay in their religious significance, but by degrees they changed their character entirely. We notice some of the principal sports.

2. The Ludi Circenses. These are said to have been instituted by Romulus in honor of the god Consus, though they took their name from the Circus Maximus, built by Tarquinius Priscus, who ordered them to be celebrated in this place. The procession marched from the Capitol, through the market, to the Circus. The youth occupied the front, some on foot, others mounted; then followed the chariots; after these, the gladiators, cithara and fiute-players, buffoons, jugglers, the band of music, and, finally, persons having charge of the sacrifice, bearing golden and silver vessels and the images of the gods, in splendid carriages or frames. Before the opening of the games, sacrifices were made by the magistrates and priests. The contests which followed consisted of races on horses and in chariots, gymnastic exercises in the style of the Greeks, various warlike performances on foot and horseback, and combats of beasts, in which the animals either fought alone, or with gladiators. These latter were either volunteers or condemned criminals. Finally, representations of naval battles took place.

The circus had room for 150,000 persons, or, according to others, 385,000. On the one side were the lists (carceres) with openings (ostia) from which the chariots received the signal to start. Through the middle extended a strong wall (spina). It was four feet high, and ornamented with statues and designs suited to the place. The course encompassed this wall, at each end of which arose three pyramidal pillars (metæ).

2. Ludi Gladiatorii, the games of the gladiators. These were originally held in honor of the distinguished dead, and took place at their obsequies. Afterwards they became public amusements, given on certain solemn occasions at the expense of the state or of individuals, in amphitheatres built for the purpose. The gladiators were generally slaves, prisoners, and criminals; but freemen, too, for money would take their place. Under the emperors these games reached a fearful eminence. During the festivals ordered after Trajan’s victory over the Dacians, and which lasted 123 days, 10,000 men and 11,000 animals were active combatants.

3. Ludi scenici, dramatic representations, first introduced by the Etruscan players, 364 B.C. More than one hundred years later, Livius Andronicus introduced the Greek drama.

III. Plate 14: Details from the Circensian Games
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Pl. 14 gives illustrations of the principal details of the Circensian games. Fig. 1, procession on horseback round the spina; fig. 2, racing on horseback; fig. 3, chariot races; fig. 4, ground plan of the Circus Neronis; fig. 5, elevation of the wing AA; fig. 6, elevation of the wing BB; fig. 7, elevation of the spina EE, adorned from a to q, with altars, statues, &c.; particularly, a, a temple with an obelisk; &, a temple with seven balls or eggs, dedicated to Castor and Pollux; c, pillar with a statue of victory; i, central obelisk of the spina, and answering the purpose of a dial; fig. 8, metoæ, the pillars at the end of the circus; fig. 9, dial obelisk of the spina on a larger scale; fig. 10, statue of Mercury marking the commencement of the lists in the circus; fig. 11, a race chariot; figs. 12, 13, portions of the same; fig. 14, banner with a winged victory; pl. 15, fig. 1, gladiatorial combat with animals in the Coliseum in the reign of Domitian; pl. 13, fig. 2, contest of gladiators in the theatre.

III. Plate 13: Rome
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The Romans, like the Greeks, regarded the burial of the dead as a religious ceremony, and the wealthy spared no cost in the splendor and pageantry of their interments. This went so far, that the law was finally compelled to interfere to regulate them.

Distinguished Romans were buried nearly as follows: After various ceremonies, the corpse was publicly exposed for several days. On the eighth day it was folded in the toga, or if the deceased had been a public character, in the official dress, and a small coin, as a fee to Charon, was placed in the mouth. Then followed a solemn funeral. In earlier times funerals took place at night, but the time was afterwards changed to the morning. At the head of the procession marched a band of music, and a number of women, hired as mourners. Then followed several players and mimics, who, concealed by carefully executed masks, represented the deceased and his ancestors. Next came persons carrying the portraits of the ancestors and the decorations of the deceased; and finally, the corpse upon an open bier, surrounded and carried by relatives and friends in mourning. In the Forum, through which the pageant passed, a funeral address was pronounced, after which the body was borne out of the city to be either burned or interred. In the first century before Christ, the former mode of disposing of the body was prevalent, but after the introduction of Christianity, ceased entirely. The coffin was not unfrequently made of stone. In case the body was burnt, the magnitude of the funeral pile varied, of course, with the wealth and position of the deceased. The pile consisted of odoriferous combustibles, or was sprinkled with incense after being lighted by the relatives, with their faces averted. Costly objects, especially the armor, clothing, and industrial implements of the deceased, were usually consumed with the body (pl. 13, fig. 4). In the meantime, the female mourners, joined by the bystanders, sang funeral songs. Occasionally, during the burning of the corpse, or after it was consumed, gladiatorial combats were performed (pl. 13, fig. 3).

We have already spoken of the deification (apotheosis) of Romulus. After Julius Cæsar, the practice became frequent with the emperors. The person thus deified took the appellation Divus, or in the case of an empress, Diva, the family name was changed, and the new deity was represented with the attributes of glory, divinity, &c. During the burning of the body of a deified person, an eagle was caused to rise from the flames (fig. 4); on monuments is represented the divinity supported by an eagle, or if it is an empress, by a peacock. After the fire was extinguished, the relatives collected the ashes and bones, and had them solemnly deposited with costly spices in an urn (pl. 16, figs. 12–18ab); pl. 17, figs. 8–10, Roman urns. For old Gallic funeral urns, see pl. 18, figs. 9, 10, 38, 39; and German urns, figs. 40–42. These urns were finally deposited in graves, vaults (Sepulchra, Mausolea, Cenotaphia, Catacombæ, &c.). Originally, the remains were interred either in the fields or near the dwelling of the deceased; but after the promulgation of the Twelve Tables, only Vestal Virgins, and such persons as obtained special permission, could be buried within the limits of the city. Interments were frequently made near the public roads, and celebrated men were buried in the Campus Martins or Campus Esquilinus. The wealthy had tombs on their own manors and estates; the poor people were buried in a field outside the Esquiline gate. Pl. 16, fig. 26, and pl. 17, figs. 5–7, sarcophagi; pl. 17, figs. 2–4, tombs; pl. 18, figs. 57, 58, Carthaginian monuments; pl. 17, fig. 1, the tomb street in Pompeii, taking its name from the beautifully finished tombs along its sides.

III. Plate 19: Catacombs, Churches, and Chapels
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Italy had numerous catacombs, similar to those of Egypt, Asia Minor, Syria, Persia, &c. These subterranean structures were originally quarries, but were used, in later times as places of burial. During the persecutions, these dismal caves served as places of worship for the Christians. A large number of martyrs are interred in the catacombs of Rome, to which the church of St. Sebastian forms the principal entrance. Pl. 19, fig. 11, ground plan of part of the Roman catacombs; fig. 2, those of Syracuse; fig. 3, those of Naples; fig. 4, longitudinal section of part of the latter; fig. 5, transverse section of another part of the same; fig. 6, the chapel seen in fig. 5, on a larger scale; fig. 7a, plan of the catacombs of San Marcellino, near Rome; fig. 7b, perspective view of some galleries in the same; figs. 8, 9, details of the same; fig. 10, view of one of its chapels; figs. 12, 13, the opened graves of the Christian martyrs; fig. 14, a sarcophagus from the catacombs; fig. 15, chapel and tomb of St. Hermes; fig. 16, chapel and oratory connected with the grave of St. Agnes; fig. 17, ground plan of the subterranean church of St. Hermes; fig. 18, elevation of the subterranean church of St. Prisca; fig. 19, tabernacle of the church of St. Nereus and St. Achilles, near the columns of Antoninus; and fig. 1, view of the apostles’ grotto at Jerusalem.

St. Agnes, a beautiful young woman of Rome, was universally celebrated for sanctity and purity, and suffered martyrdom, 303 A.D. The 29th of January is sacred to her memory. St. Hermes or Hermas was one of the Apostolic Fathers, mentioned in the Epistle to the Romans xvi. 14; according to others, he was a brother of the Roman bishop Pius, 140 A.D.; while still another class maintain that he was one of the seventy-three disciples, and bishop of Philippi and Philipopolis. St. Prisca, or Priscilla, is named in the Acts of the Apostles xviii. 2, 18, and 26, and Epist. Romans xvi. 3. St. Nerens (St. Keri) was a follower of St. Maria Domitilla, whom he accompanied with St. Achilles, in her exile to Pontus, where both suffered martyrdom through the agency of the proconsul Minutius Rufus, under the emperor Domitian. The day sacred to the memory of both is May 12th. It is supposed they were baptized by the Apostle Peter.

History of the Middle Ages (395–1500 A.D.)

The history of the middle ages usually embraces the period between the fall of the West-Roman empire and the close of the fifteenth century. At the decline of the Roman empire in the west, Europe presented a scene of boundless confusion. Savage conquerors swarmed over the dismembered parts of the vast empire, and destroyed, with cruel hands, the admirable works of art, skill, and industry. Out of this chaos of barbarism new states were destined to arise, and give to order and civilization a new and lasting impetus.

Religion is the source of all human civilization, and on this element rests the history of the people of the middle ages. Three grand forms of religion prevailed: Christianity, Islamism, and the worship of the Grand Lama. These found their expression in three vast hierarchies, which, though differing in their respective constitutions, nevertheless furnished strong bonds of union for the scattered nations. The grand theatre for the movement of the middle ages is Europe and Asia.

At the commencement of this period, the Roman empire appears rent in two divisions: the eastern and western. Through internal and external causes, the former gradually declined, but the latter continued to exist for several centuries, although deprived of its earlier glory. Persia still asserted her power, threatening that of Rome, while from the north, in wild multitudes, poured down the Germans, Sarmatians, and Scythians. About the close of the fourth century, after the Visigoths and the Vandals had overrun the eastern wing of the empire, and the Huns had scattered their terrors over the plains of Italy, the Herulian Odoaker, and soon after the Ostrogoth Theodoric, appeared in Europe, and led on their armies to decided triumphs. All the provinces of Western Rome, by degrees, became subject to the conquering tribes. The Vandals possessed themselves of Africa; Spain fell into the hands of the Alans, Suevians, and Visigoths: the last, however, also took possession of Gallia; the Burgundians located along the banks of the Saone; and the Alemanni upon those of the Upper Rhine. The Franks obtained Northern and Eastern Gallia, while the Angli and Saxons moved into Britain; the Rugii and Heruli seized upon Noricum and the adjoining districts, and the Ostrogoths took Italy and the Khsetian and Illyrian provinces. The eastern empire, too, was compelled helplessly to witness the spoliation of its European provinces, particularly those of the north. In passing to the west, the Gothic tribes had seized upon the rich and cultivated territories lying on the Danube and about Mount Hæmus, and soon after the Gepidse, a cognate people, settled in Pannonia. Next to these came the terrible Huns, driving all before them, and moving unchecked as far as the Loire and the Po; and finally, the no less savage Bulgarians, Avari, &c.

These vast national incursions continued down to the beginning of the eighth century. The Slavonic and new Germanic tribes became the successors of the Asiatic invaders, and took up their abodes in the Roman, Germanic, and Sarmatian dominions. About this period were organized the realms of the Saxons, Frisii, Thuringians. and Bavarians. The Lombards secured the ascendency in Upper Italy, while the Wendic, Slavonic, Turkish, and Tartar races, entered the regions lying between the Black and Baltic seas, and waged perpetual wars with each other. In this way many new kingdoms were founded, most of which soon again went to ruin, so that their very names were forgotten; others, again, lost their independence. Thus the vast and powerful kingdom of the Huns was entirely dissolved, soon after the death of their leader, Attila, 454 A.D. From the Palus Mseotis to the boundaries of Bavaria, the Calmuck and Tartar hordes enjoyed unmolested empire, while beyond them, towards the north, ruled Slavonic tribes. The Yisigoths conquered the Suevi and Alans in Spain. The Yandals, who had crossed the Straits of Gibraltar, and settled in North Africa, were obliged to relinquish their homes, and thus the powerful state founded by Genseric was destroyed by the Bom an commander, Belisarius, in the first part of the sixth century, and fell under Boman dominion. Not long after, under the immediate successors of the great Theodoric, the Ostrogothic empire tottered to its fall; and only a few years later, the Longobardi, who had already subverted the kingdom of the Gepidse and Heruli, wrested Upper Italy from the Byzantines; but in their turn, were at last obliged to submit to the victorious Franks, 774 A.D.

Clodowig, or Clovis, founded the monarchy of the Franks, 496 A.D. The empire rose rapidly. Having crushed the few remains of Boman dominion, Clovis next subdued the Alemanni, and expelled the Visigoths from Southern Gallia. He afterwards reduced to a condition of dependence, the Burgundians, Thuringians, Frisii, Bavarians, and a considerable division of the Saxons, and thus laid in the heart of Europe the foundation of a new and splendid political power, which attained the summit of its strength in the reign of Charlemagne (768–814).

Various fortunate circumstances combined to enable Constantinople to turn aside the streams of the barbarian migrations. Under Justinian the Great, appeared for a while to be regained, through Belisarius and Narses, some of the former Boman glory at arms. But the old causes of decline: the despotism, profligacy, and mental imbecility of the emperors, and the ambitious intrigues of the priestliood and the army, shook the empire to its foundation. Had not external circumstances been favorable, the Byzantine throne had crumbled to dust much sooner than it did. In Asia it only retained Asia Minor and the Syrian coast, and Persia formed its eastern boundary. The last great prince of the Persian empire was Chosroes Parvis. He reigned from 591–628 A.D., and was assassinated through the instrumentality of his son Shirves; whose successor fell with the whole empire, under the power of the Arabian Caliph Omar, 634: A.D.

Arabia, invincible on account of its deserts, and consequently having never yet fallen under any conqueror, now became an empire of importance in the world. It soon extended over three parts of the globe, and there sprang up a religion which even at present is far spread in the east.

Mahomed, son of Abdallah, was the founder both of the empire and of the religion. He was born at Mecca, 569 or 571 A.D., and his religion bears his name. He died 632 A.D. A hardy people like the Arabians, full of religious enthusiasm, and believing in fatalism, could hardly meet any effectual resistance.

Asia Minor was conquered by Osman, whose reign lasted from 644–656 A.D. He created a naval force, subdued Cyprus, Khodus, and Creta, and at length even threatened Constantinople, Later, the Arabians established their government over India, Samarcand, and Northern Africa. Carthage yielded, 689 A.D.; and crossing the straits to Spain, 711 A.D., the Mahomedans vanquished the Visigoths at Xeres de la Frontera, subdued Sevilla, and erected in the city of Cordova a separate Caliphate. It was their plan to return to Arabia through France, Germany, and Hungary, by way of Constantinople, and to win these countries to Islamism; but they were prevented by the successful interposition of Charles Martel, 732 A.D. They also secured strong positions in Sicily and Lower Italy. Under Caliph Al-Walid, 705–715 A.D., the Mahomedan power rose to the height of its grandeur and extent. But violent internal quarrels in regard to the regal succession distracted the empire. The family of the Abassides at length gained the supremacy. They were greatly distinguished for the promotion of science and art. Among its members ranked high Al-Mansin, who made the newly-built city of Bagdad his residence; Harun-al-Eashid, the great contemporary of Charlemagne, who died 806 A.D.; and Al-Mamum, who died 832 A.D.

The Chinese empire exhibited no signs of progress or development. Of immense extent, and well stocked with schools, scholars, and bonzes (priests), it seems, nevertheless, to have stood still on a certain step of civilization, while all its neighbors were in a phase of rapid development and reorganization. It will not claim our attention till at a later period.

We here close the first division of this period, and propose, before entering on the second, to append some special notices about several tribes alluded to in this outline.

III. Plate 20: The Tribes of the Migration
Engraver: W. Honek

The Goths

The Goths (Gode-men) are a German nation, and it is supposed that they originally resided far north in the Scandinavian peninsula. Inclosed by the sea on two sides, they early became mariners. They abandoned their rude homes, and setting out upon frail vessels under King Verig, they located in European Sarmatia. Historians represent them as early as 320 B.C. living at the mouth of the Vistula. We see them about the end of the second century of the Christian era uniting with other German tribes, and breaking beyond their boundaries in vast numbers. In the third century they appeared in Dacia, and penetrating in an eastern direction, seized the best portions of coast along the Black and Caspian seas. They made continual incursions into the Roman provinces, and carried on numerous and successful piratical expeditions. While residing in the south-east of Europe, they separated into two grand political divisions, ruled by special royal families: the Ostrogoths, who occupied the coasts of Pontus; and the Visigoths, who settled in Dacia. Their subsequent history has already been given. (Pl. 20, fig. 1, a Goth.)

The Suevi

Some writers attribute the derivation of the name Suevi to a custom of wearing the hair tied at the top of the head, though it seems more natural to deduce it from their principal river, Suevus (Oder). Suevi is a comprehensive appellation for all the tribes living between the Vistula, Upper Elbe, and Danube, the principal of whom were the Semnones, Quadi, Marcomanni, Goths, &c., who were members of the powerful alliance mentioned as the Suevian Union. Caesar gives the earliest account of them. He says that their state was divided into one hundred counties, every one of which annually furnished 1000 armed men for war purposes. Those who remained at home cultivated the soil for their own support and that of the army; and every year the husbandmen and the warriors exchanged employments. None had private landed property, and the residences were changed yearly; for that reason they are not likely to have had cities.

Irritated by some incursions of the Romans into Pannonia and Noricum, the Suevi crossed the Danube, under their leader Marbodius, and seized upon the adjacent countries. From that period the name Suevi has been applied only to the southern branch of the alliance, though, in the fourth century, these tribes were called by their different names, while only the Germans who settled in the modern Suabia were known by the name of Suevi, which henceforth became the appellation of one people. (Pl. 20, fig. 2, a Suevian.)

The Gepidæ

These were clearly a branch of the old Gothic stock. Their name (Gepidæ: lazy, slothful) originated, it is believed, from the sluggish movement of the awkward ships in which they emigrated from Scandinavia into Germany.

After settling near the mouth of the Vistula they became so numerous and powerful that, 254 A.D., they moved out under their king Fastida, and conquered the Burgundians. Very soon after this they met a mortifying defeat from the Ostrogoths. Subdued by the hordes of Attila, they finally settled, 454 A.D., in Dacia, where they founded a kingdom, concluded a friendly alliance with the Romans, and assisted the Ostrogoths against the Suevi, but strove to prevent the passage of King Theodoric into Italy, 489 A.D., although their attempt was unsuccessful.

In the reign of Justinian they began to extend their dominion, but he applied to the Longobardi for assistance against them; and in the war which ensued they were obliged to encounter the united forces of the Longobardi, Avonians, and Romans. They fell, in the unequal contest, under the power of Alboin, king of the Lombards, and became incorporated with the Lombardi, 565 A.D. (Pl. 20, fig. 3, a Gepide.)

The Vandals

The Vandals were a cognate race with the Goths, dwelling in the mountainous regions of Lusatia. They possessed a fine physical formation, having slender figures, fair complexion, yellow hair, and a frank open countenance. Near the end of the second century they concluded a treaty of alliance with the Romans under the emperor Commodus, and also with the Quadi and Marcomanni. Later, they waged war with the emperor Aurelian, but were unsuccessful, when, uniting with the Burgundians, 280 A.D., against the emperor Probus, they renewed hostilities on the frontiers of Gallia with no better fortune, part of them being laid low, and the remainder either persecuted or sent to Britain with the legions as agriculturists.

From this point we lose sight of the West Vandals, while their eastern brethren gained a considerable celebrity. They had early settled in Transylvania, which they continued to hold and govern until the Goths expelled them, when they were kindly received by the emperor Coustantinus, who located them in Pannonia. During the great national migrations the peaceful Vandals, together with some hordes of the Alani, were pushed on into Gaul, 406 A.D. On their march they received numerous accessions from the Suevi. Strengthened by these forces, they attacked and devastated Strasburg, Worms, Mayence, and various other cities, and then marched through the entire country of Gallia. After a brief sojourn here they passed into Spain, by the Pyrenees, 409 A.D. There they settled, ill the western and south-eastern parts of the country. Again disturbed by the restless Goths, they joined Genseric, who, with his Alani, was conducting an expedition against Africa, 429 A.D. In ten years they conquered the whole northern coast, from Tangiers to Tripoli, and made Carthage the capital of the new empire. Genseric was victorious in all his expeditions, and did not stop in his career until he had even conquered Rome itself, 455 A.D., which for ten days was plundered by his horde. When he died, 477 A.D., the Vandalic kingdom fell into fragments. The rest of the nation was either merged in the African provinces, or sent as Greek soldiers to the Persian frontier. (Pl. 20, fig. 4, a Vandal.)

The Marcomanni

The Marcomanni (mark-men, inhabitants of the frontier) originally lived in the southern part of Germany, and probably in what is now known as Moravia, though, according to some authors, they resided between the Main and the Neckar. This much, however, is certain, that they removed, under Marbodius, into Bohemia, where they formed an alliance against the Romans, at the head of which they were, until at length the Cherusci superseded them in the command. They retained much of their former vigor, but remained quiet towards the Romans until the time of Domitian, who attempted to subjugate them and the Quadi. He lost an important battle with their united forces. After various incursions in Pannonia, the two nations were mastered by Nerva and Trajan. They strengthened themselves, however, for another conflict by alliances with the other German tribes. Thus prepared, they made a descent upon the Roman empire, and carried on the bitter war, in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, known as the war of the Marcomanni, 166–180 A.D. Commodus, 180 A.D., concluded with them a peace, to secure which they had to give hostages to the Romans; moreover, they were made to pay a heavy tribute of grain, restore all the prisoners (100,000 men), and even furnish auxiliary troops to the Roman legions. Nevertheless, they continued to make one incursion after another into the Roman empire, until the fifth century, when they gradually disappeared, part of them being swept along with the vast migrations of the times, and the rest merging with the Bavarians. (Pl. 20, fig. 5, a Marcomann.)

The Quadi

These people always appear in connexion with the Marcomanni, together with whom they had taken possession of the territories of the Bavarii, after expelling these. The constitutions of both people were alike, the throne being hereditary; and both proved equally formidable and oppressive to their neighbors. The Quadi disappeared from the list of nations in the fifth century, being most probably borne into Spain along with the general current of emigration.

The original residence of the Quadi seems to have been modern Bohemia, Moravia, and Austria Proper, and they were bounded east by the territory of the Jazyges, south by the Danube, north by the Carpathian and the Sudeti mountains, and west by the Marcomanni.

At a later period appeared another tribe bearing the name of Quadi, and formed most probably of some of the different Suevian tribes. They obtained from the Romans the strip of land lying between the rivers Marus and Cusus, in Upper Hungary, and were governed by Vannius, a king descended from the older Quadi. (Pl. 20, fig. 6, a Quade.)

The Heruli

The Heruli were a German tribe, inhabiting Scandinavia. The Danes subsequently dispossessed them of that region, when they removed to those districts on the Baltic lying near the mouth of the Vistula. About the time of the emperor Galienus they again abandoned their homes, and settled on the coast of the Black Sea, when, uniting with the Goths, they lived as pirates.

Some of the better chieftains attached themselves to the service of the Romans, and constituted a special division of horse. Another company undertook an invasion of Gallia, but were totally defeated by the legions of Maximilian. Kear the middle of the fourth century the Heruli were much crippled by the heroic Ermanarich, king of the Ostrogoths, but after the fall of the Gothic empire they again rose to some eminence. In the time of the emperor Anastasius they entered the Roman domains, and settled in Blyricum. Justinian granted them annually a fixed sum of money from the treasury, and rented lands to them in Servia, for which they agreed to assist him in all his wars against the Vandals, Goths, and Persians. At this period they adopted the Christian faith. Their system of religion, while heathens, differed materially from that of other German tribes. Thus it was considered the duty of the aged and incurably diseased to request their relatives to put them to death. The death-blow was given by a stranger. If a Herulian died a natural death, his widow was compelled to strangle herself at the grave of her husband. (Pl. 20, fig. 7, a Herulian.)

The Britons

The inhabitants of Britain were a mixture of Cimri, Gaels, and Iberians. At the period of Cæsar’s invasion the Cimri occupied the southern districts, and had pushed the Gaels further north. They were in their turn compelled by the Anglo-Saxons, under Hengist and Horsa (449 A.D.), to emigrate to Bretagne, where they are still found. The inhabitants of modern Wales are also their descendants.

The ancient Britons fought mainly on foot, but also on a species of chariot which the Romans called esseda. They combined in small clans, governed by chiefs, similarly to the modern Highland clan. They lived chiefly on flesh, and agriculture formed the occupation of none but the inhabitants of the coast. They dressed in skins, and their towns were nothing but large inclosures in the forest. Their language was a Celtic dialect. (Pl. 20, fig. 8, a Briton.)

The Franks

As early as the third century the Franks (frank, free people) arose out of the old Cheruscian confederacy. Under the emperor Maximinus, they occupied the territory lying west of the Rhine, as far as the Bohemian mountains, in the parts of Germany later known as Thuringia, Hesse, and Franconia.

From 237 to 244 A.D., during the reign of Gordian, and later, at the time of Probus, they began to be formidable to the Romans. Probus, in the year 278 A.D., completely routed their forces, and sent vast numbers of the prisoners to Pontus; but they escaped by sea, and returned to their native land. The rest he colonized among the Treviri and Nævii. The emperor Constantinus wrested from them their possessions in Batavia (Netherlands), 293–306 A.D., when they commenced a crusade upon Gallia, and were not conquered until the time of Justinian, 357 A.D. This emperor effectually humbled them.

The Franks at that period lived under several chiefs and kings, of whom Merowig and Chilperic gave great celebrity and influence to the Salique house. Chlodwig (Clovis), the son of Chilperic, established the dominion of the Franks over all Gallia, and became the founder of the great empire of France, to which part of the German Franks continued subject. Pl. 20, fig. 9, Franks in camp; pl. 21, fig. 1, Queen Clotilda, the beautiful consort of Clovis, in her royal dress. She was a princess of Burgundy, and had adopted the Christian religion, to which she also won her husband. Fig. 2, a maid of honor; fig. 4ab, Frank warriors in the time of Clovis, and fig. 5, king of the Franks in his regal attire; pl. 22, figs. 1 and 2, statues of Clovis and Clotilda; fig. 5, Fredegonda, mistress of Chilperic, the father of Clovis. (She was born 543 A.D., at Montdidiers, of mean parentage. Fig. 3 represents her tomb in Mosaic work; fig. 4, bas-relief on the tomb of the Frank king, Childebert.

The Huns

The Huns inhabited the territories around the Caspian Sea. In the fourth century they commenced their conquests, and gained a name in history. In person the Huns were short. They had broad shoulders, prominent cheek-bones, flat noses, and deeply-sunk eyes. By cutting and mangling the faces, they prevented the growth of the beard. They seemed to live on horseback, eating and sleeping, even keeping council without dismounting, so that they were very poor pedestrians. Their horses were ugly, but strong, quick, and well trained. Roots and flesh constituted their nourishment; they ate their meat raw, having first made it tender by carrying it some hours between the saddle and the back of their horses. They had no houses, nor even huts, and their women and children lived in wagons; here the children were born and reared. Their weapons consisted of darts, slings, spears, and sabres. In war they aimed chiefly at dismounting and plundering the enemy, and observed no distinct order of battle.

Various theories are given of the origin of the Huns. It is most likely that they sprang from Upper Asia, and were of Mongolian descent. This view is confirmed by the historical fact, that about a century previous to their appearance in Europe, the Hiong-Nus, or Mongols, were attacked by the Chinese. Their empire was dissolved, and the inhabitants are supposed to have roamed about the Steppes of Tartary. Tradition even ascribes to them the foundation of a kingdom between the Jaik and the Obi rivers. We may add, that in many of their habits the Huns bore a strong resemblance to the olden Mongols, who are supposed to have been driven from their possessions on the river Obi, about 318 A.D., and to have settled near the Caspian Sea. The leading features of the migrations of the Huns have already been given. (Pl. 20, fig. 10, a Hun.)

The Caledonians (Picts)

The Caledonians were the inhabitants of the northern part of the island Albion, now Scotland. They came from the Celto-Gaelic stock, and were probably the first inhabitants of the large island. Retreating before the Belgic or Cambrian forces, they abandoned the south for the northern districts; at the arrival of the Romans they retired to the northern Highlands, and large companies of them crossed to and settled in Hibernia (Ireland). The Romans gave them the name of Picts (Picti), from their custom of painting, but they also called them Scots. During all the time of their sway in Britain the Scots kept up continual wars with the Romans, who sought to limit their incursions by erecting high walls, remains of which still exist. The Romans gave the name of Britannia Barbara, or Ulterior, to that part of the island which they failed to subjugate; Caledonia, also, was a term applied to the northern regions.

The Gælic dialect was spoken by the ancient Caledonians; and their modern descendants, the Highlanders of Scotland and the Irish, still retain the ancient language. The people lived in feudal communities or clans; all of which had a common chieftain, and later, a king. The Caledonians adopted Christianity in the sixth century. (Pl. 20, figs. 11–14, Caledonians or Picts.)

The Anglo-Saxons

Tacitus designates the Angli as a Suevian tribe who lived on the Elbe. Combining at an early period with a branch of the Saxons and Jutes, they crossed over into Britain during the latter part of the fifth century. At first they were auxiliaries to the inhabitants, but afterwards their conquerors and oppressors. At the close of a conflict extending through 130 years they found themselves masters of the whole island.

Of these three nations the Saxons were the most influential. They were called Anglo-Saxons to distinguish them from the Saxons who still remained on the continent; and after the sixth century the country took the name of Anglia, which was subsequently changed to England. The ancient inhabitants are represented as rude and warlike. Prior to their invasion of Britain they had scoured the seas as pirates. They erected by degrees seven principalities, known as the Heptarchy. These were united into one kingdom by King Egbert. (Pl. 20, figs. 16–18, various Anglo-Saxons; fig. 15, Anglo-Saxon chieftain.)

The Danes

Denmark is considered the residence of the ancient Cimbri. In the year 113 B.C., this people emerged from the northern plains, pouring by hundreds of thousands, including their wives and children, into the Roman provinces. Their progress, at first almost irresistible, was at length arrested by Catulus and Marius, 101 B.C., who completely routed them in the plains near Yerona. Somewhat later the triumphant Odin, advancing with his Gothic warriors from the south-east, overran Denmark, and gave a new religion to the inhabitants. Between his arrival and the period of Harald III., several kings, or rather princes, ruled over the lawless piratical tribes. One of these kings, Skiold, obtained no mean historical celebrity. Charlemagne waged a vigorous war with Gothric, king of Schleswic and Jutland. At the close of the contest the river Eyder was recognised as the boundary of the Carolingian dominions, 810 A.D. (Pl. 20, figs. 21–23, Danish citizens; fig. 19, a king of Denmark; fig. 20, a Danish warrior.)

We now pass on to the

Second Period of Mediæval History

extending from the reign of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) to the commencement of the Crusades, 768–1096 A.D.

Charles the Great stands forth pre-eminent in this period. He was the son of Pepin and Bertha, and was born 742 A.D. Nature had endowed him richly, both as to physical and intellectual gifts, which he developed by early exercise. With a quick glance he surveyed all, was great in word and action, yet not faultless.

At the death of his father he inherited the north, from the limits of the Slavonic territories to the Garonne, while his brother Carloman obtained Alemannia, Alsacia, Burgundy, and all the southern parts of France, as far as the Pvrenees. The first occasion for the exercise of Charles’s warlike genius was furnished by the rebellion of the Aquitanians, under the old Hunalde, who had formed a secret alliance with the Spanish Arabians. He soon quelled the insurrection, but this war involved him in a quarrel with his brother, who had refused his aid in the struggle. Before this quarrel could lead to civil war between the brothers, Carloman died suddenly, and Charles, regardless of the claims of his nephews, induced the chief men of his brother’s realm to proclaim himself king. Charles thus assumed the sole government of the whole empire, 771 A.D.

This empire, founded by force of arms, could only be maintained and extended by the same means, being entirely surrounded by savage and warlike tribes, who frequently invaded the frontiers, spreading death and destruction wherever they went.

At this period Desiderius was king in Pavia, the capital of the Longobardic empire. He had given his daughter in marriage to Charlemagne, who, however, became enraged with his father-in-law for offering refuge to his exiled nephews, the sons of Carloman, and sent his wife back to her father. Desiderius felt this insult keenly, but not daring to take open steps against Charlemagne, he tried to raise a party in favor of the sons of Carloman, and applied to Pope Hadrian to anoint them as kings of France. The pope refusing, Desiderius turned his forces against him, invading the territories which the pope had received from Pepin. The holy father sought protection from Charles. The latter proposed a compromise, which being refused by the proud king of Lombardy, induced Charles to declare war and to besiege Pavia. The city maintained an obstinate resistance for ten months, but hunger and pestilence finally compelled the Lombards to surrender. Desiderius was taken prisoner, and after being deprived of his sight, was consigned for the remainder of his life to a monastery. Charles was crowned king of Lombardy 774 A.D. Adelgi, son of Desiderius, tried to oppose him, but was defeated. The Duke Friaul, who would not submit quietly to the authority of Charles, was punished like a common felon, and even the powerful duke of Benevento was compelled to acknowledge the Franconian supremacy.

The quarrel with the Saxons had commenced previous to this time, and continued for more than thirty years (772–803). Charles opened the war by capturing Cresburg, and enraged the Saxons by destroying the column of Irmin, which was venerated by them. He then penetrated as far as the Weser; but however successfully he fought, the Saxons, having only yielded to superior numbers, always rallied and attacked their oppressors with great fury. Charles at length became convinced of the impracticability of their permanent subjugation, and finally consented to leave them their own freedom and laws, in hopes thus to secure to himself their allegiance, and to induce them to adopt the Christian religion. A great number of the Saxons received the rite of baptism, and recognised Charles as their liege lord, 777 A.D.

This submission, however, was not universal. Wittekind, a noble Westphalian, and a glorious leader of the Saxons, did not yield, but fled to the king of Denmark. Among the subdued Saxons rebellion broke out twice, and was quelled by Charles, who, exasperated at their unruliness, put 4,500 of his prisoners to death in one day, at Yerdin, on the Aller, and devastated all the territory up to the banks of the Elbe. The gallant Wittekind, who was again at the head of his party, touched with the sad fortunes of his compatriots, at length began to relent in his hostility to the Franks. At the same time distrust arose in his mind in regard to the power of his own gods. Despairing of final success, he listened to the oft repeated proposals of his great enemy, professed his belief in Christ, and was baptized at Attigny in France, 804 A.D., Charles standing as his godfather. Charles felt satisfied that by Wittekind’s conversion the only obstacle to a lasting peace with the Saxons was removed. Wittekind remained faithful to the Christian cause, and became zealous for its promotion. Yast numbers of his countrymen followed his example, and submitted to the ceremony of baptism; and under the benign infiuences of the new religion the fair fields of Saxony once more yielded the means of wealth and happiness.

Charles had convened a council or diet at Paderborn, in 777 A.D., at which appeared, among others, delegates from two Spanish emirs, in order to implore his protection against their oppressor, the Caliph Abderrhaman. With the hope of planting the cross firmly in Mahomedan Spain, Charles complied with their solicitations, proceeded in the year 778 with a powerful force across the Pyrenees, and in a short time captured Pampeluna and Saragossa, and conquered the whole country to the Ebro, which, under the title of the Spanish Mark, was joined to his dominions. But on his homeward march he was furiously attacked by the mountaineers, and sustained great losses; and it was in this engagement the noble Poland fell, who is so heroically and beautifully sung by Ariosto.

Not long after the conclusion of peace in Saxony, new troubles arose by the rebellion of Tassilo, duke of Bavaria, and son-in-law of Desiderius, king of Lombardy. Charles suppressed the insurrection (788); but the treachery of Tassilo, who soon after induced the Hungarian Avari to march into Franconia, did not permit him to remain long quiet. Irritated by this conduct, Charles had him arrested at Ingelheim, and he was imprisoned in a convent. In retaliation upon the Avari, Charles conquered their territory and annexed it to his kingdom under the title of the East Mark, 799 A.D.

Pope Leo III., the successor of Hadrian, being furiously attacked by his enemies, sought the assistance of Charles. The latter repaired at once to Rome, restored general order, and, at the request of Leo, pardoned the leaders of the rebellion. In gratitude for his timely aid, Leo crowned him as Roman emperor, at which the crowd testified their delight by loud rejoicings. Thus was renewed the title of Roman Emperor, after a lapse of 324 years.

Hitherto Charles had done much for the extension of Christianity. He now also took care of the internal administration of the church, encouraged talent in preaching, reformed the church music, founded bishoprics and schools, aided in the improvement of the German language, and himself learned to write at the age of fifty-eight. Nor was he blind to the temporal interests of his kingdom. He sent officers of inspection into his provinces that were governed by counts, he protected commerce as the means of uniting the nations and encouraging civilization. Soon after his return from Italy he had the happiness to see all his differences with the Saxons finally adjusted by the peace of Selz, on the Saale, 803 A.D. He was, however, still troubled by his bellisrerent neighbors, the Wilsii, in the east, and the Normans in the north. Charles first set out against the Wilsii, a branch of the Slavonic tribe, defeated them, and built a castle on the Saale (modern Halle), and another (now known as Magdeburg) on the Elbe. These fortifications were destined for the overawing of these enemies. The Normans in Denmark succumbed to the arms of Charles, and their king, Heuning, was compelled to acknowledge the Eyder as the boundary between his kingdom and that of the Franks. Charles’s empire was now extended from the Tiber to the Eyder, from the Ebro in Spain to the shores of the North Sea, and from the Atlantic Ocean to the Elbe in Germany, and the Raab in Hungary.

Near the close of his reign he lost two of his sons; his surviving son, Louis, in anticipation of his own approaching demise, he caused to be crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle. He died a few months after, 814 A.D., in the seventy-second year of his active life. Arrayed in full imperial costume, with his crown and sword, a gilded copy of the Gospel on his knees, and a piece of the Holy Cross over his head, seated in a golden chair, with a pilgrim’s pouch upon his thighs, he was placed in his tomb in the Chapel of St. Mary, at Aix-la-Chapelle.

III. Plate 21: Costumes of Central Europe
Engraver: W. Honeck

Pl. 21, fig. 6, the Emperor Charlemagne in his imperial dress; figs. 7 and 8, prince and princess of Charlemagne’s house; figs. 9 and 10, a noble of that period and his wife; fig. 11, a commander under Charles, with the imperial standard; fig. 12a and 12b, Austrian and Aquitanian warriors under Charles; fig. 13, one of Charles’s bishops; and fig. 14, people in humble life; pl. 22, figs. 5 and 6, statues of women in the eighth century; fig. 7, mosaic figure of Charlemagne; fig. 8, Charles receiving the >submission of Wittekind; fig. 38, Wittekind’s statue.

From his kind disposition and peaceful virtues, Louis, who now ascended the throne, obtained the surname of the Meek (Debonnaire); but with the crown he inherited scarcely any of his father’s qualities and energies. In the fourth year of his reign he united his eldest son Lothaire with himself as co-regent. The latter was destined to become the principal heir of the empire, having the supreme command over his two brothers, Pepin and Louis, while the father divided liis lands among them all three. This arrangement only served to create jealonsy between the brothers. Civil war for a while seemed inevitable, when a new train of circumstances united all the brothers against their father.

At the death of the empress Irmengarde, Louis married Judith, a Bavarian princess, who, in 823, bore him a fourth son, Charles the Bald. The father wished also to bestow a kingdom on this new descendant, and therefore undertook a new division. The elder sons were not disposed to lose anything; they raised the nation against their father, attacked him with an army from three sides, and made him a prisoner, 830. By the sympathy of several German princes, and the want of harmony between the brothers, Louis was permitted to retain his crown. His sons seemingly humbled themselves, but they soon again revolted. Louis was a second time made prisoner by his sons, deprived of his authority, and, to complete his degradation in the eyes of his subjects, compelled to perform a solemn ecclesiastical penance. Much as this humiliating spectacle delighted Lothaire, the other sons declared in favor of the father, and in 835 restored the crown to him. Despite his bitter experience, he re-confirmed the partition of the empire, and after the death of Pepin, still continued to bestow his fondest favors on his son Charles, and even to show his preference for Lothaire, whereby he prompted Louis to make a third rebellion against his father, who in consequence died of a broken heart in 840.

On the decease of Louis, Lothaire, now emperor, regarded himself as the exclusive heir of the whole empire. But his younger brothers, with their nephew Pepin, raised an army against him, and met him at Fontenay, near Auxerre, 841 A.D. Lothaire lost the battle and fled, leaving 100,000 Franks dead upon the field. He now claimed the aid of the Saxons, but his second battle at Strasburg was not more successful than the first; and the Saxon warriors were severely punished by Louis (the German). Lothaire at length proposed terms of peace. A truce was concluded at Verdun, 843, by which the empire was apportioned into three great divisions, France, Italy, and Germany. Lothaire retained the title of emperor, and received Italy and the long range of territory along the Phone, Saone, Meuse, and Scheldt, to the Phine. Mayence, Worms, and Speier, with the countries east of the Phine, fell to Louis, the German; while Charles the Bald received those countries lying west of the river already mentioned, to the ocean, or France Proper. Pepin and Charles, nephews of the three kings, were satisfied with Aquitania; but even of this district they were soon deprived by Charles the Bald. It does not appear that in this arrangement any permanent separation of the family or empire was contemplated. The Carolingian inheritance was, on the contrary, considered as a mutual claim; and so also was the Arriere-ban. Thus it will be seen that the idea of one entire empire, with one regent, existed still, and it seemed left entirely to circumstances to determine whether the empire was completely divided, or might yet be consolidated under some future monarch. Destiny, however, decided upon a perpetual division.

After the treaty of Yerdun, the family of Charles the Bald, known by the name of the Carolingians, occupied the French throne down to the close of the tenth century. If we may judge from the surnames given to the monarchs, as the Stammerer, the Simple, the Lazy, &c., the line does not appear to have been remarkable for its virtues. Most of them met violent deaths, and under their weak administration it excites no wonder that the Normans attacked the country. This powerful and extensive people inhabited at that time the coasts of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. They devoted the trees of their noble forests to the construction of ships, and as the Huns are reported to have lived almost entirely on horseback, so these hardy Northmen seemed contented only in their vessels, and their immense fleets were met on every sea. They passed up the rivers to the inland country, overwhelmed by their numbers the defenceless towns and hamlets, and plundered and destroyed without restriction. They were a savage race whom no sufferings daunted, and to whom death itself was only the glorious road to the palaces of the gods. They agreed to a peace with France, the conditions of which assigned to them the province of Normandy. They persued their predatory incursions in Italy, England, and Germany, but by mingling with the inhabitants, or settling down in small communities, they at last lost their nationality, and disappeared as a distinct tribe from history.

Pl. 21, figs. 22 and 23, king and queen of the Normans; fig. 24, a Norman dame; figs. 25 and 26, Norman nobles; fig. 27, Norman citizen; and fig. 28, Norman laborers.

The French kingdom suffered not less from internal troubles than from the depredations of the Normans. The nobility of the empire availed themselves of the weakness of their king, and appropriated to themselves his power and rights. Every count and duke had his own court, and heedless of the orders of his king, he relied on his own strength. To appease the rapacity of these turbulent vassals, the government resorted to the policy of allowing them great privileges and making them considerable donations; and thus the royal domains gradually dwindled away, until, in the time of Louis V., the last of the Carolingian house, they embraced only Laon and Rheims.

At the death of Louis V., in 987, the wealthy and popular Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, took possession of the throne. Under him and his successors the power of the arrogant nobles was gradually broken, and one fief after another restored to the crown. The family of Capet existed until modern times.

Pl. 21, fig. 15, Louis V. in his tunic; fig. 16, the queen in full costume; figs. 17 and 18, princesses in domestic and state dresses; fig. 19, a prebendary; fig. 20, a nun; fig. 21, citizens.

In Germany the descendants of Charlemagne reigned only until 911, and in general the princes were little superior to their relatives in France. By the treaty of Yerdun, 843 A.D., Germany fell to Louis, who soon found himself embarrassed by a jealous and powerful nobility, the Normans, and his own rebellious children. All the states of Charlemagne were added to the empire under his successor, Charles the Stout; but, in consequence of a disgraceful peace with the Normans, he was deposed by his nobles, 887. He was succeeded by his nephew Arnulph, duke of Carinthia. Arnulph was a brave and energetic prince, and under his administration the Normans and other enemies of Germany were kept at a distance.

In Italy, more than in any other portion of the Carolingian empire, party strife prevailed. At the time of Arnulph two competitors appeared for the throne, Guido, duke of Spoleto, and Berengar, duke of Friuli. Guido was victorious, and received the imperial crown from Pope Stephen V. His son Lambert followed him. The aid of Arnulph was now sought by the rival faction. Arnulph crossed the Alps in 894, carved with his sword a path through Italy, carried Home itself by storm, and obtained the imperial purple in 896. But he had scarcely evacuated Italy, before the Romans, to whom a foreigner was highly odious, again proclaimed Lambert emperor. The latter died in 898, whereupon a long continued strife began between King Louis of Lower Burgundy, and Berengar, duke of Friuli, and their successors, until the accession of Otto the Great.

Arnulph died in the year 900. His son, Louis the Child, still in his infancy, succeeded him. During his reign, the Hungarians invaded the country, and desolated it terribly. He died prematurely in 911, and was the last of his house.

The various German nations, the Saxons, Thuringians, Lorrains, Suabians, Friislanders, Bavarians, and Franks, now proceeded to choose a king of their own, thus constituting Germany an elective monarchy. But in Germany the great and the people have never agreed very well, especially in the choice of a king. At the very first election Franconia and Saxony only chose the Franconian duke, Conrad, 911, after the refusal of the crown by Duke Otto of Saxony.

Conrad could neither avert internal commotions nor suppress external aggressions. The inhabitants of Lorraine, dissatisfied with his election, annexed themselves to France. This movement originated tedious and wasting wars between Germany and France. Conrad was obliged, at the same time, to contend with refractory and powerful vassals, especially with Henry, duke of Saxony, and son of Otto. The Hungarians also resumed their aggressions upon the empire. In the midst of these annoyances Conrad died, 918 A.D.

Anticipating his decease, and desirous of promoting the welfare of the country, he had himself nominated to the succession his old enemy, Duke Henry of Saxony, who was duly elected. When his brother Eberard brought to him the regal jewels, he found him at his fowling-floor, whence his surname the Fowler. He succeeded in pacifying the princes of the empire, in defeating the Slavonians on several occasions, and in conquering the Hungarians completely in 933.

Henry was essentially German in character; he was simple and bland in his manners, modest while enjoying good fortune, and not easily disheartened in bad. Though ordinarily mild and easy, he exhibited unyielding firmness in trying circumstances. He reverenced religion without subjecting himself to the clergy. lie was, in short, a most excellent prince. He died in the year 936.

His son, Otto I., succeeded him, and ruled until 973. He too had to war against the Hungarians, and was successful. Nearly one half of his reign was disturbed by civil wars. Eberard, brother of Conrad I., and other Franconian princes, Giselbert, duke of Lorraine, and the son of Arnulph the Wicked, of Bavaria, conspired repeatedly against his government. His own brothers, also, and even his son Ludolf, and his son-in-law Conrad, rebelled. Yet his energy, skill, and good fortune, finally overcame all these conspiracies. He was equally victorious in his contests with the "Wends, Danes, and French. But his most brilliant and important achievements were in Italy. Berengar H., having wrested from Lothaire, the son of Hugh, one half of that kingdom, at the death of Lothaire, 950 A.D., claimed the remainder, and was recognised king of Italy. To confirm his title, he endeavored to marry his son Adalbert to Adelaide, widow of Lothaire, and failing in his negotiations, had recourse to force. In her distress Adelaide invoked the assistance of Otto, who flew to her rescue, and married her himself Berengar was reduced to vassalage, and was permitted to govern Italy as a fief. His faithlessness and tyranny exasperated all classes of society against him, and the people, princes, priesthood, and pope, with one voice, again called Otto to their relief. The latter a second time proceeded to Rome, defeated Berengar, and banished him to Bamberg, 960 A.D. The iron crown of Lombardy was placed upon his head, and soon after he received from Pope John XII. the golden imperial crown, 962 A.D.

Otto had not long departed from Rome, before the same pope who had crowned him treacherously planned rebellion against him, and incited the people to resist his authority. Hearing of this treachery. Otto hastened back to Rome, and promptly suppressed the movement. At a general synod he caused the deposition of Pope John XIL, and the election of Leo VIII. in his place. Otto was obliged to visit Pome twice more to quell sedition, but the severity with which he found it necessary to punish crime increased the popular animosity. He died in 973.

His younger son. Otto II., was highly talented, but lacked firmness and moral principle. He ruled from 973 to 983. He won no glory in his battles with France. He tried to wrest Lower Italy from the Greeks and their allies, the Arabians, but lost the battle of Basantello, and died soon after, 983.

Otto III. inherited the troubles which had harassed his father. He intended to transfer the seat of government to Italy; but he met his death there, and it is believed by poison, in the year 1002.

As Otto HI. died without issue, the throne of Germany was open for a while to dispute; but the succession was settled upon Henry, duke of Bavaria. His election met with strong opposition in Italy, especially from the margrave Ardoin; but Henry at last overcame all obstacles. He died 1024 A.D., and with him ended the Saxon dynasty.

For the selection of a new monarch, the spiritual and temporal princes of the German nation assembled in council, between Mayence and Worms. They chose the Franconian prince, Conrad 11., who, on account of his immense domains on the Saale, was surnamed the Salian. The Saxons very reluctantly saw the crown pass to the Franconian line, and their opposition placed Conrad in a difficult position from the very first. But he grasped the political helm with a powerful hand; kept the refractory lords of the empire in proper subjection; and thus bequeathed to his son a dominion consolidated at home and respected abroad.

Henry III., early designated to the succession by his father, began his reign in 1039. Under his rule Germany eclipsed in grandeur and influence all the other states of Christendom. Since the days of Charlemagne no prince had governed with such ability and dignity. He died in 1056, and was succeeded by his son, Henry IV.

During the minority of Henry IV., who on the decease of his father was only six years of age, the cares of the empire devolved on his mother, Agnes. The German nobility, irritated at having a woman at the head of the government, again distracted the empire with intestine feuds. They persecuted every person whom the empress honored with her confidence, and bitter factions began to prevail. One of the conspirators, Hanno, archbishop of Cologne, seized prince Henry, and carried him to his palace, where he was treated with great rigor and unkindness. Hanno himself took possession of the regency. It was the fortune of Adalbert, bishop of Bremen, to free Henry from his confinement, and to carry him off to the Faxons. In this way two high ecclesiastical dignitaries, the one by a system of selfish austerity, the other by indulgence and flattery, had ruined the disposition of the youthful king, who, at the age of fifteen, oppressed the Germans, and above all, the Saxons. The latter, as well as the Thuringians, rebelled against his government, and, in conjunction with other conspirators, set up a rival king first in the person of Budolph, the Suabian, and, subsequently, in Hermann of Luxemburg. The Saxons finally accused him to Pope Gregory VII. (Hildebrand). This pontiff had long entertained a desire of fully divorcing the church from the influence of the state, and of making the papal see the arbiter of kings and princes, investing it with the highest power on earth. As a prudential measure he therefore ordered all ecclesiastics to remain in celibacy, so as to have no families dependent upon the temporal power, and thus weaken or divide the influence and fortunes of the church. No priest was to be responsible to temporal power. He also ordained that priests should not receive investiture at the hands of laymen, and forbade the acquisition of cures by purchase. All the kingdoms of Christendom were to be papal fiefs, and without the consent of the holy see no prince, king, or emperor, should be elected. Gregory was precisely the man to prosecute these reforms, and though his preachers of celibacy were beaten and killed by the people, though he was himself once deposed and cruelly ill-treated in Rome, he nevertheless persevered, through strife and bloodshed, until he brought the hierarchy to the pinnacle of power.

Gregory was well disposed to listen to complaints against a king who had once deposed him, and he immediately excommunicated Henry. If Henry bad possessed the affections of his people, it is likely that he would have been spared the mortification of undertaking a pilgrimage to Rome as a suppliant, and during a three days’ penance (January 25–28, 1077), in the open yard of the Castle of Canossa, to beg of the pope the removal of the ban. lie obtained absolution, but he was not allowed to return to his throne until he had undergone a personal examination by the pope with regard to the conduct of the internal affairs of his government.

Enraged at this painful humiliation, the princes of Lombardy, who felt themselves degraded in the person of their king, rallied to his support, and called upon Henry to avenge this indignity. In the splendor of restored majesty, and with an enthusiastic army, he traversed the papal territories. But the alarming report from Germany reached him, that disloyal nobles had elected Rudolph of Suabia king. Henry immediately returned across the Alps, and hastened to the scene of revolt. Only a few secular princes declared in his favor, but all the bishops, except five, and most of the cities, supported his cause. War naturally followed, and the contest was tedious, sanguinary, and changeable. All Germany was one vast theatre of rage, faction, and bloodshed. Parties everywhere ranged themselves under the watchwords “king,” and “anti-king,” “bishop” and “anti-bishop.” Rudolph did not long wear his usurped crown. He and Henry met, after a three years’ struggle on the field of Molsen, near Merseburg, 1080 A.D. For a long time the issue remained doubtful, when a young knight of Henry’s army, Godfrey de Bouillon, riding up to Rudolph, with a single blow severed his sword-arm from the body. The wound proved mortal. Rudolph’s duchy had already been assigned to the brave and noble Frederic of Hohenstaufen, Henry’s son-in-law. The other rebels were also punished. Welph lost his duchy, and Leopold of Austria his margraviate.

The pope meanwhile had again placed Henry under the ban, and given his support to Rudolph; but Henry resolved to avenge himself on the pope. Accompanied by an anti-pope. Archbishop Guibert of Ravenna, chosen pontiff by a synod held at Brixen, he set out for Italy, 1081, conquered Rome, caused himself to be crowned emperor, and besieged Gregory in the Castle of St. Angelo. The pope remained a prisoner in the castle for three years, but was at length liberated by Robert Guiscard, a Norman duke in Calabria, and removed for safety to Salerno, where he died in 1085.

By the death of Gregory VII. Henry had lost his most formidable enemy. The Germans indeed had elected a new anti-king, Count Hermann of Luxemburg, but he was no match for Henry, and soon relinquished his dignity. The Saxons, too, soon inclined to peace. The declining years of the aged monarch were embittered by the conduct of his sons. Both Conrad and Henry allowed themselves to be won over to the papal party. Gregory’s successors. Urban II. and Paschal II., had revived the ban against Henry, whose son Henry, under the assumed pretext of piety, declared that he could not preserve friendly relations with a parent who rested under the penalty of excommunication. By infamous intrigue he took possession of the throne and imprisoned his father. The unhappy emperor, however, soon escaped. At Liege he marshalled an army to punish his son; but in the midst of this campaign he died, 1106 A.D.

Henry V., now no longer requiring the assistance of the pope, at once laid aside the mask, and began a contest with the pope in regard to the right of investiture, which continued until 1122, when a final adjustment of the question was made under the successor of Paschal, Pope Calixtus. At the conclusion of this dispute, Henry found himself embroiled anew with the nobility of the empire. His whole life was thus disturbed, and in 1125, in the flower of his age, he died without heirs, and was the last of the Franconio-Salian house.

The Eastroman empire was governed at Byzantium, from 802 until 1078, by two empresses and twenty-four emperors. Frequent ruptures occurred between themselves and the barbarians, and every treaty contributed to the weakening of the empire. Disastrous alliances were concluded with the Bulgarians, Arabs, and Turks, to the latter of whom province after province was ceded. Spain, on the contrary, made noble efforts to deliver herself from the yoke of her oppressors, the Arabs. In this enterprise the Spanish hero, Podrigo Diaz, Count of Bivar, usually called the Cid (Lord), shone conspicuously. After a series of adventures, this chieftain conquered Valencia, and rendered the Saracen princes of Toledo and Seville tributary to his master. King Ferdinand, who reigned from 1035 to 1065. The kingdom of Portugal, near the end of the eleventh century, was taken from the Moors, but acquired its independence from Spain only in 1109.

In England, King Alfred the Great (871–901) fought against the Normans from Denmark, who made frequent attacks upon the country. Alfred in the beginning was defeated, and fled; but collecting reinforcements he again took the field, and was victorious. Under his successor the war was renewed by the Danish king, Sven, who, with his son Canute, and Olaff of Norway, invaded the island, plundered it without mercy, and finally placed himself on the throne of England. To his three kingdoms, Denmark, Norway (of which he was liege lord), and England, Sven added South Scotland. He died in 1035. After ruling England for twenty-five years, the Danes were expelled, and Edward the Confessor obtained the English crown, 1041, and with his death (1066) the house of Alfred became extinct. He was succeeded by William, duke of Normandy, who won the crown, to which he had only remote claim, on the battle-field of Hastings. He had repeated rebellions to quell, for the English submitted to the foreign dynasty with great reluctance.

As Normandy had been a fief of France, and a vassal could not lawfully conquer for himself, the French kings declared England tributary to France. This claim was resisted: and thus arose those fearful and bloody contests which lasted four hundred years.

The Normans also took possession of Lower Italy. Even the founding of the Pussian empire is ascribed to them; for a Norman tribe called Waregers, under Purik, Oskold, Dir, Sineus, and Truwor, coming from the Baltic, entered the provinces near the Neva, Dnieper, and Wolga, about the year 860, subjugated these districts, and penetrated as far as Kiew and Novogorod.

Of the Asiatic empires, the Arabian Caliphate of Bagdad had readied its highest splendor under Al Mansur, Ilarun Al-llashid, and Al-Mahmun. The realm, however, was soon after split into several divisions; and thus materially weakened, it fell at length into the hands of the Turks. The Arabs of this period were distinguished for science and art, especially architecture.

Towards the close of this period also commenced the Crusades, of which we shall treat more fully hereafter.

The House of Hohenstaufen

After the extinction of the Frankish imperial house by the death of Henry V., 1125, the Germans elected king Lothaire duke of Saxony. He: was, however, vigorously opposed by the two Hohenstaufen, Frederic of Suabia and Conrad of Franconia. In order to fortify himself against these enemies, he formed an alliance with Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria, giving him his daughter in marriage, and his own duchy of Saxony as dowry. This possession made Henry the most powerful prince in Germany, so that when Lothaire died childless in 1137, he, as his son-in-law, ventured to claim the succession, and to seize the imperial jewels. But the people, fearing rather than loving his character, refused to elect him, and chose for emperor Conrad of Hohenstaufen. With him began a line of powerful monarchs, of the house of Hohenstaufen, whose members at first resided at the castle of Hohenstaufen in Suabia. The rejected Henry was deprived of his duchies and outlawed. Saxony fell to Albert the Bear, Margrave of Brandenburg, and Bavaria to Leopold, Margrave of Austria.Henry, enraged at this partition of his territories, marched an army against Albeit, whom he effectually subdued, but before hostilities commenced with Leopold, he died, 1139.

His son Henry, afterwards surnamed the Lion, only recovered Saxony. Welph, a brother of the deceased, lent him his aid in asserting his claims to the paternal inheritance, and at last strove to vindicate them in a battle with Conrad, near Weinsberg, 1140. From the battle-cry of the Bavarians, “Here Welph!” and that of Hohenstaufen, “Here Waiblingen!” (the name of a castle belonging to this family) originated the party names Welphs (Guelphs or Bavarians) and Waiblingens (Ghibelines or Suabians); and the bitterest feuds between these political factions existed for centuries. Welph lost the battle; and Conrad having stormed Weinsberg, permitted none but the women to leave the town, with the clause, however, that each might take with her the object which she might deem most valuable. The women had recourse to the stratagem of carrying off their husbands as their best treasures. Conrad died in 1151.

He was succeeded by his nephew Frederic I. (Barbarossa), a most heroic and sagacious monarch, who reigned from 1152 to 1190. Bavaria was now restored to Henry the Lion, and Austria made a duchy independent of Bavaria. Frederic also sought to re-establish the imperial power in Italy by many a hard battle; after which, he was compelled to conclude an armistice for six years, with his rebellious subjects in Italy, who had completely defeated him at Lignano, 1176. Henry the Lion having deserted his cause in this decisive battle, and thereby principally caused his defeat, Frederic, on his return to Germany, confiscated his duchies and other fiefs, which he distributed to others, allotting Saxony to Count Bernard of Anhalt, son of Albert the Bear, who gave the first impulse to the importance of Brandenburg; while Bavaria was assigned to Palatine Otto of Wittelsbach, the progenitor of the yet reigning house of Bavaria. Henry the Lion commenced an armed resistance, but was very soon humbled, and compelled to throw himself on the clemency of the emperor. Frederic, in remembrance of his former friendship, pardoned him, and restored to Henry his allodial possessions, Brunswick and Luneburg; but at the same time banished him for three years. The oflender passed his exile in England.

At the expiration of the six years’ armistice with the Lombards, peace was fully concluded by the treaty of Constance, 1183. Frederic also became reconciled to the Norman king of Lower Italy, who had allied himself with the party of the Welphs; and married his son to the Norman princess Constantia, heiress to Naples and Sicily, in order to enhance the glory of the house of Hohenstaufen.

The aged Frederic, leaving the government of his empire to his son, later known as emperor Henry VI., undertook, in the evening of his life, a crusade to Jerusalem. But he was not permitted to gaze upon the tomb of the Bedeemer. He died 1190 A.D., near the borders of Syria, to which, after many dangers, he had led his triumphant hosts.

Henry VI. was inferior to his father in talents and virtue; and, though he ascended the throne under more favorable circumstances than his father, he was less successful. Through his cruelty, avarice, and perfidy, he alienated the affections of his subjects, and, after a brief reign, died unregretted, 1196.

The German princes did not feel bound to recognise the claims of Henry’s infant; and wishing at the same time to terminate the supremacy of the Hohenstaufen, they elected Otto of Brunswick, son of Henry the Lion. The Hohenstaufen party, in the meantime, chose Philip of Suabia, who already governed as regent of the empire. Philip proved too crafty and powerful for his rival. His cause was also strongly supported by Philip Augustus, king of France, and for some time by Ottokar I., king of Bohemia, upon whom he had conferred the hereditary royalty. And although subsequently Ottokar deserted him, several cities following his example, and Pope Innocent IH. excommunicated him, Philip, nevertheless, retained the support of the majority of the princes, and at last compelled Otto IV. to flee to England.

The crafty and daring pope availed himself of these civil dissensions in Germany, in order to augment his own power in Italy. With the cities of Lombardy he concluded an advantageous treaty (League of the Guelphs) against the emperor. Afterwards, however, he became umpire between Philip and Otto, dictating the arrangement that Philip should be sole emperor, and Otto his successor. He then revoked his anathema, and Philip in turn gave his sanction to the pope’s acquisitions in Italy. Philip wan soon after murdered, 1208, in revenge for some imaginary offence, by Otto of Wittelsbach, the nephew of him who had been elevated to the ducal dignity by Philip’s father.

Otto IV. now succeeding to the throne, demanded the restoration of the countries which the pope had acquired in Italy, and even asserted the right of the empire to the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily. Innocent pronounced an anathema against Otto, and set up as his rival the Sicilian prince, Frederic, son of Henry YI., and ward of the pope, but made him promise not to encroach upon the papal possessions or prerogatives. Frederic received at Mayence, 1312, the homage of many princes, and not long after was solemnly crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle. Thus the house of Hohenstaufen again wore the imperial purple.

Frederic II. filled the throne with great glory; he was brave and wise, and distinguished for all the virtues of a perfect prince. His reign was marked by numerous ware with the popes, Lombards, and rival kings. In Germany, Otto IV. was soon eclipsed by him; but in Italy the pope frustrated his efforts to unite that country with Germany as a hereditary empire. Frederic had promised to undertake a crusade, and as he did not redeem his pledge in proper time, Gregory IX. placed him under the ban. He at length started on the crusade, 1228 A.D., but did not thereby reconcile the pope, who even strove to excite general opposition to the emperor in Palestine. But Frederic triumphed over all obstacles, meeting everywhere with the most astonishing fortune. He concluded with the Saracen’s a ten years’ armistice; Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Nazareth, submitted to his arms, and in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre he crowned himself king of Jerusalem. Returning triumphant to Italy, he expelled his enemies from his dominions, and was at length reconciled with the pope. For his new hereditary possessions in Italy he provided most admirable regulations.

A new insurrection broke out in Germany, headed by his son Henry, who had governed during his father’s absence. Frederic suppressed this movement, and sent his son to prison in Italy, where he died seven years after. In 1237, Frederic obtained a complete victory over the Milanese at Corte Nuova. Gregory IX. once more excommunicated him. Innocent IV., Gregory’s successor, entered readily into the quarrel. In a synod at Lyons, he accused Frederic of perjury, heresy, and impiety; and the assembly not only reiterated the anathema, but deposed Frederic from his crown and dignities. His German opponents elected Henry Baspe, Landgrave of Thuringia in his place, 1246. Raspe enjoyed his elevation but a short time; he was beaten by Henry’s son, Conrad, and died the following year, 1248. William, Count of Holland, was next advanced by the papal party. Frederic, in the meantime, fought with the revolted Lombards, but his fortune had left him. Many of his best friends fell by his side, and the fickle joined his enemies. At last, after losing a battle, and seeing his son Enzius taken captive, his heart being overwhelmed with grief, especially at the proscription of the church resting on him, he died in 1250.

His son, Conrad IV., had to contend with the opposition of his rival, William of Holland. He died, probably by poison, in 1254, the year of Pope Innocent’s decease.

A sadder fate was awaiting his son Conradin. In his efforts to recover from Prince Charles of Anjou his hereditary provinces of Naples and Sicily, which the pope had given to the latter, himself and his friend Frederic of Austria were taken prisoners. On the scaffold at Naples, the royal youth, the last of the Hohenstaufen, fell under the executioner’s axe.

During an interregnum of eighteen years, anarchy prevailed in Germany, which was during that period ruled mostly by foreigners. At length Rudolph of Hapsburg was elected by the German princes, 1273. He gained great popularity by the evident capacity which he exhibited for government. A true father of his people, he had nothing more at heart than to restore tranquillity to the empire.

Ottokar II., king of Bohemia, having refused to recognise the authority of Pudolph, was deprived of his dominions, and proscribed, 1277; he then commenced a war, but perished in the unfortunate battle of March feld, 1278. His son, Wenceslaus II., retained Bohemia and Moravia; but Austria, Styria, and Carniola, the former fiefs of Ottokar by marriage, were transferred to Rudolph’s sons, Rudolph and Albert, 1282. Rudolph managed to preserve friendly relations with the popes, and confirmed them in their right to the papal states; but no persuasion could induce him to visit Italy, in order to be crowned emperor. He failed in procuring the succession for his son Albert, though he rendered his family strong and popular. He died in 1291, and his body was deposited in the cathedral at Spire.

After a brief interregnum, Adolphus, Count of Nassau, was raised to the dignity of emperor, 1291. He was, however, soon deposed, but not without resistance. He lost both crown and life in the battle of Worms, 1298.

The princes now supported the proud, imperious, and gloomy Albert I. This emperor aimed only at personal aggrandizement; but his ambitious progress was boldly arrested by the free inhabitants of Switzerland. Hitherto, the Swiss Cantons on the Vierwaldstädt Lake had recognised the German rulers merely as liege lords, but Albert earnestly strove to attach them to his empire. The Swiss rejected the interference of his wicked governors, and drove them from the country, after the brave archer. Tell, had killed Gessler, to which deed he had been provoked in a private but just cause.

Impelled by his courageous spirit, Albert again endeavored to subdue the brave Swiss, but he fell, 1308, by the hands of his cousin John of Suabia, whom he had despoiled of his patrimony. The Cantons of Switzerland now formed the mutual alliance known as the Swiss Confederation, and bravely fought for their liberties at Morgarten (1385), Sembach (1386), and Næfels (1388). It was at Sembach that the celebrated Arnold of Winkelried so nobly sacrificed himself for the good of his country, by burying in his own breast as many of the enemy’s lances as he could embrace, thus making an opening in their line through which his brethren poured in, and scattering the Austrian forces, gained the battle.

Henry VII., Count of Luxemburg, who obtained the German crown, 1308, died of poison, 1313, in Italy, where he had gone to re-establish the German claim of empire. On his death, Frederic of Austria and Louis of Bavaria appeared as rival candidates for the vacant throne. After a contest of more than seven years, Louis secured his own election, and received the purple, 1322. Pope John XXII. had officiated as arbiter during the existence of the quarrel, intending to secure the crown to the French king. Greatly displeased at the accession of Louis, the pope demanded of him to deposit his crown till the papal decision had been made. The king of course declined the suggestion, and even gave efficient aid to John’s enemies in Italy. The pope, at this time, resided at Avignon in France. He at once thundered forth his ban and interdict against Louis, 1321:. The latter, in turn, appealed to a general council, which deposed John and replaced him by Nicholas Y. Louis then had himself proclaimed emperor in Rome, by excommunicated bishops, 1328. The decease of John did not disperse the adversaries of Louis, who now found himself opposed by Charles, Margrave of Moravia, who had been nominated to the throne of Germany by the party of Clement VI. He was too timorous to carry out his scheme, when, fortunately for him, Louis died, 1347. He then ascended the German throne under the name of Charles IV. He aimed chiefly at his personal advantage, and the elevation of his allodial country, Bohemia. With this latter design in view, he transferred the royal residence to Prague, where he also founded the first German university, 1349. He effected an important change in the German constitution. The Golden Seal confirmed the new fundamental law, proclaiming the seven princes who were to elect the German king and Roman emperor, and the place and manner of the election. This was the most prominent work of Charles IV., who died, 1378.

Wenceslaus III., surnamed the drunkard, succeeded his father in the same year, chosen by electors who had been bribed while his father was yet alive.

Rival kings were set up against Wenceslaus, first in the person of Palatine Rupert, and after his death, 1410, in Sigismund of Hungary (1410–1437), his own brother, and finally in Jodocus of Moravia. At the same time, three popes were disputing about the pontifical see.

The anarchy necessarily arising, in consequence of so many different claims to supremacy, renewed the times when the will of the strongest was the only law. Wenceslaus was rough, seldom left Bohemia, and even there terrified his subjects so much, that history has given him the title of the second Nero. Prague having become hardly an eligible place for the cultivation of sciences, the university was removed to Leipsic, 1409.

The confusion of all church affairs, arising from the disgraceful rivalry of the three popes, was finally arrested by the Council of Constance, 1415, convened by Sigismund, when two popes had already been deposed, and a new one elected, the two former, however, refusing to yield. Now all the three popes were deposed, and Martin V. was elected in their stead; but the much desired reformation of the church was not effected. On the contrary, the doctrines of Huss of Hussinetz, and of Jacob of Mies, tending towards the correction of clerical abuses, were condemned, and their originator, in spite of having appeared at the council under the protection of a safe-conduct from Sigismund, was burned by the decree of the council, 1415. His friend and defender, Jerome of Prague, suffered the same fate the year after.

The result of this event was the bloody Hussite war in Bohemia, 1419–33, the adherents of the new doctrines arming therdselves for the defence of their faith. Their army spread terror wherever it went. Fortune seemed to shed her favors upon them, and they soon deposed the king. The party, however, at length split up into factions; the terrors of war disposed the fathers of the church to a reconciliation, and the Hussites themselves were tired of the contest. A new council was assembled at Basle. The Calixtines, who were the more moderate of the Hussites, asking only the use of the cup in the Holy Sacrament, with the concession of some minor points, were received into the communion of the orthodox, 1433, while the Taborites, a name applied to the fanatics of the party, were still refused admission. The Calixtines now persecuted their less fortunate brethren, and the Taborite chief, Procopius, was conquered and killed in battle by Mainhard of Neuhaus, the leader of the Calixtines, 1434 A.D. This catastrophe terminated the war. Sigismund, who, in the meantime, 1433, had received the Roman imperial crown, was again acknowledged king of Bohemia, 1435. He died two years after.

After the death of Sigismund, Albert of Austria, his son-in-law, succeeded to the empire as Albert II. He united in his person the governments of Hungary and Bohemia. He was an excellent, resolute prince, but his reign was cut short by death. He fell in an expedition against the Turks, 1439.

Frederic IV., duke of Styria, and son of Ernest the Iron, a relative of Albert, next ascended the throne. His protracted administration (1440–93) was not signalized in any way, Frederic possessing more of good will than of energy, and not being favored by fortune. His whole reign contrasts pitifuUy with those of contemporary monarchs in Europe.

In France the Capetians had ruled from 987 to 1328. Several kings of this line presided over the interests of their country with distinguished ability. Louis VI., 1108–37, greatly enlarged the rights and liberties of his subjects. Louis VII., 1137–1180, and Philip Augustus, 1180–1223, distinguished themselves in the crusades. Philip established the class of the peerage, founded the University of Paris, and took the preliminary steps towards making the monarchy hereditary and absolute. Louis IX., surnamed St. Louis, 1226–70, distinguished by his crusades, in the course of one of which he died at Tunis, governed with wisdom the kingdom which his victories and policy had enlarged, and laid the foundation of a healthy freedom for the Galilean church. Philip IV., the Fair, 1285–1314, governed with vigor, and distinguished his reign by a fortunate contest with the hierarchy (the popes in France). He suppressed the order of the Knights Templars, whose treasures tempted him; and he created an epoch in French history, by convening for the first time a national assembly, known as the States General (Etats generaux). He died in 1314, and his three sons, who followed each other in rapid succession, wound up the direct male line of the Capetian kings, 1328.

The Capetians had broken the influence of the nobility in France. The collateral line who next claimed the throne plunged the country into wars with England; and in one of these, under Charles VII., the celebrated Joan of Arc appeared at the head of the French troops, led them on to victory, but was herself eventually taken prisoner, and burnt at the stake.

The dukes of Burgundy, a branch of the French reigning house, acquired considerable importance during this period. John the Good, in 1363, had transferred Burgundy as a fief to his youngest son, Philip the Bold. Philip was succeeded by his son John the Intrepid, 1404–19; he again by Philip the Good, 1419–67, and Charles of Charolois, surnamed the Bold, 1467–1477. There was a constant animosity between France and Burgundy. Charles of Charolois acquired in addition Franche Comte and the largest portion of the Netherlands, and maintained at Brussels the most splendid court in Europe. The duke opened negotiations with the king of Germany, Frederic IV., about the title of king, when the latter asked for his son Maximilian the hand of Charles’s daughter, Mary, heiress to Burgundy. But differences arose in the course of their conferences, and Frederic, instigated by Louis XL of France, broke them off entirely. Charles determined that Maximilian should never be allied to his family; but his daughter afterwards engaged herself to the emperor’s son by letter.

The crafty duke marched, in 1476, against his neighbor Renatus, duke of Lorraine, and his allies, the Swiss, in order to attach their countries to his own dominion. Having taken Nancy, the capital of Lorraine, and expelled Renatus, he advanced in the same year with 60,000 men against Switzerland. In his attack upon Granson his perfidy and cruelty so exasperated this brave and free people, that they arose with a courage commensurate with their patriotism, and completely routed the Burgundian army, who were obliged to leave their rich camp in the hands of the Swiss. Chagrined at this unexpected misfortune, Charles advanced against them with a new army, but was again defeated at Murten, with a loss of 20,000 men, some falling on the field, and others being driven into the adjoining lake. At a third battle at Kancy, 1477, Charles himself was slain: his army was partly destroyed, and partly deserted him. With Charles the Bold the Burgundian dominion came to an end.

Mary, the heiress of Charles, now married Maximilian I. Louis XI., too, had claimed her hand for his son, who was only seven years old. Maximilian thus became involved in a bloody war with Louis of France, and he demanded the restoration of the Burgundian provinces which Louis had taken. In the war that followed Frederic could not assist his son, as his own dominions were menaced by the Turks and Hungarians. But by the aid which he received from the Netherlands, he was enabled to conduct a splendid campaign.

In 1480, three years after her marriage, Mary died. Louis once more took up arms, and secured the provinces of Franche Comté and Artois as the dowry for the young Margaret, daughter of Maximilian, destined for the dauphin of France. Maximilian had only the name of emperor, and it was not till after a serious war that his right to the administration was recognised. In 1483 died Louis XI. of France, one of the most subtle despots of his age.

In England the Norman dynasty terminated in 1154, and that of the Plantagenets, under Henry II., began. Henry governed as vassal in France, Normandy, Aquitaine, and Poitou, as well as the counties of Anjou, Touraine, and Maine. Ireland and Bretagne he acquired by conquest. He met with great opposition from his sons, and did not live long enough to redeem his vow of making a crusade. He died in 1184.

Richard the Lion-hearted accomplished the vow made by his father. While distinguishing, himself by his prowess in the East, the perfidy of his brother John, and of Philip of France, compelled him to return. The latter was lending his aid to John in his efforts to wrest the crown from Richard.

After the death of Richard, 1199, his brother John (Lackland), disregarding the rights of his nephew Arthur, succeeded to the throne. Philip of France despoiled him of the fairest part of his dominions, and Pope Innocent III. placed England under an interdict, and John under anathema. The king fought his enemies with great disadvantage, and at length yielded to the demands of the church. His nobles also wrested from him the Magna Charta, 1215, an ever memorable transaction in British history. It secured the liberty of all ranks and of every individual against the tyranny of the monarch. He died in his war with Philip. One of his contemporaries says of him, that even hell must have been polluted by his presence.

Henry III., John’s son (1216–72), oppressed the people, and a civil war was the consequence. He became involved in a contest with his barons, and in his reign for the first time deputies appeared in parliament from the cities and boroughs.

Under his son, Edward I. (1273–1307), Wales was completely conquered. His successors renewed the bitter contests between England and France in regard to the succession, and in fact Henry V. and VI. assumed to themselves the title of kings of France.

To these wars succeeded civil broils. The families of York and Lancaster (whose respective emblems were the red and the white rose) had been disputing one with another the right to the throne since 1453, when at last Henry VII., by a marriage, put an end to the serious quarrel in 1485. The new dynasty was that of the Tudors, which reigned from 1485 to 1603. The house of Stuart governed in Scotland from 1371.

In the latter period of the Middle Ages Italy appeared torn and weakened, Naples and Sicily, the patrimony of the Hohenstaufen, were groaning under the yoke of Charles of Anjou. In the year 1282 Sicily rid herself of the French rule. The Sicilian Yespers, on the second day of Easter, 1282, were the appointed signal for a general massacre of the French, who were attacked simultaneously all over the island. Peter of Arragon aided in the rebellion, and the insurgents at last prevailed. Charles in vain attempted to recover his possessions. Naples remained 200 years separated from Sicily, and finally, also became part of the kingdom of Arragon, 1458, after having endured frequent changes of rulers.

The papal court had resided at Avignon from 1305, and the Romans longed for its return to the Eternal City, for the sources of their wealth had been much impaired by its departure.

The old noble families of the Colonna and Orsini were waging war with each other. Rienzi, a young and ambitious plebeian, made a vigorous effort to exterminate the nobility, and to revive the glories of the ancient republic; but the fickle populace deserted his cause. He was murdered, 1354. Gregory XI. restored the pontifical residence to Rome, 1376. From that period the papal power suffered severely by sequestrations. It did not recover its political supremacy till much later, under Nicholas V., Paul II., Alexander VI., and Julius II.

At this period the Marquis of Este, lord of Modena, increased in wealth and powder. Savoy belonged to Burgundy, but in 1416 the counts (at a later period dukes) of Savoy gradually founded an independent power.

The political ascendency of Pisa sank in the 12th century through its contest with Genoa, which now rose so rapidly as to acquire a footing in Provence and Marseilles, and secure valuable commercial advantages upon the eastern seas. Genoa, however, labored under constant internal strife, which weakened its strength and encouraged its enemies, one of whom, Venice, after a long war, secured the supremacy The severest exactions were imposed on Genoa by its tyrannical doges; and it was finally subdued by the dukes of Milan or the kings of France.

Florence felt the revolutionary spirit of the age. At times the nobles oppressed the people, then again the mob had all the power. Through the government, policy, and virtues of the noble house of the Medici, she at length rose to a magnificent position among the nations. One of this family, Cosmo di Medici, was immensely rich; he presided over the state, yet he kept up the form of republican government. While in the enjoyment of power, his virtues shone with undiminished splendor, and his noble generosity to the people made him very popular. The persecutions of his enemies only contributed to elevate him the more, for when they succeeded in banishing him, he was recalled with great honors, and the people proclaimed anew their attachment to him. Cosmo died in 1464.

His son Pedro was exposed to a powerful opposition, but it did not resolve itself into a conspiracy until the time of his amiable sons, Lorenzo and Julian, 1442. At the bottom of the plot were the Florentine house of Pazzi, and Salviati, archbishop of Pisa, who laid a cunning scheme for the assassination of the brothers. The villains succeeded in mortally stabbing Julian; but Lorenzo escaped, bleeding from seven wounds. Proper punishment was at last meted out to these murderers by the people themselves. Lorenzo had to bear up against the hostility of Pope Sixtus IV. and of Ferdinand I., king of Naples; but he gallantly defended himself against both, and became the benefactor of his people. He died in 1492.

In Milan the family of the Yisconti won great consideration. One of its members, John Galeazzo, 23urchased the title of duke, in 1395, of Wenceslaus, the German king, and soon swayed the government of twenty-two Italian cities. When the male line of the Yisconti became extinct, in IMT, Francis Sforza assumed the ducal crown, and governed with some renown. He died in 1467. His son, Galeazzo Maria, was murdered by conspirators in 1476. John Galeazzo, son of Maria, was recognised as successor, but was at length poisoned by his uncle and guardian, Louis the Moor, who seized upon the regency. Louis himself finally fell a victim to his own intrigues.

In Spain the chief power of the Christians was vested in two leading houses, those of Castile and Arragon. On the latter, Majorca, Sicily, and Sardinia, were dependencies. The Arabian caliphate, in the south, lost one province after another. By the marriage of Ferdinand 11. of Arragon with Isabella of Castile, 1469, the two Christian states were more closely allied; but Spain only consolidated her government in 1516. In 1492 the kingdom of Granada passed from the hands of the Mohammedans to those of the Christians. The same year witnessed the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus, an event of importance not only to Spain but to the world at large.

Portugal, which for a long time was governed by dukes, rose in 1139 to the dignity of a kingdom, and Algarvia was allotted to it in 1253. By the aid of the crusaders Lisbon was wrested from the Moors, 1147. The reign of Dionysius (Dinez) the Just, extending from 1279 to 1322, was remarkably fortunate. His grandson Pedro, 1357, immortalized in song by his romantic passion for Inez de Castro, likewise ruled with much ability and justice. With the death of his son Ferdinand, 1383, the proper Burgundian line became extinct; for though John 11. of Castile, husband of Ferdinand’s daughter, claimed the throne, the popular voice called for Prince John, natural son of Pedro, and grand master of the order of Aviz. His reign lasted fifty years, and was very glorious and prosperous.

During this century the Portuguese, under the patronage of Henry, third son of John, commenced their voyages of discovery, and met with great success. Their bold seamen passed Cape Non on the African coast, and discovered Madeira and the Azores. The immediate successors of John, Conradin I. and Alphonso V., permitted the interest in these voyages to decline, but John 11. (1481) manifested the same predilection for maritime affairs as John L, and, above all, made the East Indies the object of his enterprises, in order to wrest their commerce from the Genoese and Venetians. Africa’s most southern point. Capo Tormentoso (afterwards called Cape of Good Hope) had already been discovered, when John died, and left his eastern plans to be completed under Emanuel the Great, by Vasco de Gama.

The kingdom of Denmark had reached its greatest extent under Waldemar I. (1157–82) and Waldemar II. (1202–41); but in 1223 it lost Holstein, Mecklenburg, Lubeck, and Hamburg. The house of Estritson reigned until 1448, when it was succeeded by that of Oldenburg.

In Sweden the house of Stenkil passed away, 1130, for that of Swerk, a Goth, and this again yielded (1222) to that of Bonde. In 1250 the line of the Folkungs began; it ended in 1389.

The old Ynglingian dynasty prevailed in Norway from 875 until 1319. Margaret, daughter of Waldemar III., and wife of Hakon VII., king of Norway and Sweden, and guardian of her son Olaf, in Denmark, achieved a union of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark (the Calmar Union, 1397). While the kingdoms were brought within one confederation, each preserved its own laws and constitution. Erick of Pomerania, a grandson of her sister, was destined to govern the united countries after her; but Sweden and Norway looked with jealousy and envy upon Denmark, as the favorite state; besides, his tyranny at length drove the Swedes to rebellion. Even the Danes could not brook the intolerant rule of the government at Copenhagen. In 1436 Charles Canuteson Bonde was appointed governor of the empire; Erick fled to Gothland, and the Danes, 1439, elected his nephew Christopher, prince of Bavaria, whom the Swedes and Norwegians also recognised. He enjoyed a more tranquil and fortunate reign. At his death, 1448, the Danes conferred the royal dignity on Christian I., count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst, and in 1450 the Norwegians, too, elected him. He was the son of Dietrich of Oldenburg, who had married Hedwig, sister of Count Adolphus VIII., of Holstein, 1449. Christian received Schleswick and Holstein by a solemn guarantee of their liberties; but his brother Gerard succeeded to the patrimonial inheritance.

In Sweden the diet had elected Charles Canuteson Bonde king, but owing to a quarrel with the clergy, he was banished from the kingdom. After Christian I. had ascended the throne Charles was recalled. On his death, his sister’s son, Sten Sture, was chosen governor, and maintained himself against the machinations of Christian. John, the son of Christian, was elected after the death of Sten Sture, but by the abuse of his power he drove the Swedes to revolt, and the Stures again won the supremacy. In Sweden and Norway John was succeeded by his son, Christian II., 1513.

In the meantime the German order of Lords had converted Prussia to Christianity, while the order of the Brethren of the Sword had accomplished the same in Livonia and Courland. They also created these powers independent states. By the peace of Thorn, 1466, Poland obtained the whole of West Prussia, and the grand master of the Brethren of the Sword governed East Prussia as a Polish vassal. Poland and Silesia suffered severely from the Mongolian incursions, but won a decided victor v at Liesrnitz, 1241. In the thirteenth century the various Polish dependencies were united under the names of Great and Little Poland, and in 1305 the two divisions were combined, under King Vladislaus Loktieck. Among all his successors none were more distinguished than Casimir the Great, of the house of Piast (1333–70). His successor Louis, who was also king of Hungary, having confirmed the Poles in their freedom and nationality, they chose his daughter Hedwig queen, 1384. She soon lifter gave her hand to Prince Jagello, and the crown remained in his line until 1572.

In Hungary the Anjou-Neapolitan line obtained the throne in 1308. The Arpad dynasty had expired in 1301. Charles Robert (1308–42), the first king of the new dynasty, received the crown by right of his mother. Under the brilliant reign of Louis the Great, mentioned as king of Poland (1342–82), Hungary was remarkable for her power and civilization. At his death his daughter Mary, wife of Sigismund, succeeded to the throne, while, as before remarked, her sister Hedwig became queen of Poland.

During the fifteenth century the Turks frequently caused great trouble to Hungary; and at Yarna, 1444, the Christian army met a most terrible defeat. King Yladislaus fell on that bloody field. The Hungarians now called Matthias Corvinus, son of John Hunyades, to the throne, 1458. His arms were victorious. He not only routed the Turks, but increased the domain of the empire by the conquest of Vienna, Carinthia, Styria, Silesia, Ukraine, and Moravia. His reign was noted also for great advances in knowledge and art. He died in 1490 A.D.

Russia was divided into more than fifty districts. It fell an easy prey to the rapacity of the Mongols. Among the conquered princes Alexander Newski, of Novogorod, was distinguished. He died in 1263. In spite of his dependence, he vanished near the Neva, in 1240, the Swedes, Lithuanians, and the Brethren of the Sword, who, since 1237, had united their order to that of the German Knights. Sartak elevated Alexander, in 1252, to the princedom of Yladimir, and his son obtained Novogorod.

Internal divisions at length weakened the Mongol power in Russia. Iwan I. made Moscow his residence, united several leading principalities, and, with the consent of the Mongolian Khan, his sons took the title of Grand Dukes of all the Russias. By enlarging the limits of the confederacy, sufficient force was at length secured to throw off the foreign yoke. This was efiected under Iwan III., son of Wasili III. Dimtrii (Donskoi) had previously made a similar attempt, and had been fortunate in gaining great victories over the Tartars at the Don, 1380. Owing to the breaking up of the Mongol khanate of Kaptshak into the principalities Crimea, Kasan, Astrachan, and Turan (Siberia), and the consequent division of strength, Iwan’s success was greatly facilitated. The khan of Kasan was compelled to implore peace in 1469. Henceforth Iwan appointed the khans, and took the title of Czar, and placed upon his escutcheon the double eagle. Novogorod succumbed to the Muscovite dynasty, and Khan Achmet fell, 1480.

The government of the Greeks came to a final close in the fourteenth century. They had to yield to the victorious Turks the provinces of Asia Minor. The latter, under their commander Orchan, secured a residence at Prusa, in Bithynia, 1327. In the year 1357, Soliman and Murat, sons of Orchan, crossed the Hellespont, and capturing Gallipole, obtained a footing in Europe, conquering Thrace, Thessalia, Macedonia, and Bulgaria, and in 1362 they established themselves in Adrianople.

John IV. only retained the capital of Thessalonica and a few districts of the Morea, with some of the Archipelagan islands. Bajazet, son of Amurath, 1389–1403, was famed for liis victories. His most memorable triumph occurred in 1396, when he totally destroyed the Christian army, under Sigismund, king of Hungary. The emperor was compelled to permit the establishment of a mosque and the appointment of a cadi in his capital, and would probably have lost his throne to the sultan had not the latter been attacked by an enemy more powerful than himself. This was Timur, or Tamerlane, prince of the Mongols (born 1336, at Kesh, near Samarkand). In 1402 the Mongol and Ottoman armies met upon the plain of Angora (the ancient Ancyra), in Asia Minor. Bajazet lost the battle, and being made captive, was borne off by the conqueror in an iron cage. Death released him from his disgrace in 1403. Tamerlane died on his march towards China, with his plans of conquest yet imfinished.

Musa, appointed sultan by Tamerlane, assassinated his elder brother, but finally perished himself by the hand of his younger brother, Mohammed I., who restored the Turks to power, and harassed the Christian states.

His son and successor, Amurath II., marched against Constantinople, 1422, but without conquering it, contented himself with imposing upon the Greek emperor severe exactions. In 1444 he won a splendid victory at Varna, over Vladislaus, king of Hungary and Poland, and nearly annihilated the forces of John Hunnyades at Kassova.

Mohammed II., son of Amurath, disregarding the treaty between his father and the Byzantine power in 1453, began the siege of Constantinople. The Greek empire had already sunk so low that the immediate vicinity of the capital constituted its only domains. When Constantine XI. ascended the throne, Mohammed advanced with his forces, which Constantinople could not resist. Constantine XI. displayed a wonderful courage. On the fifty-third day of the siege the imperial city was laid waste. Constantine and his noble friends fell in the conflict, the Byzantine throne was overwhelmed, and the Greek empire was no more.

The rest of Greece soon passed to the hands of the Turks; the provinces of Bosnia and Servia rendered submission to Mohammed; Albania alone made successful resistance under the celebrated Scanderbeg. The important fortress of Belgrade defied all efforts for its capture, in 1456. Rhodes, too, bravely opposed the Turks. In other directions, however, Mohammed’s enterprises were more successful. He drove the Genoese from the Crimea, and spread alarm throughout Italy and all the western part of Europe. Otranto yielded to his arms in 1480. He died the following year while on his expedition against Usum Hassan, the Turkoman conqueror of Persia. During a period of thirty years, Mohammed had conquered two empires, twelve kingdoms, and two thousand cities. The Christian cross was displaced by the Moslem crescent, and the capital itself took the Turkish name of Istamboul.

About this period the Mongols, a nomadic horde, began to assume a leading rank among the tribes of Central Asia. One of their hereditary leaders, Temudchin, by his valor and cruelty managed to obtain the command of a few neighboring tribes, and soon attained the supremacy over all the Mongolians. He assumed the title of Tshinghis Khan (Great Khan), and began his conquests by a war against China, 1209. After passing the Great Wall, he penetrated the interior and fired Pekin, which continued burning an entire month, in 1215, subdued Bukhara and Chowaresem, invaded Tangut, and destroyed Nanking.

He died in 1227, and the conquest of China was completed by his sons and his grandson, Batu. The latter humbled the caliphate at Bagdad, and made the Turkish sultan of Iconium his vassal. Batu also directed the Mongol invasion of Russia, 1237, and under him Beta advanced as far as Silesia, 1241. He died in 1256.

These immense conquests, so rapidly made, caused the empire to extend from China to the Vistula; but it was soon dissolved into single khanates. Out of one of these districts arose the mighty Tamerlane, to restore for a brief season the glory of his nation. He united the three Mongol tribes, and made himself master of Asia Minor, Central Asia, Persia, and Hindostan, in the last of which one of his successors, Baber, founded, in 1519, the kingdom of the Great Mogul.

Of the African states of this period Arabia was pre-eminent until 1254, when Mamelouk Egypt rose to be the first in power and rank.

III. Plate 22: Scenes and Artifacts from the Time of Charlemagne and the Franks
Engraver: A. Krausse

Before passing on to a sketch of the civil condition of the nations of the middle ages, we call attention to the objects represented in our plates as illustrative of the period of whose history we have now completed the outline.

Pl. 22, fig. 9, sword of the Prankish king, Childeric; fig. 10a and b, forms of the chalice in the mass; fig. 11a, b, c, d, specimens of the edging on the tunic, the sandals and martial dress of Clovis; fig. 12, the crown of Clovis; fig. 13, clasp worn by Queen Chlotilda; fig. 14, 15, a and b, girdle ornaments; figs. 16–20, a style for writing, buttons, buckles, and rings; fig. 21, one of 300 golden bees in the royal cloak of Childeric; fig. 22, royal sceptre of Lothaire II.; figs. 23–25, throne and ottomans; fig. 26a and b, metallic thrones of Dagobert; figs. 27a and b, and 28, royal caps and crown of the Merovingian family; fig. 29, bishop’s mitre; fig. 30, seal of Childebert III.; fig. 31a, b, and c, sceptre, hand-of-justice, and crown of Charlemagne; figs. 32–34, three of Charlemagne’s swords; fig. 35a and b, two of his shoes; fig. 36a and b, part of his girdle and one of his spurs; fig. 37, bishop’s crosier; figs. 39 and 40, throne and ottoman; fig. 41, chest for the preservation of valuable objects; fig. 42, flutes; fig. 43a and b, incense vessels; fig. 44, shears; fig. 44b, hand basket; figs. 45 and 46, hatchet and axe; fig. 47, small sword; figs. 48a and b, 49a, b, c, and d, various cooking utensils. (The objects included between figs. 39 and 49 belong to the age of Charlemagne.) Figs. 50–52, lounge or sofa, chest, and money safe; fig. 53, bed; fig. 54a to i, table utensils; fig. 55a and b, knives; figs. 56 and 57, wine flagon and incensory; fig. 58a and b, iron and wooden chairs of the ninth and tenth centuries; fig. 59, writing-desk; fig. 60, Norman chair; fig. 61, royal chair; fig. 62, a table; and fig. 63, praying desk.

III. Plate 23: Scenes of French Medieval Life
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Pl. 23, fig. 2, travelling litter of a Prankish king of the eighth century borne by two horses; fig. 1, wagon bearing a sick or wounded prince of the thirteenth century.

In surveying the civilization of the middle ages, we find Hoinan demoralization on the one hand, and Asiatic and Germanic barbarism on the other. Not one city was spared by the destructive Asiatic hordes under Attila, and though all German tribes did not equal them in rapacity, still the name of Yandal has become proverbially infamous as a term expressive of every attack upon refinement.

In the West, arts and sciences, trade, &c., were still in their infancy, but agriculture soon became the tie which, in the new realms, attached to the soil. It cannot be denied that the agriculturists suffered as bondmen, but on the other hand there sprang up in the flourishing cities a powerful middle class, holding rank between a warlike nobility and the degraded serfs and rustics. By degrees, as wants began to be felt, labor was lightened by useful inventions, wealth was acquired, and a feeling of dignity roused, but with it a desire for greater liberty.

The influence of the clergy kept pace with temporal progress. They soon constituted the first and most powerful rank in the social scale.

War furnished an exhilarating excitement to the nobility, and, for want of external wars, they frequently came in conflict with cities and boroughs, and quarrels occasionally arose between neighboring barons and lords. In this way the laws of physical force usurped the province of right and justice, and the aristocracy did not hesitate to participate in robbing travelling merchants and tradesmen, and laying heavy taxes on them.

The ruling princes often needed the assistance of their barons in suppressing external foes; so they could ill afford to arrest the reign of club-law.

Arts and learning had taken up their abode with the clergy, though they were poorly enough represented among them, at least in Germany. In the latter part of the middle ages great progress was made in the fine arts, sciences, and trades. Though convents and seminaries were as yet the only abodes of learning, yet in the 12th and 13th centuries there were erected universities and other colleges, which increased rapidly in number and consideration. The university of Bologna was celebrated as a law-school, that of Salerno boasted of its professors in medicine. Other cities vied with each other in the erection and embellishment of these institutions. Those of Oxford, Paris, and Cambridge, were founded about 1200; Kaples, 1226; Toulouse, 1228; Salamanca, 1240; Lisbon, 1290; Rome, 1313; Prague, 1349; Vienna, 1365; Heidelberg, 1386; Leipsic, 1409; Upsala, 1476; Tübingen, 1447; and Copenhagen, 1479. The Arabs, too, had their schools in Bagdad, Bassora, Cairo, Alexandria, Fez, Morocco, Sevilla, Granada, and especially in Cordova. So the Jews erected schools at Tiberias and Babylon.

As the cities and towns of Europe grew more independent, they enlarged their privileges, made laws for themselves, and even formed confederations among each other. Such were the Hermandad in Spain, the Lombard Union in Upper Italy, and the Hanseatic League in Germany. Yet quarrels were inevitable, sometimes with the patricians or nobility, at others with the guilds and corporations, and the disputes would often terminate in bloodshed. The nobility generally devoted themselves to warfare, hunting, and chivalrous exploits, and continued to form the standing army of their feudal lord and master.

When gunpowder was invented, and its terrible explosive power had indicated it as an instrument of warfare (1354), the nobility preferred to contribute by money towards the pay of mercenaries to engaging in war themselves. Thus standing armies of paid and disciplined men, mostly foot-soldiers, were formed, though they retained for a long while the spear, bow, arrow, and crossbow, as their chief arms.

Just as gunpowder effected a revolution in the art of warfare, so the invention of the art of printing brought about a great change in literature, 1440.

Chivalry. Order of Knighthood

Among the Germans, as among nations generally, the army consisted mainly of infantry; a small portion were horsemen. The latter wore a cumbrous armor. A weighty helmet pressed the head, the body was invested in a powerful coat of mail, metallic greaves protected the arms and legs, while the weapons consisted of the ponderous lance and sword.

As such an equipment involved a large expenditure, none but the noble and wealthy could afford to wear it, so that this branch of the service soon won great consideration. The nobility stood apart from all the other orders of society, who served only on foot. With the view of maintaining their distinguished position, the nobility devoted their lives almost entirely to exercises calculated to increase the physical powers, render the body superior to the effects of fatigue, and thus to make themselves superior warriors, whilst little or nothing was done for the cultivation of the mind. In early boyhood the nobles learned to curb a steed and to manage lance and sword. Before the invention of gunpowder, activity and strength alone could decide a contest. The knights, clad in armor from head to foot, and trained to combat from early youth, had naturally great advantages over all other combatants. They were regarded as the pride and flower of an army, its efficiency being in general proportionate to their numbers; and from their service, which was always performed on horseback, they received the name of chevalier.

We find the mention of knights as early as the time of Charlemagne; nay, Tacitus adverts to a similar order among the ancient Germans. It is only in the eleventh century, however, that we meet with the knight as vassal, performing the duties imposed upon him by feudal law, either alone or accompanied by his men. In his seventh year the boy was committed to the care of a male teacher. Very frequently he was placed in the castle of some other knight, where he was taught the rudiments of chivalry by serving his master in the capacity of page, and by respectful intercourse with noble ladies. He attended his lord or lady in the chase, on journeys, during a ride, or on a visit. He carried their messages for them, waited at table, and acted as cup-bearer. His remaining time was occupied in gymnastic training, together with a very limited instruction in religion. On all occasions care was taken to impress him with a love of chivalry, and the most ardent veneration for the gentler sex.

Having reached his fourteenth year, he was armed with a sword, and elevated to the rank of squire. Thenceforth practice at arms, acquisition of knowledge of tactics, and of weapons and chivalrous pursuits, prepared the squire for his future dignity of knight. He accompanied his master in battle, and if he showed faithful attachment to him, if, above all, he succeeded in saving him from danger, sword in hand, and at the hazard of his own life, his glorious reward was that of being pointed out as a brave and noble youth.

When the squire had attained his twenty-first year he could claim the honor of knighthood. Occasionally that rank was conferred at an earlier age, provided the squire had obtained a prize in a contest with light arms, or had performed any remarkable feat of courage in the games which the squires celebrated on the day previous to a tournament.

The preparation for this ceremony consisted in fasting, nightly prayers, with a priest and godfather, in a church or chapel, penance and bathing, the whole concluding with the sacrament of the Holy Supper. These preliminaries over, he proceeded to the church, dressed in simple, generally white clothing, with his sword fastened to his shoulder, approached the altar, when the priest consecrated his sword, and then knelt down at the feet of the count, duke, or prince, who was to dub him. None but a knight could assist at this ceremony. He was now asked whether his intentions in assuming this profession were perfectly pure; if he would always defend the weak and oppressed, and particularly the widows and orphans, and the fair sex; if he was steadfast in his regard for religion and for the honor of chivalry; and if he would ever maintain an unflinching love for the truth. After answering these questions in the affirmative, he took an oath to obey the statutes of the order; after which the other knights and the ladies, friends of the novice, gathered around, and commenced equipping him, first with his left spur, then the right; next came the greaves and coat of mail, and finally the sword.

At the conclusion of this service he again knelt before the officiating knight, who rose from his seat and conferred upon the candidate the order of knighthood, by applying three blows with a naked sword upon the neck or shoulders, or sometimes a gentle touch on the cheek, accompanying the strokes with the words, “In the name of God, St. Michael, and St. George, I confer upon thee the honor and dignity of knighthood. Be brave, bold, and true !”

The young knight now rose from his knees, and after being greeted with the fraternal kiss or salutation, he proceeded to take his helmet, shield, and lance, sprang into the saddle, oftentimes without touching the stirrup, and rode forth among the people.

The times usually selected for these ceremonies were the leading church festivals, coronations, celebrations of victories, and other holidays. They mostly took place in churches or chapels, sometimes in halls of castles or court-yards of palaces; on special occasions, e.g. after a battle, they were performed in the open field.

During a period of actual war the chevalier was bound to follow the banner of his liege lord; if he was a lord himself, he would lead the array. In time of peace the knight frequently went to strange lands in quest of occasions of gaining instruction and experience. On these tours he visited castles and courts, attended ceremonies and investiture, took a ready share in tournaments or serious quarrels, protected the weak from injustice, enlarged the circle of his friends, greeted his brethren in arms, and signified his friendship by an exchange of weapons. He bore the title of a knight-errant, and was welcome wherever he went, until knight-errantry was disgraced by gross abuses.

The Joust, or Tournament

The tournaments offered another occasion for the display of knightly skill and valor, and an opportunity for the exercise of warlike weapons, even when there was no war. They consisted of a series of martial contests, and formed an important feature on occasions of festival at the castles of nobles, princes, and kings. The tournament is from the French tourner, to turn; it only became general in the middle of the twelfth century.

In the time of Conrad II., or Henry VI., the knights formed four tournament associations, or circles: the Rhenish, the Bavarian, the Suabian, and the Frankish; each of which was headed by a field-king, or judge of the tournament. Subsequently these circles were respectively divided into three branches, each under the control of a subordinate king-at-arms.

Those only were qualified for entering the lists who belonged to an old family of the nobility counting at least four knights among their ancestors, in France three; but the conditions were subsequently modified, so as to admit the more recent nobility. Still they excluded all persons whose circumstances obliged them to pursue any branch of business or trade, and who lived in cities; any one who had married into a rank beneath himself, together with the issue of such marriage to the third generation; all natural children; and, finally, all who had by unworthy conduct forfeited the honor of knighthood.

The qualifications for tourneying were tested by the following regulations: 1. The heralds exhibited a helmet and scutcheon, at the same time proclaiming the name of their owner; and if any one made objection to his honor, the points of opposition were reported to the master of ceremonies. 2. The knight recorded his name in a register, so that the freest investigation might at any time be instituted in regard to his ancestry. 3. A certificate from a field-king was made out for each knight after a tournament, and served not only himself, but also his posterity, as a testimony of his qualifications for tournaments. 4. The applicant could rebut all charges against his honor by competent testimony.

Besides the stewards and heralds, beadles or overseers assisted in maintaining order. With thin long poles, or tipstaffs, they stood in the lists in order to separate the combatants when the contest grew serious, and to protect the one who was exposed to danger. Another class of servants kept the crowds in order, took care of lost arms and armor, &c. Ladies, too, had certain official duties to discharge. Every tournament association sent one married woman, one widow, and one maiden, who were present at the exhibition of arms. Others crowded the victorious knight with the prize; still others enjoyed the right of naming the time and place of the next tournament, though the stewards were generally left to decide those matters.

The ground for the contest was a large elliptical and inclosed area (called the lists), and openings were left at the ends for ingress and egress. At the sides were erected large galleries or stages, beautifully adorned with heraldic tapestry and insignia, and appropriated entirely to the ladies, princes, courtiers, and nobles.

On the evening previous to the real tournament, that of the squires took place. On the morning of the tournament the knights attended mass, and were then conducted to the lists in a body by heralds, and followed by their squires, all in full armor. Halting without the inclosure, the dress and armor of the knights were examined, and care was taken against any attempts to fasten their persons by straps, or other means, to the saddles. At a signal given by the sound of the trumpet the beadles cut the ropes of the lists, and the horses entered the circle. The contests commonly consisted of single combats, though sometimes whole companies fought against each other. The exercises opened by a passage at arms with short blunted spears, fastened by chains to the cuirass. A flourish from the trumpet proclaimed the close of this species of fight, and then commenced the joust of the sword. In this contest the chief object was to cut down the crest and other ornaments from the adversary’s helmet.

Next came the contest with the blunted lance and the shield, as sole weapons of offence and defence. In fighting across the lists there was a kind of barrier between the combatants, and they were required to meet each other at full speed. Whoever struck his adversary so forcibly as to unhorse him or to break his lance, had won a point, and the knight gaining the greatest number of points bore off the prize. The close of the games was followed by the heralds announcing the names and dignities of the victors, whereupon the prizes were distributed by the ladies who had been elected for the purpose. The prizes consisted of splendid arms, shoulder knots, golden chains and bracelets, richly caparisoned horses, &c., &c. Blasts of trumpets and shouts of joy accompanied this ceremony, and the receiver had a right to claim a kiss from the lady who handed him the prize, and then to invite her to a dance. French ladies would offer their champions presents by way of encouragement or as a reward, both during and after the combat, such as scarfs, veils, bracelets, locks of their hair, &c. At the conclusion of the tournament the knights were disarmed by the ladies, and after receiving magnificent clothing were led to the feast. A ball concluded the entertainment, the knights taking precedence according to their success during the exercises of the morning.

The last public tournament was held at Worms in 1487. The introduction of gunpowder as a material of warfare, and the cost attending the magnificent displays, caused these exercises to be abolished.

The carrousel took the place of the tournament, especially in France. It opened with a quadrille of horsemen, in bands of four to twelve knights, and commanded by a leader. Next followed the quintaine. The game consisted in marking a point on a tree or pillar, which must be struck with a lance at full speed. Another form of the sport was afterwards introduced. Wooden figures were placed on pegs, so that they could turn round, and were to be hit in the face. Sometimes the figure to be struck was a Moor’s or Turk’s head. Another play consisted in striking off a ring placed upon the top of a pole. In all these sports the ladies presided and distributed the prizes.

The judicial combat, or the trial by the judgment of God, differed from the tournament. It proceeded upon the presumption that God would give success only to the party having a just cause. We find these contests among the German tribes as early as the sixth century, and they soon increased so much that laws were passed for their regulation. The leading features were, in the main points, the same as at the tournament. It may be observed, that before the combat took place the complainant had to swear to the truth of his accusation, and the defendant, with similar formality, to his innocence. Particular clothing and armor were worn by the contending parties; special judges enforced a strict compliance with the rules, and the combatants deposited with the officers a pledge sufficient to satisfy the victor. As such a pledge often consisted of a garment, it is not unlikely that the custom of throwing down the gauntlet in challenge originated in these pledges. The vanquished met with more or less severe punishment; and if he was sentenced to death, or fell in the conflict, he was denied the privilege of honorable burial, as the issue of the combat was thought to fasten the guilt of perjury on the conquered man. The laws exempted minors, the aged, the maimed, the sick, women, and the clergy, from this mode of trial, though any of these classes might employ others to fight for them.

III. Plate 24: German and English Armor and Tournaments
Engraver: Henry Winkles
III. Plate 25: Different Modes of Combat
Engraver: Henry Winkles
III. Plate 26: Becoming a Knight
Engraver: Henry Winkles

From this custom, doubtless, originated the private duel and the code of honor, the first traces of which we meet with in France in 1250. It was in that country also that the last judicial combat took place in 1547.

Pl. 23, fig. 5, vassals offering their allegiance when admitted to the castle; pl. 24, fig. 1, Maximilian I. in full armor; fig. 2, Henry VIII. of England in full armor: fig. 3, an English knight; fig. 4, a German knight; fig. 5, squires; fig. 6, English knights as they appeared in the tournament; fig. 7, German knights before the tournament; fig. 8, king-at-arms, or judge. Pl. 38, fig. 2, view of a tournament in Germany. Pl. 25, fig. 1, contest with the lance by German knights; fig. 2, judicial combat with lances; fig. 3, contest with axe and mace in France; fig. 4, judicial combat with shields; fig. 5, the same with swords; fig. 6, the same with lance points; fig. 7, carrying the ring in the carrousel; fig. 8, squire taking the oath on the sword. Pl. 26, fig. 2, young knight at the altar, vowing to serve God, honor, and the ladies; fig. 2, ceremony of dubbing a knight. Pl. 36, fig. 1, French knights and ladies hawking.

Heraldry

The full suit of armor being entirely closed, left no trace by which the knight who wore it might be recognised. To obviate this difficulty special marks of distinction were introduced on different parts of the armor. They consisted of differently shaped and colored plumes on the helmet, of particular colors or forms of the sashes or shoulder knots, but most especially of various designs on the shields. These latter designs were worn by the descendants of the knights in commemoration of their ancestors; and thus originated the distinction of families by their coats of arms, which at first consisted only of the private mark or motto adopted by a knight for the decoration of his shield.

Heraldry is the science treating of the various coats of arms, which soon became manifold, partly by the combination of several family escutcheons by marriage, partly by being made indicative of the various possessions and dignities of the owner. Coats of arms were also bestowed by princes upon the nobility, upon cities and corporations.

The figures which ancient heroes engraved upon their shields, helmets, and other arms, were entirely arbitrary, each individual selecting such symbols and devices as best suited his fancy. About the tenth century, and certainly in the eleventh, these representations began to take certain fixed forms, though the fancy of the wearer still had an important share in determining the inscriptions. Among the uses to which these figures were applied, we may mention their aid in testing the claims of a knight at the tournaments, and in the Crusades they were universally adopted in the Christian lands. In the progress of time the shield proper formed no necessary part of the armorial bearings, as the figures could as well be etched upon seals, &c. The classes of persons entitled to wear them were increased, the princes bestowing them as badges of honor on the learned bodies, philosophers, or artists; and families whose nobility was extinct retained their coats of arms.

So long as the armorial bearings indicated precisely the rank of the wearer, the rights of nobility were thereby discerned. The heralds before described were required to be quite familiar with the laws of heraldry, as it was their duty to ascertain and announce the rank, country, and dignity of the knights who signified their desire to take part in the tournaments. Heraldry first became a science in France, then in Germany, England, &c. Heraldic tables are still of vast importance, not merely to titled families, in order to establish their origin and rights, but also to historians and antiquarians, and to such as wish to settle the degrees of consanguinity between relatives and families in lawsuits or other questions. Heraldry, in short, indicates a man’s rank and family, collateral descent, and relationship by marriage, as the arms of the wife were combined with those of her husband. It establishes also the political or ecclesiastical power, residence and occupation, right of succession, and, finally, adoption, as in the last case the arms of the patron are united with those of the ward. Armorial designs belong (a) to individuals, as a lord-bishop; (b) to each branch of the family, hence family-arms; (c) to a republic or an association. Again, we meet with arms designating the sacred position of the wearer, or his authority, or some circumstance indicative of the occasion on which the dignity was conferred by the king; or, finally, armor of patronage and protection. When the names of the figures or symbols composed the name of the wearer, it was called denominational or titular armor; thus the Henneberg family emblazoned their shield with a black hen (Henne) on a green mountain (Berg).

III. Plate 27: Crowns and Shields
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The armorial shield usually contained various ornamental pieces, as the helmet, crown, cap, or hat; sometimes animals or men supported it, while in other cases pillars or insignia peculiar to military orders surmounted it. As marks of condition, it was also adorned with the globe of empire, sceptre, sword, crozier, or other accidental symbols.

The form of the armor was often national. Thus the French shield terminated below in two wave lines meeting each other (pl. 27, fig. 10), while the lower part of the Spanish shield is rounded (fig. 11). The German shield had several indentations (fig. 8), though originally it had but one (fig. 1). The prominent parts were often twined or ornamented. As the shape is not essential, the shield often takes a triangular (fig. 2) or heart form (fig. 4). The Knights of the Banner in France bore square shields (fig. 13), while the ladies selected the rhomboidal (fig. 5), or the heart-shaped (fig. 4). Scholars frequently adopted the French form in a slanting position (fig. 6). Many families had the shield crooked or inverted. When a man could claim several shields, they were grouped in a circle, placing the most honorable in the centre, and the others in accordance with their rank; but they might also be combined, and form the fields of one large shield. The science of heraldry regulated this arrangement, and the heralds at the tournaments, in announcing or blazoning the titles of a knight, mentioned first the central shield, and then proceeded from the right to the left, and from the top downwards.

The shield is generally divided into five principal points; the centre is called the heart or fess point; the top the head point, or precise middle chief; the point equally between the fess and chief was called the honor point; that at the foot the precise middle base; and that between the heart and base, the naval or nombril point.

If the shield contains several representations separated by lines, the portions of the shield thus set apart are termed fields (pl. 27, fig. 53), and when there are four equal divisions, as in figs. 13, 29, and 53, the shield is called quadripartite.

Sometimes shields are divided into three parts each way, exhibiting nine fields in three rows or charges, which are named as follows: the upper or chief charge, transverse middle charge, base charge, middle vertical charge, right vertical charge, and left vertical charge. This arrangement also determined the number and names of the fields or grounds; thus we find the terms middle chief, dexter chief, sinister chief; fess, with its dexter and sinister; and middle base, with its like grounds. When there are five rows they may be called: row of the head point, honor-point, fess-point, navel-point, and base. If the horizontal division be interrupted, then the longitudinal decides. One or several vertical fields are called a pale. When a pannel in the middle base presents two curve lines pointing upwards it is said to be engrafted; and engrafted pannels may also occur in the centre of the escutcheon, and even in three different rows.

The lines have several directions on the face of the shield, as the perpendicular, the transverse, the oblique, from dexter chief to sinister base, and from sinister chief to dexter base.

The helmet, with its decorations (or in place of the helmet, the crown, cap, or hat) surmounting the fields, is called upper shield. The helmet was properly the designation of knightly dignity; and although but one helmet usually was placed on a shield, yet the number might be increased according to circumstances, and the two external helmets were occasionally worn by the shield-bearers. The helmet, and when several were used, the middle one, is commonly represented looking straight forward, as in pl. 27, figs. 87 and 90; occasionally it appears turned aside, as in fig. 91. The other helmets always look to the centre. The armorial helmet is either open or closed, sometimes entirely open, with bows, figs. 87, 90, 92. In the latter case the more numerous the bows the more distinguished was the family to whom the arms belonged; so it was, at least, in France. The closed helmet has properly none but the slightest openings, fig. 88. Kings universally wore the casque freely open, the higher nobility partly open, with bows, the lower dignitaries had it almost entirely closed. Open helmets were also called tournament helmets, being worn by those who might claim admission to the lists. Crowned heads sometimes adopted indifferently the closed or the helmet with bows. The casque usually supported jewels, strings of pearls, or chains adorned by pendants; and it was frequently marked by foliated impressions, tastefully finished with gold and silver mountings. These were called helmet coverings, and the colors indicated that of the lining. Sometimes a crown surmounted the decorations. The crown, however, was not indicative of any regal or imperial power. It consisted of a ring fitted to the head, set with stones, and further adorned with four rosettes, between every two of which was a pearl. In other cases, a wreath supplied the place of the crown, and took a variety of names according to the number of ribands and jewels employed in its construction.

These helmet coverings only served to support figures attached to the helmet, and called helmet ornaments or gems, and which were mostly repetitions of a figure or emblem worn in the shield. Such emblems were, for instance, wings of eagles, a pair of which was termed a flight, open, if extended in front, and closed, if seen from one side. The flight itself was often decorated by other figures. Lions, eagles, and other animals; heads of men and beasts, talons and beaks of birds, claws of animals, a man’s arm, the hand grasping some object, horns of the buffalo, antlers of the deer, banners, fans, screens, mirrors, &c., &c., were also decorations of helmets. Certain classes of objects showed the rank of the party; thus the hat, cap, mitre, sceptre, globe of empire, and the upper part of a human body, male or female, which was termed a doll. The most common animals were the stag, unicorn, and birds of prey. It was always deemed necessary that the figures should occupy an upright position, and proceed from the crown.

Instead of the helmet, any other mark of distinction, and especially the crown, might occupy the highest position upon the armorial bearings. The rim or circle constitutes the most significant portion of the crown. It forms the basis on which rest the various ornaments, as rays, arches, rosettes, pearls, stones, lines, crosses, &c., all of which are mere ornaments, but serve at the same time as certain distinctions in the coat of arms. The same is the case with the four, six, or eight bows, or arches, which sometimes are attached to the upper edge of the band, and unite in the centre, where they support a globe of empire, lily, cross, lion, or eagle. The outer faces of the bows are richly studded with pearls, and in some crowns they rest upon a rich lining. This is particularly the case in the English crown, the arches of which are also bordered with ermine. In all cases the crown is of gold, and the pearls and stones preserve their natural color.

The imperial crown appears in several German coats of arms, and is represented as consisting of eight plates of gold, rounded at the top and decorated with jewels and insignia, the front plate sustaining a cross, and a bow extending from the rear to the cross (pl. 22, fig. 31c, Charlemagne’s crown).

The modern German crown is of regal shape, with four leaves and three broad bows. A rich cap underlies the jewelled part, and from the right and left sides are suspended two broad ribands. The globe of empire rests upon the summit (pl. 28, fig. 2).

The Russian imperial crown (fig. 1) has the cap beneath; and the Hungarian crown is high, and not only lined, but richly set with pearls, and bears images of saints. In the crown of the Grand Duke of Tuscany there are several notches, and it is unlined.

The tiara, or pope’s crown (pl. 27, fig. 83), consists of a high cap, divided into three equal compartments by three crown rims, adorned with leaves and surmounted by the globe of empire.

On all the German royal and arch-ducal crowns are eight leaves on the rim and four or eight bows (pl. 27, figs. 67–76); the crowns of the marquises, counts, viscounts, barons, and lords, are without bows (figs. 80, 81, 82). The crowns of the viscounts contain several pearls, those of the barons have only a few, while those of the lords have merely a rim, round which is wound a string of pearls. Electoral princes wear crowns edged with ermine, and surmounted by the globe and cross, or simply by a tuft of ermine. Sometimes four rows of pearls extend from the rim of ermine to the top of the crown (figs. 77, 78, 79).

The bishop’s hat, or infula (fig. 84), consists of a high cap, composed of two broad leaves tapering towards the top, and embellished with pearls or jewels. From both sides, as in the pope’s tiara, broad ribands are suspended. In the infula of English bishops the two broad leaves are supported by a crown rim. Catholic prelates wear a low hat, with wide upturned rim, and two pendent tassels, one on either side.

The color of the hat and the number of tassels indicate the difference in rank and dignity. The cardinal’s hat is red, and carries now fifteen tassels on either side, fig. 85. In some Catholic countries the cardinal exhibits in his escutcheon a princely hat, and even a crown below the cardinal’s hat, but at Rome this is not permitted. In Spain and France the archbishops show a green hat with ten tassels, the bishops one with six tassels, while the prothonotary is known by a black hat with three violet blue tassels.

Since the Congress of Vienna the right of showing the regal crown belongs not only to kings and grand-dukes, but also to other ruling princes. Princes of the blood in some countries adopt crowns of a prescribed form; in others, they follow the style peculiar to their dynasty.

The globe of empire originated in this way: Pope Benedict VIII. presented to the Emperor Henry II. a small globe surmounted by a cross, meaning it not merely as a part of his royal insignia, but also as a symbol of the power of the cross over the world. Later it became an emblem of imperial authority. Free cities received it in their armorial designs as a mark of imperial favor; soon after kings and princes adopted it to signify their power as Christian rulers.

As the successor of the Apostle Peter, the pope incorporates in his arms the figure of two keys crossing each other. Bishops and abbots marshal behind the shield, and leaning obliquely on the left side, a crook or crozier, as emblematical of their office as pastors over the flock of Christ; and in case the incumbent is at the same time invested with civil authority, the other side presents the figure of a sword. The arms of an abbess show no infula; but in lieu of it, the staff or crozier in the middle, behind the shield.

In France the marshals show two marshals’ staves; admirals two anchors; and the lord chamberlain two keys, which must be of a shape different from that of the pope’s keys.

The imperial or double-headed eagle bears the arms on its breast, and holds in one talon the sceptre and sword, in the other the imperial globe. In the Russian imperial arms there are three subordinate shields on each wing; and the German arms of the imperial house show five additional shields upon the tail.

Frequently the shield and the shield-holders rest upon some basis, as a floor or a ribbon, on which mottoes are placed.

The colors or hues of the shields were the principal mark of distinction between the chevaliers, and are, therefore, still minutely determined when a coat of arms is conferred. They are termed tinctures., as, for example, those designated by the metals, gold, silver, and iron, and the colors proper, red, blue, green, and black. Yellow and white were not employed as tinctures, but represent gold and silver. Purple, as approaching to red, and violet as a combination of red and blue, are used; and in England, also the blood red, and the orange or tenny, a mixture of yellow and red. If, as in copperplate engravings, woodcuts, &c., the actual colors were not put on, it was once customary to express them by their initials, G. S. I. Gr. B. Bl. R.; or by planetary symbols (pl. 27, figs. 14–20). At a later period they were indicated by dots and lines, thus: gold was expressed by dots (fig. 14); silver by a plain surface, without dots or lines (fig. 15); red by perpendicular lines (fig. 16); blue by horizontal lines (fig. 17); green by diagonal lines, from left to right (fig. 19); purple by the reverse of green (fig. 20); black by the intersection of horizontal and perpendicular lines (fig. 18); iron, by diagonal lines crossing each other (fig. 21). Blood red was expressed in the same manner as iron; and the tenny by perpendicular lines, intersected by left diagonal ones.

Metals must always alternate with colors; a figure of metal must be painted on color, and a colored figure on metal. The coverings and figures belonging to the helmet also follow this rule; but the color of purple forms an exception. Other exceptions also are found, e. g. when a figure is intended to retain its natural color; or when the ground of a field may have at the same time both metal and color, and the figure extends over both; or when the figure is to mark a peculiar branch of an old or extinct family; or lastly, when the same figure has a portion of itself varying in color from the rest, as in the red tongue of an animal.

False arms are such as do not follow these rules. They are also called enigmatical, because they contain a proposition to be solved. Thus the arms of the king of Prussia contain a red griffin, as a metaphor of the duchy of Stettin.

The figures of a shield are partly mere combinations of tinctures, partly actual images. The former class are termed honor pieces, and consist of crosses, arches, beams, triangles, spars, &c. (two oblique beams united, pl. 29, fig. 25), few of them having any actual meaning. A shield is called vacant when it bears only tinctured fields of equal size, and without figures (fig. 34).

In addition to the right-lined and curvilinear division of the tinctures, we find the following shapes of honor pieces; checker work, battlements, stairs, scales arranged in various ways, swallow-tails, crutches, crosses, &c., &c. A shield is said to be expectant when it contains merely fields or tinctures upon which figures may be inserted, as circumstances may suggest. Vacant shields, which are embellished upon their surfaces with lines, are termed damasked. If two different tinctures meet in a point in the middle of a field, the field is said to be diagonally quartered (fig. 54). If two tinctures change in a square, the field is quartered (fig. 53), and the position may be either straight or oblique; if straight, the field is checkered (fig. 31), if oblique, the checkering of course is lozenged (fig. 32). Other fields are graded, greaved, netted, and alternated, as the seams of a wall. The trellis or grate is formed of lines crossing each other at either right or obtuse angles. A neat variation of tincture is in the small iron hats, which resemble and have been interpreted as furs, but which actually represented the iron hats of the knights (figs. 26–28). They had the form of small pointed spires or cones. Sometimes, however, ermine is represented upon shields; when the ground is black and the points white it is called counter ermine.

On the same field of an honor-piece various figures may be found opposite, beside, and even upon each other, e.g. beams and rafters, or piles, spars or beams, with diamonds, rings, or coins, upon them. The cross occurs in a great variety of shapes, and is considered an honor-piece.

In regard to the form of the shield, nothing is essential. Thus we have, pl. 27, fig. 1, the crescent-shaped; fig. 2, the triangular; fig. 3, the fancy form; fig. 4, the heart form, usually adopted by ladies; fig. 5, the diamond; fig. 6, the reclining; figs. 7, 8, forms of ancient shields; fig. 9, German shield; fig. 10, French; fig. 11, Spanish; fig. 12, Italian; fig. 13, ensign or banner shield. In addition to the description of the representation of colors already given, we call attention to fig. 22, which indicates natural colors, e.g. the horse; fig. 23, ermine; fig. 24, counter ermine; fig. 25, spotted; fig. 26, small blue and white hats; fig. 27, red and yellow hats; fig. 28, irregular blue and white hats; fig. 29, fur; fig. 30, greaved or scaly. The division of shields is as follows: fig. 33, vertical; fig. 34, horizontal; fig. 35, diagonal left; fig. 36, diagonal right; fig. 37, right indented; fig. 38, left indented; fig. 39, horizontal indented; fig. 40, vertical indented; fig. 41, vertical left; fig. 42, vertical right; fig. 43, vertical triple; fig. 44, horizontal triple; fig. 45, diagonal left triple; fig. 46, diagonal right triple; fig. 47, superior angular; fig. 48, inferior angular; fig. 49, vertical stripe; fig. 50, horizontal stripe; fig. 51, diagonal left stripe; fig. 52, diagonal right stripe; fig. 53, quartered shield; fig. 54, diagonal quartered; fig. 55, upward rafters; fig. 56, downward rafters; fig. 57, cross; fig. 58, oblique cross; fig. 59, advanced shield; fig. 60, enigmatical shield; fig. 61, expressive shield; fig. 62, covered shield; fig. 63, shield supporting a small shield.

On the same plate will be found representations of the principal European crowns; fig. 64, ancient German imperial; fig. 65, Russian imperial; fig. 66, Turkish imperial; fig. 67, English; fig. 68, French; fig. 69, Spanish; fig. 70, Prussian; fig. 71, Swedish; fig. 72, Danish; fig. 73, Sardinian; fig. 74, Hungarian; fig. 75, Scottish; fig. 76, grand ducal crown; fig. 77, crown of an electoral prince; fig. 78, crown of a prince of the blood; fig. 79, ducal crown; fig. 80, count’s; fig. 81, viscount’s; fig. 82, baron’s; fig. 83, bishop’s; fig. 84, papal crown; fig. 85, cardinal’s hat; fig. 86, hat of the doge of Venice; figs. 87–92, helmets of arms.

III. Plate 28: Coats of Arms
Engraver: A. Krausse
III. Plate 29: Coats of Arms
Engraver: Schweissinger

We close the whole subject with a list of the coats of arms belonging to the princes and some of the noble families. Pl. 28, fig. 1, Russian imperial; fig. 2, Austrian imperial; fig. 3, British royal; fig. 4, late royal French; fig. 5, royal Belgian; fig. 6, royal arms of the Netherlands; fig. 7, royal Swedish; fig. 8, royal Danish; fig. 9, royal Spanish; fig. 10, royal Portuguese; fig. 11, royal Sardinian; fig. 12, royal Sicilian; fig. 13, pontifical; fig. 14, royal Grecian; fig. 15, grand duchy of Tuscany; fig. 16, duchy of Modena; fig. 17, duchy of Lucca; fig. 18, Baron von Seckendorf; fig. 19, Baron von Fahnenberg; fig. 20, Baron of Brussels; fig. 21, Cotta von Cottendorf. Pl. 29, fig. 1, royal Prussian; fig. 2, royal Bavarian; fig. 3, royal Saxon; fig. 4, royal Hanoverian; fig. 5, royal Würtembergian; fig. 6, grand duchy of Baden; fig. 7, electorate of Hesse; fig. 8, grand duchy of Hesse Darmstadt; fig. 9, grand duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach; fig. 10, duchy of Saxe Meiningen; fig. 11, duchy of Saxe-Altenburg; fig. 12, duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha; fig. 13, duchy of Brunswick; fig. 14, duchy of Nassau; fig. 15, grand duchy of Mecklenburg; fig. 16, grand duchy of Oldenburg; fig. 17, duchy of Anhalt Dessau; fig. 18, duchy of Anhalt Bernburg; fig. 19, duchy of Anhalt-Köthen; fig. 20, principality of Schwartzburg; fig. 21, principality of Hohenzollern Hechingen; fig. 22, principality of Hohenzollern Sigmaringen; fig. 23, principality of Waldeck; fig. 24, principality of Beuss; fig. 25, principality of Lippe Schaumburg; fig. 26, principality of Lippe-Detmold; fig. 27, principality of Liechtenstein; fig. 28, landgrave of Hesse-Homburg; fig. 29, duchy of Parma; fig. 30, Prince Esterhazy; fig. 31, Prince Metternich.

The Clergy and their Influence

In the middle ages the Christian religion gradually and constantly progressed. It was adopted among the German, Slavonic, and Scandinavian nations, in Russia and Hungary, and even among some of the Tartar hordes of Asia. But its original purity soon became dimmed; and its spirituality and simplicity were often lost amid the gorgeousness of imposing ceremonies. The doctrines of the cross were loaded with human inventions, by which the church was brought to disunion and endless controversy.

III. Plate 32: Founders and Representatives of Various Monsatic Institutions
Engraver: W. Hohneck

Three great sections of the Christian church appear but a few centuries after its organization.

  1. The Roman Catholic Church. This branch has its sovereign head at Rome, in the person of the pope. In addition to the Bible, it recognises the authority of tradition. It regards the decrees of synods and of bishops as necessary to the maintenance of truth and unity. The church believes in the doctrine of extraordinary merit, especially in works of supererogation in the saints, in the power of their intercession, and in indulgences. Another doctrine prominently set forth is that of purgatory. The standards of the church teach seven sacraments: baptism, the Lord’s supper, confirmation, penance or confession, ordination of priests, matrimony, and extreme unction. In the sacrament of the Lord’s supper the Catholic church holds the doctrine of transubstantiation, i.e. that through the force of the words of institution, pronounced by the officiating priest, the essential nature of the bread and wine is changed into the substance of the body and blood of Christ; and holding at the same time that the reception of the body includes that of the blood, it excludes the laity from the use of the cup. Regarding the supper in the specific form of the mass as an efficacious offering or sacrifice, beneficial to the dead as well as the living, the priests perform mass for the repose of departed souls.
  2. The Greek Church, which was entirely separated from the Roman in 1054, is under the control of patriarchs. It is not unanimous on some questions of importance; thus one party still regards the pope as the supreme head of the universal church, while another rejects all belief in the necessity of this supremacy. Both, however, acknowledge as the rule of faith the Bible, the writings of the apostolical fathers, and the decrees of the seven councils. They believe that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father only. They also ascribe a meritorious efficacy to good works, especially lasting, charity, almsgiving, and monastic life; but they deny the doctrine of purgatory, and condemn the practice of granting indulgences In regard to the souls of the departed, they believe in a middle-state, where the pious souls calmly await the day of judgment, and the wicked in terror and anguish look forward to the day when their punishment is to commence, unless the intercession of the priests delivers them from their torment. This church, too, recognises the seven sacraments. The sacrament of the Lord’s supper is administered to the communicants in the form of cylindrical pieces of leavened bread, dipped in wine, so that they receive both bread and wine.
  3. The Armenian Church. (Pl. 32, figs. 5, 6, Armenian patriarch and monk.) The supreme authority of this church is vested in the Catholicos of all Armenians, under whom rank several patriarchs. She rejects the veneration of images. She sees in Christ only one nature, the divine, like the Jacobite and Coptic sects.

The Mennonites and Maronites in Syria (figs. 3 and 4, Maronite patriarch; and monk) confess in Christ one person, but two natures, actuated by one will.

The vestments of a Roman Catholic bishop consist of the pontifical shoes and stockings, the cross upon the breast, the tunic, the dalmatica or alba, the finger ring, the mitre or infula, the crozier, the mantle (pallium). the gloves, the orale (a veil, covering the shoulders and breast), and the præcinctorium. (Pl. 32, fig. 1, St. Augustine in full canonicals; fig. 2, St. Anthony.) In the pope’s dress the chief distinction is the triple crown. The customary official costume of the priest embraces the amictus, the white linen shirt, the alba, the girdle, the rochette (a species of white linen gown or cassock, with closed sleeves); the stola (a broad sash worn by the priests around the neck, and crossed upon the breast; the deacons, however, usually place it across the left shoulder), and, finally, the dress for performing the offering of the mass. The priests also place upon their heads a low quadrangular cap.

The practice of monastic seclusion rose to its height during the middle ages. Its commencement probably dates back to the time of the early Christians, who, to preserve their lives from the fearful storms of persecution, betook themselves to the mountains and deserts, where they passed their days in con templation and prayer. The leading Scriptural authority for the institution is founded in the remark of Christ to the young man who inquired the way of eternal life: “One thing thou lackest. Go thy way, sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven; and come, take up the cross, and follow me.” These words many applied to themselves; and renouncing all earthly and worldly goods, they sought an undisturbed tranquillity where they might devote themselves to prayer and meditation, whilst they mortified their flesh.

Such persons received the names of recluses, anchorites, or hermits (from ἔρημος, waste, desert), and subsequently monks (from μόνος and μονάχος, solitary, alone). Their quiet contemplative life offered strong inducements to imitation, and the numbers at length increased to such an extent that they united in associations. Their common residence, inclosed with hedges or walls, was called cloister (from claustrum, an inclosure). The superior took the title of abbot, from the Syriac abba, signifying father. Women and young girls formed themselves into similar societies, and called themselves nuns, an Egyptian word meaning mother. The cloisters probably originated in the fourth century, but their number was increased in every coming century. Pl. 32, fig. 8, Greek monk of Poland; fig. 9, Jacobite monk.

After the sixth century the monks began to act in accordance with fixed rules, though as early as the year 350, St. Basil (pl. 32. fig. 7) of Neo-Cæsarea drew up a system of regulations for the use of both monks and nuns. These rules were especially spread in the East, and are still observed in all convents of the Greek church, as well as by the Basilians in Spain and Sicily. On the plan of St. Basil the monks and nuns were required to observe chastity, obedience to the superior, prayers at regular hours, long continued fasts, and to live mainly upon a vegetable diet.

About the beginning of the sixth century, St. Benedict of Norcia reformed the whole system of monachism in the west. As a pious and judicious leader of an order, he built a cloister on Mount Cassino, near Naples, and the regulations which he established in his society proved so successful that they came to be generally adopted in all similar institutions of the west. He made the cloisters the abode of piety, temperance, and industry; and during those lawless and revolutionary times they became the retreat of philosophy and literature. Benedict, considering the wants of the times, abolished the severe fasts and the constantly repeated prayers, and persuaded the monks to work, and thus to render themselves of service to the community in which they lived. His society, known in history as the Benedictines, pledged themselves to obedience to the canons, to an unconditional submission to the superior, to a constant monastic life, to uniform and settled hours for prayers and secular duties, to the observance of an inviolable chastity, and to the entire relinquishment of all worldly pleasures. In place of the white dress adopted by the order of St. Basil, the Benedictines wore a black cowl. Pl. 32, figs. 10, 11, Benedictine monk and nun.

III. Plate 33: Representatives of Religious Communities
Engraver: W. Hohneck

In the course of time the original discipline was gradually relaxed. To some enthusiastic members of the order, however, it did not seem severe enough, and consequently the rigidity of the rules was increased, and new additions made, so that among different societies called by the same name it was often difficult to trace even a dim resemblance. Thus arose the order of the Clugnya; the Congregation of the Clugnyacensians, founded by St. Oden of Clugny; the Congregation of Mount Cassino, ordained 1408, by St. Justinus at Padua and Blount Cassino: the Congregation of St. Maurus, established by St. Maurus, in France, 1621 (pl. 33, fig. 27, a monk of this Congregation); the Calmalduensians, founded by St. Romoald between 960 and 1009, at Campo Muldoni, near Milan (pl. 32, fig. 19, a monk of this society); the Sylvestrinians, founded by Sylvester Gozzolan of Ancona (pl. 32, fig. 25, the general of the Sylvestrinians ); the Grammontensians (grand mountaineers), founded by St. Stephen of Thiers, on Grandmont, near Limoges, 1076; and the Carthusians, whose founder was St. Bruno, 1086, a pious monk of Rheims. Owing to the great dissipation prevalent in those times, he was induced to seek solitude. St. Bruno betook himself, with a few congenial friends, to a narrow and desolate valley, called Chartreuse, lying between two precipitous rocks, covered with snow and bramble, and not far from Grenoble. In this dreary spot he erected a cloister, where the emaciated monks lived in the deepest poverty. Their regulations were of the most stringent character; even conversation at times was prohibited (fig. 18, Carthusian nun in her dress preparatory to confirmation). We mention also the Celestines, founded by Peter di Mardone, 1264, afterwards Pope Celestine V. (pl. 33, fig. 2, Celestine monk); the Cistertians, established 1075, by twenty-one monks, who, led by their abbot Robert, had emigrated to Cisternum. Out of these, in the way of further reformation, sprang the Bernardines, by St. Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux, in the beginning of the twelfth century (pl. 32, fig. 21, Bernardine nun). To these may yet be added the Feuillans, established 1580, by John de la Barrière, prior of the abbey of Feuillans, near Toulouse (pl. 33, figs. 25 and 26, monk and nun of this order;) the order of Frontevrault, founded by Robert of Arbrissel in the beginning of the twelfth century (pl. 32, fig. 12, Frontevrault nun); the Congregation of Port Royal, founded for nuns, 1204; and the Monks of la Trappe. in Normandy (pl. 34, fig. 7, monk of la Trappe), founded by Rotrou, count of Perche.

The rules adopted by St. Augustine bore a strong similarity to those of the Benedictines. Indeed, his were not monastic regulations proper, but rules for the clergy of his diocese, binding them to poverty, chastity, common prayers, &c., without constituting them an order. The congregations of canons and prebendaries adopted his rules without forming monasteries. Among them were the canons of the Lateran (pl. 32, fig. 15), those of the Holy Sepulchre (pl. 33, fig. 1), those of St. Salvator, St. Genevieve, St. Rufin, and the Hospitallers generally.

These rules were later adopted by monks also, and thus was formed the Order of Angustines, consisting of hermits united into one body in the year 1256, by Pope Alexander IV. At a later period Augustine nunneries were established (pl. 32, figs. 13, 14, Augustine monk and nun). Following the Augustines, arose the Præmonstrants, founded by St. Norbert, in the north of France, 1220; the Servites, by Monaldi, near Florence, 1223; the Jeromites, who were divided into Hermits of St. Jerome of Spain and Hermits of St. Jerome of the Observance, 1429, the Congregation of Peter Gambretti, 1337, and Hermits of St. Jerome of Fiesole, 1360. Other classes of Augustine monks were, the Jesuates, founded by John of Columbino; the Brigittines, founded by St. Brigitta, 1344, at Western, near Lynköping, in Sweden; the Carmelites, founded in 1208, by Albert, Patriarch of Jerusalem, and divided into two branches, the barefoot and the shod. Pl. 32, fig. 16, barefoot Carmelito in his mantle; fig. 17, Carmelite nun in her surplice.

After the twelfth century various religious orders were formed, who, not satisfied with the secluded and inactive life of the cloister, sought to extend the sphere of their usefulness beyond its walls. The first among these were the Trinitarians or Mathurines (order of Mercy), who were established, in 1198, by John of Malta and Felix of Wales. The institution was dedicated to the Trinity, and devoted itself, among other objects, to the liberation of Christian slaves. Soon after, the Roman see established the orders of the Mendicants, or begging friars, who were to prevent the increase of knowledge. The pope conferred upon them the most important privileges, e.g. exemption from all civil and ecclesiastical jurisdiction, permission to preach and collect alms, hear confessions, perform masses, and sell indulgences everywhere. In form, their constitution was a military one, the superiors exacting strict subordination and discipline from the subalterns, and aiming at the elevation and grandeur of the hierarchy. The two great branches of this society were:

  1. The Dominicans (Jacobins, Evangelists, Mendicants), founded in 1212 by St. Dominicus, at first an order of ecclesiastics or preachers, but afterwards commissioned with maintaining the Inquisition. They adopted the rules of St. Augustine. Pl. 32, fig. 26, Dominican monk; fig. 27, Dominican nun.
  2. The Franciscans (Cordeliers, Minorites, Fratres minores, &c.), founded by St.. Franciscus of Assissi, in the beginning of the thirteenth century. They assumed a variety of names, according to their objects and condition: the Barefoot (Soccolanti), who were again subdivided into the Organized Franciscans (Cordeliers, Observantines), the Austere (Reformati, Recollecti, &c.), and Most Austere (Alcantarines, cfcc.); and the Covered or Shod Franciscans (Conventuales), to whom belong the Capuchins, established at Florence in 1525, by Matthias of Bassi, and afterwards many others. This order also embraced the Cæsarines, Celestines, Spirituales, Clarentines, Fraticelli, and Minimes, the latter having been founded in Calabria, in 1435, by Francis of Paula. Pl. 32, fig. 22, Capuchin monk in his mantle; fig. 23, the same going to officiate at mass in Rome; pl. 33, fig. 3, a Minime: fig. 15, a Franciscan nun of the order of St. Elizabeth.

At the period of the Reformation these various societies attracted peculiar attention, and many of them could not pass the examination to which they were subjected in order to test their usefulness. Some orders, therefore, embraced new objects, the members devoting themselves to attendance upon the sick, to the study and practice of medicine, to the furtherance of the Roman Catholic church by missions. Thus were organized the Theatinians, in 1520, by John Peter Caraffa (or, more properly, Thcate, afterwards Pope Paul IV.), who devoted themselves expressly to the propagation of the faith (fig. 5, Theatinian nun); the Barnabitcs, consecrated also to missions and to the instruction of the young, established by several persons at Milan in 1533 (fig. 23, Barnabite); the Bartholortæans, by Bartholomew Hobhäuser, in Salzburg, in 1640; the Lazarists, by Vincent de Paula, at Paris, for missions and seminaries; the Brothers and Sisters of Charity, in the beginning of the seventeenth century, for nursing the indigent sick (pl. 34, fig. 5, Sister of Charity of St. Vincent de Paula; pl. 33, fig. 19, Sister of Charity of another cloister); the Jesuits, by Ignatius Loyola, in 1534, for the promulgation of the Catholic religion, the consolidation of the hierarchy, and the furtherance of their own power (pl. 33, fig. 17, Jesuits; fig. 18, Jesuit missionary); the Somaskians, the fathers of Christian doctrine, for public instruction; the Priests of the Oratorium (fig. 21); the Piarists, &c., &c.

The orders of nuns sometimes chose the same titles as the monks; others united with the monastic orders without assuming their names. Thus the nuns of St. Clarissa (pl. 32,fig. 24), the nuns of the Immaculate Conception (pl. 33. fig. 12), the nuns of St. Urban, the nuns of the Annunciation (fig. 11), all belonged to the Franciscan order, while the Angelicals attached themselves to the Barnabites. Finally, others retained their independence, both in name and support, adopting for the most part the rules of St. Augustine. Among these we mention the nuns of Penitence, of Magdalena, the Salesians, the nuns of St. Ursula (pl. 33, fig. 4), the Hospital nuns (fig. 16, nun of this society of the Hôtel Dieu in Paris; pl. 34, fig. 6, Hospital nun of La Flèche). There were also Hospital monks (pl. 33, fig. 7, Hospital monk of St. Jaquet du haut pas).

The Society of Beguins was composed of pious women, who betook themselves to a thoughtful, solitary life, without assuming any particular vow. Some writers trace their origin to St. Begga., and others to a priest of Liège, Lambert le Begue (1180), whilst others say that the society was formed as early as the year 1000, by the unostentatious union of a number of pious women. They began in the Netherlands, and in the thirteenth century spread over Germany, France, and Switzerland. Their usual dress was grey or brown, but in Lower Saxony they wore a sky-blue habit. They either resided all in one building, or in several houses standing together, in large yards or inclosures. In some places, as at Cologne, they numbered 2000 persons. They maintained themselves by legacies and foundations, and by their own work, especially weaving. The membership of this society was frequently obtained by purchase, and the fortunes of deceased members fell to the common fund. Upon their entrance into the community each one took a vow of chastity and obedience; but the constitution permitted the members at any time to withdraw and marry. The order exists now only in the Netherlands. Pl. 33, fig. 6, a Beguin nun.

III. Plate 34: Members of Various Religious and Military Orders
Engraver: W. Hohneck

To the numerous associations already described we add yet others, members of which are represented on our plates. The Bethlehemites, established in Guatemala in 1659, by Peter Betancourt. They obey the rules of St. Augustine, labor in the education of youth and the relief of the sick, confine their operations to America, and wear the dress of the Capuchins, with a shield, on which is painted the birth of the Savior (pl. 33, fig. 20). A branch of this order, the Bethlehemite Sisiers. founded by Count Cifuendes, live in Spain, and are regulated by the precepts of St. Franciscus. The Alexians, or Cellites, of Flanders, sometimes called Cell Brethren (pl. 33, fig. 8), constitute an important order of lay-brethren, and their cloisters are houses of correction for refractory children. In periods of general sickness they strive to alleviate suffering; they attend the execution of male-factors, and take charge of funerals, whence their name Cellites, from cella, a grave. There also exist Alexian nuns, who take the name of the Black Sisters. The Ambrosian monks (pl. 33, fig. 9) arose in the fourteenth century, under Pope Gregory II., and called themselves after St. Ambrosius, though they followed the rules of St. Augustine. An order of Ambrosian nuns was founded in 1408. Their chief cloister is in Pavia. The order of St. Mary’s Visitation (visitationis Beatæ Mariæ. congregatio) was established by Francis of Sales, bishop of Geneva. The members pledge themselves to seek out and provide for sick, maimed, or destitute girls (pl. 33, fig. 13, nuns of this order). Visitantesses in Flanders (pl. 34, fig. 1); nuns of the order of the Word-become-Flesh (pl. 33, fig. 14); nuns of the Congregation of Notre-Dame (pl. 34, fig. 2); nuns of the order Notre-Dame de la Miséricorde (pl. 34, fig. 3); priests of the order of Missions (fig. 4); Poor Volunteer of Flanders (fig. 7b); monks of the order of Vallombrosa (pl. 32, fig. 20); Religious of the Society of the Blessed Jesus (pl. 33, fig. 10). Fig. 24 represents an ordained clergyman of the theological schools of France and Belgium.

The domestic work of monasteries and cloisters was performed by lay brethren and sisters, who were first introduced by the order of Vallombrosa. Still another class of inmates of cloisters was composed of those persons who, without assuming any vow, or being ecclesiastics, belonged to the order. These were called Tertiarians. Though they were allowed to wear the dress of the society, they usually contented themselves with the scapulary under their citizen’s clothing. So valuable was the privilege of belonging to an order regarded, that many persons paid large sums to secure a place as Tertiarian. St. Francis of Assissi first introduced this class among the Franciscans.

The same leading principle which had called into existence the cloisters and nunneries gave rise to a new society in the twelfth and succeeding centuries. These were the Templars, originally noble pilgrims, united in view of assisting sick and needy pilgrims, or such as were exposed to danger, and in order to combat the infidel Turks: but subsequently becoming strong and formidable, they forgot the design of their institution, and mingled in political contests. In imitation of these spiritual orders, the sovereigns founded secular orders, by way of securing in their members trusty friends to the throne. Among the spiritual orders of knighthood the following have the greatest reputation:

  1. The Order of the Knights of St. John. As early as the year 1048, some merchants of Amalfi, in Lower Italy, bad erected near the Holy Sepulchre a hospital for the reception of sick and destitute pilgrims. The hospital was placed under the protection of St. John the Baptist; hence the name of the association, Knights of St. John, though the monks were also called Hospitallers. In connexion with this order was established that of the Dames of St. John of Jerusalem (pl. [34], fig. 11, sister of this order).

    By liberal donations wealth poured in from every quarter upon the Knights and Dames of St. John, and they consequently rose to a distinguished position.

    After the conquest of Jerusalem, in 1118, the order of St. John was divided into three classes: knights, clergy, and serving brethren. The knights protected the pilgrims against the Saracens; the clergy performed divine service; while the serving brethren administered to the suifering pilgrims. This order resisted for a long time the attacks of the Saracens. The Turks, however, finally triumphed, and the Christians lost the Holy Land, when the Hospitallers settled on the island of Cyprus, whence, however, they were soon driven by the Turks. They then went to the Island of Rhodes (1310). They could not, however, permanently guard the place against the ferocious attacks of the Turks. They at length evacuated it, and removed to Malta, which the emperor Charles V. had given them, in 1530. From this period they took the name of Knights of Malta. In the year 1798 Napoleon captured Malta, but two years afterwards it was recovered by the English. It was not, however, restored to the knights, whose order answered no practical purpose in this age; and since then it has only existed as a title to wear certain decorations.

    The costume adopted by the Knights of St. John consisted of a black mantle, on which was fastened an eight-pointed cross of white linen. During war they wore a red tabard, Vvith a white cross without points, on the breast and back; more recently a red uniform, with white trimmings, and a single cross upon the breast. The knights of the present day wear in the button-hole a golden, white enamelled cross upon a black ribbon. Pl. 34, fig. 8, grand master of the Order of Malta: fig. 9, Knight of the Grand Cross; fig. 10, Knight of Malta with his mantle.

  2. The Order of the Knights Templars. This society originated after the conquest of Jerusalem in 1118, and was established by nine knights, who pledged themselves to conduct the pilgrims through Palestine, and protect them against the infidels. Baldwin, king of Jerusalem, assigned them a location near the site of Solomon’s Temple, whence their name of Templars. By the aid of rich legacies and donations, the order soon rose to rank and importance. They probably numbered more French than any other knights in their ranks. Their ruin was caused by Philip IV. (the Fair) of France, in 1307. He arrested all the Templars in his dominions, subjected them to a painful imprisonment, and accused them of unparalleled atrocities. By means of torture he forced them to confess crimes of which they were innocent, and ordered many to be buried alive. In 1312 Pope Clement V., in a general council held at Vienne (on the Rhone), dissolved the order. Their property was confiscated by the crafty and avaricious monarch, who quietly appropriated it to his own purposes.

    The order was composed of knights, squires, and serving brethren, besides a large number of ecclesiastics. As a badge of distinction they all wore a linen girdle, and the knights wore, besides a simple suit of armor, white linen tabards, and mantles, with a blood-red cross. The clerical members usually wore the white surplice with the cross; and the serving brethren a grey or black habit likewise with the red cross. Pl. 34, fig. 12, Templar in domestic dress; fig. 13, Templar in full costume; fig. 14, Templar in armor on horseback.

  3. The German Knights, or the Order of Lords. This order was founded by Germans in 1190. Like the other orders, they took the vow of obedience, poverty, and celibacy; and like them, strove to protect the poor and helpless. After the loss of the Holy Land they settled at Venice. In 1229 they were called out under their Grand Master, Hermann von Salza, to aid the Poles against the Prussians. At that time the Prussians were heathens, whom, after a contest of fifty-three years, the Order of Lords finally conquered and converted to Christianity. The Grand Master fixed his residence at Marienburg, 1309. During the reformation of the sixteenth century, the Grand Master, Margrave Albert of Brandenburg, with a large body of the order, passed over to the Lutheran church, and the remainder settled in the town of Mergentheim in Wlirtemberg. Subsequently the office of Grand Master vested in the person of the Emperor of Austria, and in 1805 the order was abolished. The German Knights were known also by the names: Knights of the Cross, Knights of the Virgin Mary, Brethren or Hospitallers of the German House of Our Blessed Lady at Jerusalem. They wore a white mantle with a black cross. Pl. 34, fig. 15, Grand Master of the German Knights.

The infidels of Palestine did not constitute the sole objects of the warlike zeal of the spiritual knights. It was directed against the heathens generally, wherever they stood in the way of Christianity. Thus in Spain the Alcantara, Calatrava, and other organizations, fought with the Saracens; and in Prussia and Livonia, the Brethren of the Sword against the heathenish tribes of those countries. The Calatrava (pl. 34, fig. 17, knight of this order) was founded by Sancho III. in 1158; the Alcantara (fig. 18) by Alexander III., in 1177; another order, that of St. James of the Sword (fig. 16), in Spain, in 1170; the Order of Avis in Portugal, in 1143, by Alphonso Henriquez (fig. 19); the Order of St. Stephen, by Maria Theresa, in Austria, in 1764 (fig. 20, knight in costume of ceremony); the Order of the Holy Ghost, by Henry III. of France, 1578 (fig. 21, knight, and fig. 22, hospitaller of this order); and the Order of Aubrac by Allard in Flanders, in 1120, (fig. 23, ecclesiastic of this order).

In the seventeenth century it became customary to organize associations with temporal rather than religious motives. Hence originated the various academies of art and scientific societies, &c., &c. Secret orders were likewise formed, whose objects were mostly superstitious, and therefore kept secret from the public at large, as the Alchemists, Rosicrncians, Illurainati. Other secret societies of several kinds, as the Carbonari, Virtuous Alliance, &c., had political tendencies.

Finally, we must briefly mention the Freemasons, whose objects are somewhat different, and who do not assume the title of Order, but wish to be considered as a society or an association, although they at first themselves called their fraternal association an order. Their real origin is not positively known. They first sprang into public notice in 1728, by their book of constitutions, whose author was James Anderson. From this book we learn that the Freemason’s association originated in the diverse associations of architects of the middle ages, from whom they had entirely separated in London, in 1717, retaining only their symbols; and that their objects were exclusively charitable and educational.

The society at present is composed of men who follow some proper avocation, and have a good reputation. They are admitted with certain ceremonies, and call each other brethren, whereby they indicate that they cherish an inviolable friendship for each other, and are always ready to afford one another speedy and effectual assistance. In their meetings (lodges) all distinctions of rank belonging to common life are forgotten. Wealth and poverty, obscurity and eminence, together with all religious peculiarities, for the time being, cease to exist, and all are esteemed as brethren. By their constitution they pledge themselves to preserve inviolate the secret of the proceedings of the lodge, though in place of the former terrible oath the promise is now made upon the word of honor.

Freemasonry soon spread all over Europe, although in some countries it continued to be prohibited by law. In 1725 the first lodge was established at Paris, similar to those in England, though it soon after underwent important alterations. In 1735 the order passed into Germany, and in 1730 it began to excite attention in America and India. According; to the English form, freemasons occupy three different degrees: apprentice, companion, and master. The Grand Master is the highest authority. In several lodges, e. g. the Scottish, additional higher degrees exist, whose members are often unknown to those of lower degrees.

III. Plate 35: Freemasonry
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Pl. 35, fig. 1, initiation of a candidate into the first degree; fig. 2, initiation of a master mason; fig. 3, conferring of the thirty-third degree according to the Scottish ritual; fig. 4, funeral of a brother mason.

After this digression, we return to the church and the clergy. The power of the priesthood increased from year to year. In the long night of intellectual darkness, the church possessed almost unlimited means of strength and conquest. The priesthood could safely assume an authority before which princes bowed with reverence. It hoarded in the monasteries the treasures of knowledge, dazzled the people by mummeries, blazoned trifles as the genuine product of true Christianity, and, above all, shielded itself from investigation under the pretence of ineffable sanctity. In fact the spiritual powers, having a common interest, common laws, and a well constructed constitution, managed to elevate the priestly order above every other; the church employed the all crushing power of the anathema and the interdict, and subsequently, the Inquisition, that dreadful tribunal for all manner of heresy, which invented cruelties from which the ancient pagans, as well as the most savage tribes of the new world, would have turned away in disgust and horror. The feelings revolt at the thoughts of the refined barbarities perpetrated by Christians, nay, by Christian priests. By means of pls. 30, and 31, the eye can realize some of the horrors connected with the Inquisition, which we should despair of fully conveying by description.

The Inquisition owes its institution to Pope Innocent III., in 1138, who established a tribunal for the suppression of some rapidly increasing sects, as the Arnoldists, Waldenses, and Albigenses. To this work the Dominican monks were judged competent. This tribunal, however. Only attained to a decided rank and celebrity under Gregory IX. In 1228 it was located at Toulouse, and was placed under the superintendence of the papal legate, one spiritual, and three temporal vice-presidents. At that time it directed its energies especially against the Albigenses.

At first the power of the inquisitors was quite limited, and they operated indirectly upon the objects of their displeasure. Instead of punishing the heretics, they endeavored to engage princes and magistrates in this work, while they confined themselves to lectures against the sects. It was also a part of their business to record the number, names, common avocations, and success of the dissenters, the activity of the bishops and other clergy in arresting the sectarian spirit, and to transmit the result of their observations to the Holy See. The powers of the institution, however, were soon enlarged, and in due time its officers were permitted to dispense indulgences and to preach in favor of crusades. They received letters of safe conduct, the right of investigating charges of heresy, of passing sentence upon those convicted, and of compelling the civil authorities to execute their verdicts. If an individual to whom the charge of heresy was brought home refused to abjure his opinions, his punishment consisted in being burnt at the stake; and if he recanted, his doom was perpetual imprisonment.

Venice created a court of Inquisition, independent of the pope, but employed for president a papal nuncio, assisted by the patriarch, the inquisitor, and three temporal judges. In Naples the Inquisition did not exist in its true form, but in Sicily one was established under the auspices of the Spanish Inquisitor-General. Several cities in France adopted it, but the people interposed, and made an energetic opposition to its remaining there; and even when the hostility was less decisive, the inquisitors abandoned the kingdom. In Germany, Netherlands, and England, all efforts to establish its supremacy failed. The theatre of its fullest sway lay in certain districts of Italy and Spain. In 1536 it established itself firmly in Portugal, and even passed over into both the East and West Indian colonies.

In Spain the tribunal directed its chief efforts against the Jews and Mahometans. Torquemada, confessor of Queen Isabella, induced her to promise at her accession to the throne, a vigilant persecution of heretics; and as the best means to accomplish their extermination, he had suggested the Inquisition. On her recommendation it was soon introduced by her husband, Ferdinand of Arragon. Pope Sixtus IV. sanctioned its establisliment in 1483, and Torqucmada became its first inquisitor-general. It was the infamous lot of this wretch, in the short period of fourteen years, to drag before the tribunal 100,000 persons, and to consign 6000 to the stake. In the execution of his horrible duties, he had the assistance of numerous subordinates, who bore the unassuming title of “Familiars of the Holy Office.” He armed the younger members among these agents in 1494, and conferred upon them the name of “Warriors of Christ!” They were amenable only to the authority of the Imiuisition, and, by virtue of their position, enjoyed peculiar prerogatives.

Such was the cruelty exercised against all suspected persons, and so perfect the system of espionage employed by Torqucmada, that even many of the nobles of Spain, though shocked at the atrocities of the tribunal, preferred becoming its assistants to being reported as heretical, and falling under its fearful power. This example of the nobility taken in connexion with the valuable privileges conferred by Ferdinand of Arragon upon all assistants of the Inquisition, was gradually imitated by large multitudes of the lower orders. They were exempted from taxation and other public liabilities, and soon there were as many assistants of the Inquisition as there had been taxpaying citizens. The Familiars were assistants of the Inquisition in every imaginable manner. They tracked out the retreats of the heretics, denounced them, had them arrested, and conducted the prisoners to the place of execution. This act was called performing the part of a godfather (padrino).

The officers of every Spanish inquisitorial tribunal consisted of three inquisitors, three secretaries, one alguacil (summoner), and three receivers and assessors, besides numerous familiars and jailers.

At first the tribunal directed the fury of its fires mainly against the professors of the black arts, astrology, soothsaying, magic, sorcery; against the ungodly and the blasphemers, and those who insulted the Inquisition. Subsequently, it enlarged its jurisdiction, and punished Jews, Mahometans, and unbelievers, especially if they were found opposing the brethren of the holy office. Sheer covetousness not unfrequently prompted its activity. Sometimes the inquisitors employed their official power to harass their personal enemies; and in this way the institution exerted its malignant spirit against many excellent Christians. Thus Padilla, Porlier, chief justice of Arragon, and thousands more, became its victims, because they earnestly asserted the rights of man against its aggressions. Johanna Bohorquez, Mary of Burgundy (surnamed the mother of the poor), Rodriguez de Valero, and numerous other true Christians, suffered martyrdom. Juan d’Avila, St. Juan de la Cruz, St. Juan de Dios, St. Theresa, Father Luis do Leon, Father Luis de Granada, Mariana, every one of whom Rome itself has been compelled to denominate saints, besides other men whose erudition and genius, combined with true Christian piety, were the wonder of Europe, and therefore the envy of their persecutors, all had to encounter the indignation and malice of this accursed institution. The Inquisition relentlessly persecuted the noble Moorish knights, who had passed from Mahometanism to Christianity, and their descendants, for they were wealthy, and the inquisitors were thus tempted to stain their hands in their blood. Deza and his successors, having affixed to the flower of the Andalusian knights the odious name of Marranos (swine), persecuted them to the death as heretics and rebels. As a pretext for thus turning their arms against their brethren, they accused them of a mere external adhesion to Christianity, while they secretly entertained a predilection for Islamism: and to this charge false witnesses could always be induced to swear. The rich Jews, also, who had adopted Christianity, soon learned that nothing was to be gained by abjuring the religion of their fathers.

Emboldened by these successes, the agents of the Inquisition sought to prostrate all barriers to their sway whether they were erected by clerical or worldly authorities. At first the use of the rack and torture was only allowed once, but soon it was applied several times, under pretence that the renewed infliction of torture was but a continuation of the former one. If a victim confessed all that was charged against him, and underwent the full penance imposed, then the tribunal, according to its own rules, should give up the prosecution, and be contented with a considerable fine. But in such cases the vindictive and covetous spirit of Deza, Lucero, and others, not satisfied with so mild a punishment, instituted a new charge, accusing their victims of having confessed insincerely, and declaring them false penitents. This crime they had to expiate at the stake, or in perpetual confinement. In either case the property of the condemned was confiscated for the benefit of the Inquisition.

By such machinations as these the authority of the Inquisition became almost unlimited, and princes themselves could not escape its grasp. Whoever fell under suspicion was summoned three times to attend his trial. If he failed to appear, his absence was construed into a tacit confession of guilt; he was excommunicated, and condemned to pay a heavy fine. Very rarely did an accused escape, for the familiars of the Inquisition, the Brotherhood of the Cruciata, and the Hermandad, a company of police soldiers, appointed by the Council of Castile to guard the safety of the public highways, persecuted relentlessly whoever had been marked by the inquisitorial tribunal. Nobody dared to oppose the arrest of an accused. He was considered proscribed; his own relatives and friends forsook him; he found no place of refuge; no public services he might have rendered, no rank, however exalted, could protect him; no testimony of his innocence from friends or relatives was admitted; the unfortunate victim was doomed even before the commencement of the trial. Stripped of everything valuable about his person, the helpless wretch was thrown into prison. The horrible prisons of the Inquisition consisted of subterranean vaulted passages, about ten feet high, and branching off into numerous small cells, surrounded with walls about five feet in thickness, and entirely without light. Any word uttered by the captive, except in reply to a question, was punished with merciless scourging. At his trial he did not learn who witnessed against him; no proof of their testimony was asked of the witnesses; their uprightness and veracity were not questioned. The accuser himself, as well as the relations of the accused, were admitted as witnesses, provided they would testify against the prisoner.

If, at the close of such proceedings, the accused did not confess the crime imputed to him, the torture was applied. Of this there were three degrees: the cord and pulley, water, and fire. The apartment in which the penalties were inflicted was called the torture chamber. It was a circular room, in a deep cellar. Two dim tapers cast a pale, sickly light. The atmosphere was humid, oppressive, and burdened with a noisome odor. Water oozed through the soft stone of the walls, on which were suspended the unsightly instrument’s of torture, the diabolical inventions of bigoted monks, at whose very aspect the stoutest heart quailed in terror. Scaffolding for various purposes was in readiness; iron bolts, chains, screws, and spikes of frightful length, were strewed about the place; and the blaze of a huge pan of glowing coals threw a hideous glare over the whole.

The executioners were dressed in black linen gowns, which reached nearly to the feet, and wore masks of the same color. The inquisitors, with a bishop of the diocese, occupied an elevated position, so as to observe the application of the torture. At a sign from the Grand Inquisitor, the familiars seized and stripped the convict, leaving him only his shirt. He was then once more advised to confess. If he persisted in affirming his innocence, or if he maintained silence, he then underwent the torture of the first degree. The tormentors, after placing his hands behind his back, attached to them a cord which passed over a pulley at the top of the arch; then seizing the other end, they swung him rapidly to the ceiling, and then made him descend forcibly to within a small distance from the ground. By this agonizing process the victim frequently lost his consciousness. His persecutors hardly waited till he had time to revive. As soon as he opened his eyes, up he went again with greater violence, if possible, than before, and was either dropped in the same manner, or left suspended while he was once more exhorted to confess. At Rome this torture was carried on for half an hour, and in Spain for even a full hour. It often happened that the cord pressed deep into the quivering flesh, so that the blood streamed down, and the prisoner’s limbs and muscles were so wrenched as to make it impossible for him to stand.

Next came the second degree, or the water torture. The apparatus for this operation consisted of a large trough, capable of holding a man’s body. It was so arranged that the head lay lower than the feet. The prisoner was fixed in his position, being merely supported by a sharp-edged stave, the torturers binding his hand and feet firmly to the frame. He was then again admonished to confess his guilt. If he steadfastly asserted his innocence, a few turns of a crank would so tighten the ropes fastening his feet and hands, that they cut deep into the flesh, and drew streams of blood. Upon his continued refusal to confess, the torturers laid upon his face a fine towel, part of which covered the mouth, and part entered the nostrils; the whole was then moistened with water, which passed slowly, drop by drop, into the mouth and nose. As the fluid trickled into the throat, nearly suffocating the prisoner, he made spasmodic efforts to expel it and inhale a little fresh air; and every exertion of this kind was certain to be accompanied by new turns of the crank, driving the cords deeper into the flesh. The water torture continued about an hour. If the patient manifested any signs of torpor or insensibility, agencies were employed to restore consciousness. Whenever the physician, who always attended the torture, suggested the impossibility of further endurance, the punishment terminated. Sometimes the nose was closed, and water poured down the throat through a funnel.

The third degree was the fire torture, which was applied in different ways. The most common application was the following: the accused was bound to a bench or to the floor, and in such a position that his bare feet could extend to a little furnace of red hot coals. The feet were held so near the fire as to feel its gradually blistering effects. Here they remained until the skin was as white as parchment, when they were basted and rubbed with oil. The power of the fire, increased by the grease, grew so great as to peel off the skin, and expose the nerves, veins, and muscles. Another contrivance was to bind the victim upon the circumference of a large wheel, which was slowly turned over the fire, bringing his body in close proximity with the coals. It was in vain to look for a cessation of tortures. They were frequently repeated, and every time combined with some new element of cruelty. If the poor captive, amid intolerable agonies, confessed to the charges made against him, he was consigned to the galleys or perpetual imprisonment, his property was confiscated, and his family proscribed.

Burning at the stake constituted the usual punishment of such as continued to refuse confession. The day on which the execution took place was considered as solemn and holy. Vast multitudes assembled to witness the mournful spectacle. The charcoal-bearers, armed with muskets and lances, headed the procession, and for this distinguished honor they bound themselves to supply, at their own expense, the necessary fuel for burning the condemned. Next followed the great white cross, being the banner of the “Children of Dominicus de Guzman,” and borne by a friar of the order. The banner was followed by its order in a body. After them came the persons of rank and the public assistants of the Inquisition, who in turn were succeeded by the condemned. Foremost among those unhappy wretches walked such as expected what the tribunal styled an easy punishment. They wore the San Benito, a brown linen dress, on the breast of which was wrought a large yellow cross of St. Andrew. Their heads and feet were uncovered. Next came those who were destined for the galleys, perpetual imprisonment, or public flogging. The third class comprised those who expected martyrdom, and who, in reward of a late confession, had obtained the privilege of being strangled before they were burnt. Upon their San Benito were painted inverted devils and flames, and their heads were disfigured by the Coraza, or conical cap, about three feet high, and also painted. Last came the victims destined to be burnt alive. They, too, had on the Coraza, and bore upon their San Benito devils and flames in an upright position; they carried in the hand a yellow wax taper. Each convict was attended by two familiars and two monks, who not unfrequently had to carry their victim, who, by the foregoing torture, had been rendered incapable of walking. Behind these walked a number of carriers loaded with boxes, which contained the remains of such as had expired at the rack, or died in their cells; not even these were allowed to enjoy the repose of the grave: their remains and their effigies were publicly burnt.

Along the sides of the place of execution arose an immense amphitheatre, designed to accommodate the members of the supreme court and other public officers. Above them was the seat of the Grand Inquisitor. Opposite appeared another amphitheatre for the prisoners. A third and smaller one supported cages in which the convicts were placed while their verdict was read to them. At the foot of the first tribune stood an altar, and opposite to it a large cross, shrouded with black crape. Galleries for ambassadors and other distinguished political functionaries, and seats for the common people, completed the remaining accommodations. As the auto da fè took place in front of the royal palace, the king, whenever he attended the execution, witnessed it from his own balcony.

The stakes were erected on a foundation of stone in the middle of the place. They were surrounded by fagots of straw and wood, saturated with pitch or oil; every victim had a separate stake. The proceedings began with a solemn mass. After this, the Grand Inquisitor addressed the king, demanding of him the oath to guard and defend the faith, to be zealous in extirpating heresy, and promoting the glory of the Inquisition. He also administered a similar oath to the rest of the assemblage; and afterwards followed a sermon by one of the Dominicans. The verdict was then pronounced, during which ceremony the Jews had spikes driven through one hand. Absolution was then granted to those who had early confessed, and then began the executions.

Each martyr knelt before the stake at which he was to be immolated, and during the operation of chaining fast his limbs and body, the monks were industriously urging him to confession. As the fire grew stronger, the flames enveloped him in their folds, and the dense smoke shut him and his writhings from the gaze of the spectators. His heart-rending cries were the only evidence of his agonies, and these soon grew faint and silent.

In lieu of the stake and pile, the inquisitors sometimes made use of a large furnace, into which several heretics might be thrown and burnt at once. Another apparatus consisted of hollow statues of plaster, capable of holding a human body. Neo-Christians, when they relapsed into their former belief, were placed inside of these statues, which were then exposed to a gradually increasing heat, killing the victims slowly.

III. Plate 30: The Inquisition
Engraver: Henry Winkles
III. Plate 31: The Inquisition
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Our plates represent some of the most important objects in the foregoing description. Pl. 30, fig. 1, the tribunal in session. In the extreme background sits the Grand Inquisitor. Before him stands the accused, around whom are placed a series of tables, occupied by the secretaries and other assistants. The figures in the background, with black hoods over their faces, are executioners; those on the right hand side of the foreground are spectators. To the left of the criminal may be seen a contrivance of cruelty, worthy the inventive genius of the Inquisition. An accused was not allowed to sit down on a common bench, but only on the sharp edge of a triangular bar, supported by two cross-shaped feet. This seat was named potro. The prisoner who refused to confess to the crimes laid to his charge was forced to sit or kneel, often for two or three hours, upon the potro, a torture which was applied in the very chamber of justice. In pl. 31, fig. 1, we have the cord and pulley ordeal; fig. 2, the water, torture; fig. 3, one form of fire torture; pl. 30, fig. 5, fire torture by the wheel; pl. 31, fig. 4, auto da fè in Spain; pl. 30, fig. 2, the punishment of flogging; fig. 3, neo-Christians nailed through the hand and exposed in the pillory. This punishment was inflicted upon such as relapsed into Judaism, and the inquisitors termed it retaliation for the crucifixion of Christ. Fig. 4, the process of strangling before burning; fig. 6, burning of heretics in the furnace, at Seville.

From an examination of this whole subject, it is easy to see how the priesthood of the middle ages exerted so unlimited a control over the fortunes of mankind. They even ventured to punish kings and princes. Thus we see, in the commencement of the thirteenth century, French kings publicly endure the corrections of the church, as for instance, scourging (pl. 23, fig. 4), and Henry IV. do penance, barefoot and in penitential garments, before Gregory VII. at Canossa; every new triumph over the secular authorities leading to new and grosser abuses of clerical power, already suffciently degraded by the freest indulgence in the lowest passions, avarice and voluptuousness.

The Inquisition had full sway until the eighteenth century, when its horrors were gradually diminished, and the dreadful auto da fè was very rarely seen. In 1770 a royal decree prohibited the arrest of any subject before the full establishment of the accusation; and in 1784 another law was passed, making it obligatory on the inquisitors to submit to the king for his approval the proceedings against every noble, minister, officer, or person employed by the state. The holy office was first peremptorily abolished by Napoleon in 1808. Ferdinand VII., after his return to Spain, reinstated it; but it was effectually abolished by the constitution of the Cortes, in 1820.

The Crusades

The crusades, as has been previously stated, were expeditions which many, nay, all Christian nations, undertook in common; uniting upon one object, that of guarding the pilgrims to the Holy Land against the attacks of the Saracens and other savage hordes, and of wresting from the hands of these heathenish people the dominion over the land where Christ had lived and died. Religious, not political motives, actuated the crusading hosts.

Pilgrimages to spots whose memory was hallowed by religious associations had always been considered as works of piety, even among heathens. The same feeling prompted the Christians, long before the eleventh century, to perform wearisome and costly pilgrimages to Jerusalem and the Holy Land, where Jesus was born, crucified, and buried. The scenes around them awakened in their minds the holiest recollections, and stimulated them to a loftier faith and hope, so that the pious pilgrim often imagined himself nearer heaven in Palestine than in his native land. These pilgrimages, however, were attended with considerable difficulty and danger, for the Saracens, who hated the Christians, not only desecrated the spots considered sacred by the followers of Christ, but did all in their power to prevent them from visiting those places. They waylaid and plundered the pilgrims, imprisoning some and slaughtering many who fell into their hands.

Pope Sylvester II., as well as Gregory VII., appealed to Christendom at large against these atrocities. They formed the project of recovering the Holy Land from the infidels. The suggestion, as it looked to the aggrandizement of the Church, met with a favorable reception from the clergy. Many hoped thereby to obtain bishoprics or patriarchates. The knights were dazzled with prospects of glory and renown; ambitious squires exulted in the hope of early knighthood; merchants longed for the wealth which the enterprise would give them; bondsmen and serfs anticipated a speedy and permanent emancipation; bankrupts descried the means of defrauding their creditors; while gamblers and vagabonds of all descriptions regarded the coming strife as a bright era for their several professions. In spite of so many elements joining in the movement, from more or less selfish motives, it cannot be denied that the purest religious zeal actuated the majority. Some wished to leave the scenes of war and strife in the west for a nobler career; others believed that they would thereby expiate previous sins; and the whole undertaking was considered by the pious as a work pleasant to Heaven, and therefore in itself a virtue.

Under Pope Urban II. the crusades first began to play an active part. He issued a summons to all Christian people to contribute towards recovering the Holy Sepulchre, and the Holy Land altogether, from the hands of the infidels. A visionary hermit of Picardy, Peter of Amiens, had induced Urban II. to carry this grand plan into execution. He had visited the Holy Land, and had witnessed in sorrow, the wrongs and indignities to which the Saracens subjected the pilgrims. These enormities he depicted to the supreme pontiff in glowing language, exhibiting a certificate from the bishop of Jerusalem, and closing by asserting a call from Heaven to avenge the wrongs of the Christians. Urban saw in Peter an appropriate agent in arousing to fury an indignant populace. He dismissed him with the apostolic blessing, and bespoke for him every necessary aid and encouragement. Peter set out upon his mission. Mounted upon an ass, his head uncovered, his half-famished body encircled by a rope, and holding a crucifix in his hand, he rode from village to village, and from country to country, calling upon the faithful to rally to the rescue of Jerusalem. He painted in the most dismal colors the intolerable sufferings of the pilgrims; and in the most fiery language harangued his audiences, urging them on to revenge against the Saracens. As a final argument he usually produced a written document, which he alleged he had seen falling from the skies, and which urged the friends of the Church to immediate action. These inflammatory appeals were not made in vain. They quickened the zeal of his audiences, and rendered more rancorous than ever their hatred of the Mahometans.

In the meantime Urban was aiding the work by other agencies. He assembled a church council at Piacenza. Thirty thousand persons attended it. The excitement was immense, but no definitive action was had. During the next year (1095) another council was called at Clermont, in France. Here large bodies of the nobility offered themselves to the pope. Urban elected a chief, whom he ordered to kneel down while he invested him with the red cross lapon the right shoulder. The rest of the knights were decorated with the same sign, whence their appellation of Knights of the Cross. Godfrey of Bouillon, duke of Lorraine, took the command. Every earthly object was sacrificed for a place in the army. When men had no money they sold their lands and castles to the cloisters for a mere trifle; and when they had nothing to sell, they entered the service of the knights.

The commander fixed upon the month of August, 1096, for the commencement of the march. The impetuous Peter of Amiens, however, impatient of the slightest delay, at once set forward with 40,000 men, whose ranks soon swelled to 80,000. Peter divided his command with Gautiers, or Walter, a Burgundian knight, who being poor, bore the name of Walter the Pennyless. The wild multitudes consisted mostly of natives of France, Lorraine, and Lombardy, though in their march they absorbed vast numbers in South Germany, Hungary, and Bulgaria. They felt at liberty to tax freely the inhabitants of those countries through which they passed; and when their exactions were resisted, as in Hungary, where the inhabitants were less ready to support the disorderly multitude, they had recourse to violence, said thousands were killed in the conflicts which ensued, so that on his arrival at Constantinople, Peter had scarcely one fourth of his forces remaining.

The Germans had thus far stood aloof from the crusades, but were at length induced to join with the Italians and French. To quicken the hesitating, numerous prodigies and omens were at hand. A comet appeared, and marvellous sights were seen in the sky; and, as usual, the clergy availed them-selves of these phenomena to inflame and impel the superstitious masses. A report prevailed that Charlemagne had risen from the dead, and was commanding the crusaders in person. The Saxon Volkmarr marshalled 12,000 of his countrymen; the priest Gottshalk raised a considerable force in Franconia; and Count Emico of Leiningen, collected another on the Rhine. Prior to their departure for Constantinople, they began a furious and unprovoked persecution of the Jews, great multitudes of whom fell In the districts of the Rhine. Gottshalk and his fanatics, however, met a cruel fate at the hands of the Hungarians, not more than one third of the Franeonian crusaders being so fortunate as to reach Greece. The Greek emperor rid himself of their presence as soon as possible, by promoting their speedy transhipment to Asia. As soon as they entered Natolia they resumed their course of rapine and murder. Discord broke out in their ranks, and this circumstance was turned to account by Soliman, sultan of Iconium, who routed the crusaders so effectually at the battle of Nicæa, that Peter, with only about 3000 surviving comrades, embarked and sailed back to Constantinople.

After the loss of so many lives, the main body of the crusaders was seen to approach. They amounted to 100,000 steel-clad knights and 200,000 stalwart foot, led by the noble duke of Lorraine, Godfrey de Bouillon, aided by Hugh the Great, count of Vermandois (brother to the king of France), Robert, duke of Normandy (son of William the Conqueror), Robert, earl of Flanders, Raymond of Toulouse, Stephen, earl of Chartres, the brave Boheraund, prince of Tarent, Robert Guiscard’s son, and his heroic relative, Tancred. Immediately after passing the Bosphorus, Godfrey besieged and captured Nicaea, June 20th, 1097. A second victory at Dorilffium opened to him the way to Syria. The army now encamped at Antiochia, while Godfrey’s brother, Baldwin, erected a principality in Odessa, and extended his sceptre over some of the finest provinces of Mesopotamia and Armenia. Antiochia, After a vigorous resistance, submitted; but the crusaders soon found themselves completely surrounded by their enemies, who cut off all supplies from the conquered city, so that the impending famine was only escaped by a bold sally. They now turned towards the real object of the expedition, the holy city of Jerusalem. Their progress was, however, fearfully opposed by the Turks, who at first had stood aghast at the appearance of men clad in glittering steel, but by experience had become used to the formidable armor, and had learned how to attack them to advantage. They waylaid them in the mountains, and being quite familiar with the ground, selected the most difficult passages, and assailed their adversaries with no small success; they also cut off their supplies, and destroyed the crops in the fields by fire. The crusaders soon found themselves surrounded by dangers which they had never anticipated. They had to endure not only the calamities of the field, but the effects of the climate; and thousands of women and children sank disheartened on the ground, and died. Not more than 60,000 men, and these careworn and weary, reached Jerusalem. They kept up a desperate siege upon the city from the 7th of June till the 15th of July, when they finally carried the place by storm.

The caliph of Egypt had united the city to his dominions a few years before, and now sought to recover it from the Christians; but he was defeated in the battle of Ascalon, and Godfrey of Bouillon was crowned king of the new Christian kingdom. But he died in the following year (1100), and was succeeded by his brother, Baldwin I. Then followed his relative, Baldwin II., in 1118; and finally, in 1142, the son of the latter, Baldwin III. These three princes maintained, with various fortunes, a constant war with the Saracens; and as their whole force finally dwindled down to 12.000 men, they would probably have abandoned the contest but for the aid they received from the clerical orders of knights then growing into importance, and from new arrivals of crusaders.

In 1147 a new crusade, composed entirely of Germans, marched under Conrad III., and was strengthened by other accessions under Louis VII. of France. Reports had reached Europe that Odessa was lost, and 46,000 inhabitants put to death: and Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux, engaged in the work of arousing the powers of the west to a renewed effort in behalf of the suffering Christians in the East. Conrad advanced with his gallant followers, but the Greek emperor, Emanuel Comnenus, who had several times behaved perfidiously towards the Christians, prepared their ruin by treachery and intrigue. When they had crossed to Asia, he caused them to be led by false guides into barren wilds, where they were abandoned and left to perish, partly by the terrors of the desert and partly by the sword of the enemy. Conrad commenced his retreat upon Constantinople with but few of his men. On the way he fell in with the French crusaders tinder Louis. They, too, had to endure the same calamities as his own forces. The relics of both armies now combined in the siege of Damascus, but discord and want of unity in the command prevented a successful issue. The siege had to be raised, and in 1149 the French and Germans, under their respective kings, returned to Europe, leaving their project of subjugating the East unaccomplished.

Notwithstanding these failures, the brave Baldwin III. did not despair. He occasionally received assistance from the Knights of St. John and the Templars, but their own dissensions finally deprived him of the assistance which he so greatly needed. In the midst of severe trials, he died in 1150. Almeric succeeded him until 1152, when Baldwin IV. obtained the throne: both kept up a continual contest with the Saracens. Baldwin’s successor, Baldwin V., accomplished nothing of importance, and was followed by Guido of Lusignon, who closed the dynasty of the Christian kings of Jerusalem. Guido suffered a terrible defeat at the battle of Tiberias, in 1187, and with the Grand Master of the Templars, and the flower of his army, was taken prisoner. The Saracenic governor of Egypt, Sultan Saladin (Selaheddin of Kurdistan), not satisfied with the victory, advanced to the city of Jerusalem, and captured it, October 3d, 1187. This sultan, a son of Ejub, and commonly known by the surname. Lion of Kurdistan, is one of the noblest and most splendid characters in Oriental history. Nothing so much adorns his reputation as his general clemency to the Christians, most of whom he liberated from confinement, and then facilitated their return to Europe.

When the news of the fall of Jerusalem spread through Europe, it served as a signal for the organization of a third crusade. In Germany the aged Frederic I. devoted the resources of his empire to the cause; and the kings of France and England, Philip Augustus and Henry II., placed themselves at the head of the army. Henry died before accomplishing his vow, and his son, Richard the lion-hearted, succeeded him in command. The venerable Frederic, too, died before reaching the Holy Land. The remaining leaders accomplished but little, their efforts being thwarted by unhappy dissensions, which were mainly caused by the impcriousness of the proud Richard. They conquered, with great difficulty, only Ptolemais and St. Jean d’Acre, and maintained themselves on a small territory on the coast. Disheartened at the failure, Philip Augustus returned to Europe, Richard remained, but though he signalized himself in his engagements with Saladin by astonishing personal bravery, he met with but little success, and unable to recover Jerusalem, concluded a truce with the Sultan, in 1192. Saladin died the following year, at Damascus, and Richard, in 1199, in France.

During the reign of Almeric II., a fourth crusade was projected under the supervision of French and Italian leaders. It was, however, turned into a different channel by events at Constantinople. The Greek emperor, Isaac, was deposed by his brother Alexius III., and afterwards imprisoned and deprived of sight, in 1195. His son, having escaped assassination besought the protection of the crusaders. Commanded by the brave and sagacious doge, Dandolo of Venice, Margrave Boniface of Montferrat, and Count Baldwin of Flanders, the crusaders gave up the war with the infidels, advanced against Constantinople, and carried the place by storm in 1204. After several counter-plots and revolutions. Count Baldwin of Flanders was crowned Greek emperor. Thus originated the Latin dynasty in the East. It existed fifty-seven years, 1204–61.

The crusade of 1212 deserves a passing notice. It was composed of children, 20,000 from Germany, and 30,000 from France. It was believed that the infidels would not be able to resist such numbers of innocent beings. But most of these juvenile warriors perished with hunger and fatigue, while the rest were captured by slavetraders, and sold into Egyptian slavery.

Andreas, king of Hungary, instituted still another crusade, in 1217, and now directed his hostilities against Egypt, the land which had hitherto been the cause of so many losses and misfortunes to the Christians, and which, when conquered, would open a passage to the Holy Land. King John, also, fitted out a similar expedition, and in 1221 captured Damietta. Sultan Meleddin offered to exchange Jerusalem for Damietta; but the Hungarians rejected the proposal, and advanced to the siege of Cairo just at the time when the annual inundation of the Nile came on. The sultan opened upon them its sluices, and the floods rose upon them, threatening the complete annihilation of the Christian army. Nothing but a hasty peace saved them. Damietta was to be evacuated, and a truce of eight years was to be observed. The sultan magnanimously returned the Holy Cross which had remained in the hands of the Turks since the battle of Tiberias in 118y.

While Germany was suffering from rude violence and lawlessness, France was moving on to glory and refinement under the mild reign of the fatherly Louis IX. (pl. 23, fig. 3, St. Louis administering justice in the open air). This monarch, during a severe fit of sickness, had made a solemn vow to undertake a crusade, should God spare his life and restore him to health; and upon his recovery he immediately began the preparations for redeeming his vow. He directed his crusade against the sultan of Egypt, who still had possession of Jerusalem and Palestine. Louis embarked in 1248, with his queen, his brothers, and numerous French nobles. They landed at Damietta, which they soon conquered. Louis won two other splendid victories over the sultan, but his forces beginning to suffer under the influences of the climate, he saw his fortunes rapidly declining. Pestilence and famine prostrated his soldiers, and compelled him to withdraw. Pressed by the pursuing Mahometans, he risked another battle at Mansura, 1250; but though the French behaved with admirable courage, fortune deserted them, and they were obliged to surrender themselves prisoners to the sultan. The latter was so impressed by the noble bearing of Louis that he restored him and his companions to freedom, upon their delivering up Damietta, and agreeing to pay a stipulated ransom (1254). Louis at a later period resolved to undertake a second crusade, but instead of doing so he led his expedition against Tunis, in the hope of converting the sovereign of that state to Christianity. The hope was not to be realized, and Louis closed his career in Africa in 1270.

After this failure no crusade of any importance was undertaken. By the fall of Ptolemais (1291) the Mahometans obtained nearly all the Christian possessions in Palestine or on the coast of Syria; so that after more than two hundred years of unparalleled exertion on the part of all Christian people, they were still as far from the realization of their grand object as ever.

III. Plate 36: Hawking and Crusaders
Engraver: Henry Winkles
III. Plate 37: Crusaders
Engraver: Henry Winkles
III. Plate 38: Knights Returning from Crusade and at Tournament
Engraver: Henry Winkles
III. Plate 39: Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Church of St. Mary of the Manger
Engraver: Henry Winkles

But though the movement resulted so disastrously, its incidental consequences were of the highest value. Intellectual improvement and a higher civilization were the fruit of the beneficial influence of these vast operations. Before dismissing the subject, we call attention to the scenes from the crusades represented on our plates. Pl. 36, fig. 2, departure of a company of crusaders for Palestine; pl. 37, fig. 1, battle between the crusaders and Saracens; fig. 2, harangue to the crusaders before the gates of Jerusalem; pl. 38, fig. 1, crusaders returning to Europe; pl. 39, fig. 1, ground-plan of the church of St. Mary of the Manger. This building stands near a strong cloister of the Franciscans, in Bethlehem, and is the oldest church in Palestine. A little stone grotto within its walls is pointed out as the place where the infant Saviour was born. Fig. 2 interior of the same church, with the entrance to the holy grotto; fig. 3, the chapel containing the grotto, and constantly lighted by thirty-two lamps; fig. 4, ground-plan of the church of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem; fig. 5, its portico and main entrance; fig. 6, interior view of the part under the cupola, exhibiting the chapel with the Holy Sepulchre. The whole is properly divided into four churches: that of the Holy Sepulchre; the church of the Crucifixion, lying to the south; at the eastern end the partly subterranean church of the Recovered Cross; and lastly, the chapel at the northern end, marking the spot where Mary Magdalene first noticed the fact of the resurrection. The light penetrating through the dome falls directly in the chapel of the Holy Sepulchre. The entire diameter of the chapel is about thirty feet, but after deducting the enormous thickness of the walls, the chamber containing the tomb is not more than about seven feet by six. Another small chamber, called the chapel of the Angel measures about ten feet square. The walls are relics of the rock which surrounded the grave of Christ. The walls of the chapel of the Holy Sepulchre, especially, are of rough limestone, coated externally and internally with marble. The interior is illumined by golden lamps.

Ethnology of the Present Day

Introduction

As in the selection of representations of people of the present day, regard is had less to historical relation than in those referring to earlier ages, we follow the same plan in the explanatory text, and devote our attention less to the history than to the character, and manners, and customs of the people. Nevertheless, before we pass on to particular descriptions of individual nations, we must be permitted (with a reference to pl. 1) to premise some remarks upon the fundamental types of the Human race.

Assuming the fact that all men are the descendants of one common ancestral pair, it cannot be denied that the numerous stocks differ from each other not only in language and habits, but also in certain physical characteristic marks, which also pass by inheritance without change, from generation to generation, when not modified by the intermixture of different stocks; so that, however different they may appear, they may nevertheless be traced back to a few types. Conformably to these types, therefore, naturalists have divided mankind into a greater or less number of races, according as they assumed a greater or less number of such types. Cuvier establishes but three races; and as we have already spoken fully of them under the head of Anthropology, we will here recapitulate only the more important points.

The Caucasian race is characterized by the beautiful oval of the head, the ample and prominent forehead, and cheek-bones but slightly or not at all projecting. The ears are small and sit closely, the teeth stand vertically, the jaws are moderately strong, the chin is well formed. The hair and complexion vary greatly; the former, however, is generally long and smooth, more rarely curled.

The Mongolian race is characterized by a large head elevated at the crown, as also by projecting cheek-bones, flat broad face, small and obliquely set eyes, imperfectly opened eyelids, flattened nose with wide nostrils, large, broad ears, wide mouth, teeth standing straight, almost beardless face, and smooth black straight hair. The color of the skin is yellowish or olive-brown.

The Negro race, finally, has a head laterally compressed, with large projecting jaws, whose alveolar margin slopes towards the front, by reason of which the teeth have an oblique direction. The forehead is small, the cheek-bones and arches of the temporal bones prominent, the lips protruding, nose flattened, and nostrils wide; hair mostly woolly, and matted together like felt, sometimes curled, or straight and long; beard generally thin and bristly. Complexion black to yellowish brown. Cuvier distributes the different stocks of mankind amongst these three races in the following manner:

  • Caucasian Race.
    {
    • Armenians.
      {
        • Asyrians.
        • Chaldeans.
        • Arabians.
        • Phœnicians.
        • Hebrews.
        • Abyssinians.
        • Egyptians?
    • Indians.
      {
        • Sanscrit Stock.
          {
          • Ancient Persians.
          • Hindoos.
        • Pelasgian Stock.
          {
          • Celts?
          • Greeks.
          • Latins.
        • Gothic Stock.
          {
          • Germans and Dutch.
          • English.
          • Danes and Swedes.
        • Slavonic Stock.
          {
          • Russians.
          • Poles.
          • Bohemians.
          • Wendes.
    • Scythians and Tartars.
      {
        • Parthians.
        • Turks.
        • Finlanders.
        • Hungarians.
  • Mongolian or Altaian Race.
    {
    • Calmucs.
    • Kalkas-Mongols.
    • Mandchus.
    • Japanese and Coreans.
    • Siberians.
      {
        • Samoyeds.
        • Laplanders.
        • Esquimaux.
  • Negro or Ethiopian Race.
    {
    • Caffres.
    • Foulahs.
    • Mandingoes.
    • Fellatahs.
    • Hamburas.
    • Madagassees.
    • Negroes of Central Africa.
    • Hottentots.
    • Bushmen.

Cuvier, on account of their unmistakable conformity, appears inclined to include the American stocks in the Mongolian race. These stocks may be reduced to the three following:

  1. Columbian Stock. Inhabitants of the plains from the river St. Lawrence to the eastern coast of Mexico, the Antilles, Terra Firma, Guiana, the district of Cumana, and the Canada Indians, the natives of Yucatan, Honduras, the Caribbee Islands, &c.
  2. American Stock. Inhabitants of the plains on the Upper Oronoco, on the River Amazon, of Brazil, Paraguay, and of the interior portions of Chili.
  3. Patagonian Stock. Natives of Patagonia.

Australia, to which besides New Holland, the whole Indian Archipelago or Polynesia, and the Islands of the South Sea or Oceanica belong, possesses no peculiar human population; all these races are here associated. To the Australian Caucasians, belong the Malays in the Indian Archipelago, the inhabitants of the Marian, Caroline, Friendly, and Society Islands, those of New Zealand, of the Pelew, Sandwich, Marquesas Islands, &c. The Australian Mongolians likewise inhabit the Carolines, the Nicobars, and New Guinea. Finally, to the Australian Negroes belong the New Hollanders, Alfureses, the Endamenians in New Guinea, and the Papuans.

IV. Plate 1: The Five Principal Races
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Pl. 1 gives a view of the Australian races, while upon the same plate different stocks of all three races are represented. At fig. 1 we perceive a Central European in the costume of the higher classes, and of the true Gothic (Teutonic) stock, which manifests itself in its purity in the blue eyes, light bair, white complexion faintly tinged with red, and tall stature, with the dress fitting, for the most part, close to the body.

Fig. 2. A Greek, in the Palian dress, belonging to the Pelasgian stock. The skull of the Greeks, who constitute the type of the last named race, is very well developed; the forehead rises in a bold arch; and the arch of the anterior portion of the skull, when seen from above, entirely conceals the face, so that the facial angle is one of almost 90 degrees. The face is small, with a rounded contour; and all the parts are in beautiful harmony with each other. The hair of the Greeks is dark and smooth; the complexion white, more or less tinged with olive, or dull brown; the eyes are large, overshadowed by the eyebrows, which more resemble a cross-line than a true arch; the nose is straight, or nearly aquiline, is continued in a single right line from the forehead with only a small depression between the eyes; finally, the stature is of middle size.

Fig. 3. A Turk, in the ancient national dress. The Turks have been referred by most authors to the Tartar stock. This has a vigorous and athletic form, somewhat short and crooked legs, dark, olive-colored complexion; the upper part of the face is broad and flat, the eyes are small, deep-sunken, and standing wide apart, the eyelids thick; the nose is much depressed, and the nostrils conspicuous; the hair is long, straight, and black; the eyebrows are bushy, and the beard (especially upon the upper lip) is thick. The Turks are undoubtedly a hybrid people derived from the Tartars and Mongols, having, however, received noble forms through their later intermixture with the Mingrelians, Georgians, Circassians, and Greeks. Their forehead is straight, and does not stand out so boldly as with the Greeks; still it is beautifully formed. The eyebrows and the depression between the eyes are conspicuous; the nose is long and aquiline, running out in the same direction with the forehead. The eyes, which are large, are placed wide apart, and the inner and outer corners stand at the same height. The upper lip is short, the chin full, but the distance of the chin from the angle of the lower jaw very trifling. The countenance seen in front is long, and becomes small below the tolerably prominent cheek bones. Viewed from the side, the line from the forehead over the nose to the chin is perpendicular, as the facial angrle amounts to 90 degrees or thereabouts. The beard is full and flowing, the expression of the physiognomy serious and dignified. The skull of the Turks has a globular contour, and the posterior foramen magnum, which is large, is situated near the hinder part of the base of the skull.

Fig. 4. A Cossack of the Don. The Cossacks of the Don and the Volga, belonging to the same stock, appear nevertheless to have proceeded from an intermixture of Tartars with Slavonians. The orbits of the skull of the Don Cossacks are very deep, broad, and placed low down; the orifice for the nose is wide; the superciliary arches jut out boldly, and meet in the space between the eyes. The branches of the lower jaw are divergent and uneven, by reason of the prominence of the masseters. The posterior foramen magnum is narrow, the occipital bone is very thick, and the whole skull possesses a marble-like density and polish.

Fig. 5. A Persian of the higher ranks. The Sanscrit stock, to which the ancient Persians are referred, is of middle height or under, of delicate, slender figure, with straight, handsomely formed nose, mouth of moderate size, thin lips, and round chin. The cuticle is usually somewhat yellow. The hair is long, black, fine, and glossy. The skull is of a light, delicate structure, nearly round, with prominent occipital and small cheek bones. The modern Persians exhibit many of the peculiarities of the Armenian (Semitic) branch, to which belongs the Arab (Bedouin) represented at fig. 7. This branch has an oval face, with a pointed chin, a high forehead, an aquiline nose, large dark eyes, arched eyebrows, well formed mouth, and long black hair, characteristics which are most distinctly impressed upon the Arab. The Cabyles, that is the Berbers, in Altiers and Tunis (pl. 1, figs. 8 and 9), likewise belong here. They are also denominated Dshebalis, i. e. inhabitants of the mountains, by the people of the Arabian-Moorish cities; in Tunis they are also called Siiaves. They are a handsome race of men, allied in their manners to the Bedouins.

The Hindoos (fig. 6, a Hindoo of the citizen class) have a stature of moderate size, or below the medium; their complexion is yellow, with a tinge of bronze color. Their form is delicate and slender; the nose straight and handsomely moulded, never flattened down, never with widespread nostrils; the mouth is of moderate size, the lips are thin, the chin round and usually dimpled, the eyes large, with arched eyebrows and long eyelashes. The iris is generally black, the white of the eye passes into yellow: ears of moderate size and beautifully formed: hands and feet small; skin thin; hair long, black, fine, and glossy; beard scanty, except on the upper lip.

The New Zealanders, w-ho belong to the Australo-Caucasian stock, and one of whom is represented at fig. 22, we shall treat of more fully hereafter.

The stocks represented at figs. 10–13 belong to the Mongolian race. The Calmucs (fig. 10, a Calmuc in war equipments) have usually thin, lean limbs, a slender body, and a short neck. Their pre-eminently characteristic feature, however, consists of the obliquely placed eyes, whose inner corner descending to the nose, is a little open and fleshy. The eyebrows are black, thin, and form low arches; the nose is generally flattened and depressed towards the forehead; the cheek bones project in front; head and face are round, lips thick and fleshy, chin short, teeth very white, remaining; beautiful and sound to an advanced age. The ears are very large, and project. The peculiarities of the skull of the Mongolian race are, the globular form of the cranium, the flatness and width both of the forehead and face, and the boldness of the arches of the temporal bones. The orbits of the eyes are large, but the superciliary arches are not well defined. The alveolar process is obtusely arched in front, and the chin somewhat projecting. The Chinese also (fig. 11) are of Mongolian origin; at least Davis supposes, that in ancient times a colony from India settled in China, and mingled with the aborigines and rude Mongols. The small eye, elliptical at its nasal angle, is peculiar to the Chinese as well as the Tartars; both also have the same pointed chin and prominent cheek bones. Their color is more or less brownish yellow, according as the people are exposed to the influence of the climate; limbs well proportioned, but the head large; beard weak; hair straight, smooth, coarse, and alwavs black. To the Mongolian race belonir also many tribes which inhabit the wilds of Siberia, northwards from the Altaian chain to the coast of the Arctic Ocean; the inhabitants of Corea, Kamschatka, and the adjacent Aleutian Islands; the Tungusians, Samoyedes, and Ostiaks, as well as the Greenlanders and Esquimaux of North America. At fig. 12, we give a representation of a Samoyed, and at fig. 13, one of an Esquimaux. The hair of the Samoyedes is long, harsh, and black; the face flat and broad; the cheek bones prominent; the eyes long, with narrow openings, and oblique; the nose depressed; the mouth large; the beard very thin; the complexion dark brown; stature small, frame stout, and the strong lower limbs appear disproportionally short. The Esquimaux, again, have high cheek bones, broad forehead, flat face; eyes with narrow fissures, long lashes, and so small that the white is scarcely visible; a large mouth; flattened nose; dark yellow or brown complexion, and straight black hair. The men are of medium stature, or small, but stout; the hands and feet are small.

Besides these last named people, America offers us an indigenous population, which is divided into many tribes and very numerous stocks, extending from the northern latitude of the Polar Circle to Terra del Fuecro in the south. Of these we have represented, at fig. 17, a Charrua Indian, figs. 19 and 20, Crow Indians, and fig. 21, a Californian. The Indians have in general a vigorous, broad, though not tall form. The chest is broad, the neck short and thick, the abdomen very prominent; the lower part of the thigh not powerful, the calves especially thin, but the arms round and muscular. The foot is small behind and very broad before; the great toe is separated from the others; the hands are almost always cold, and the fingers, comparatively speaking, thin; the nails are very short; the color of the skin is copper-red. The children are, however, yellowish, like mulattoes; sick persons are brownish-yellow; the darkness of the complexion is also more decided in those who are especially vigorous and active, and live much in the open air. Their skin is fine, soft, and shining; and when exposed to the sun, much inclined to perspire. The long, coarse, straight, glossy hair hangs down in thick tangled masses. The beard of the men is generally thin; with some, however, thick. The crown of the head and the cheek bone are broad, corresponding with the breadth of the chest; the forehead is low; the temples are prominent, narrow above, and very, retreating. The occiput does not hang so low down as with the Negro. The face is broad and angular, and projects much less than in the Negro, but more than is the case with the Calmucs and Europeans. The small, neatly shaped ears turn somewhat outwardly. The eye is small and dark brown, placed slanting, and turned towards the inner corner of the nose; the eyebrows are thin, and very high in the middle; the nose is short but depressed, broad below, and not turned up so much as with the Negro; the wide nostrils are but little prominent: the lips are not so thick and prominent as is the case with the Negro, and the mouth is smaller and more compact; the teeth are white, and the incisors very broad and even, the eye-teeth projecting. From all this it follows that the Indian bears a greater resemblance to other races, especially the Chinese and Calmucs, than to the Negro. The Charrua Indians of Buenos Ayres, below the 40th degree of south latitude, gre almost black, and without any mixture of red. The Osage Indians (pl. 1, fig. 18) have their villages on the head waters of the Osage and the Verdigris, one of the northern tributaries of the Arkansas. They have relinquished a part of their territory to the United States, and are still, even at the present day, a numerous and powerful nation, which wages war with all its neighbors. The Raven, or Crow Indians (Crow, or Upsacoka nation), are a nomadic tribe, south of the Missouri, between the Little Missouri and the south-eastern branches of the Yellow Stone River. The Indians of New California are of a savage appearance, and of a very dark color. Their flat, broad face, liglited up by large wild eyes, is thickly overshadowed by long black hair.

Of the Negro race, fig. 14 represents a Guinea Negro; fig. 15, a Boussa Negro; fig. 16, a Hottentot; and figs. 23 and 24, Papuans of East Australia and Van Diemen’s Land, The black stocks of South Asia and Australia, for the purpose of distinguishing them from the negroes, negritoes, or Australian negroes, have been denominated Papuans, after a Malay word, which signifies woolly haired. The natives of the north-west coast of New Guinea bear, more especially, the latter name, we distinguish also true Papuans from the mixed, with whom we rank those which maintain a position about midway between the true Papuans and the Malay settlers. The figure of the Papuans is handsome: their exterior indicates strength and agility; their skin is dark brown, tinged with yellow; the nose somewhat flat; the mouth large; the whole form of the face tolerably regular. The hair is generally curly, close, and very thick. Some stocks of New Guinea, New Britain, and new Ireland, allow it to hang down upon the shoulders in long, straggling ringlets; with others it stands on end, thus giving the head a monstrous circumference. The Papuans go entirely naked, and ornament their shoulders and breasts with incisions in straight or crooked lines. There prevails also amongst them the custom of covering their heads with a mixture of grease and ochre, which reddens the hair and entire face. Li the inhabitants of Tasmania, or Van Diemen’s Land, the characteristics of the Papuans have degenerated. Their hair is decidedly woolly; the nose broad, the nostrils widely expanded: the mouth is large; the cheek bones very prominent; the eyes long and narrow; the lower part of the face is larger than the upper part, and the color is dull black.

The Boussa negroes are a negro stock, belonging to the Eyeoes, who inhabit the southern part of the kingdom of Houssa. on both sides of the Quorra Niger, this kingdom being under the dominion of the Fellatahs of Saccatoo. Our plate (pl. 1, fig. 15) represents the King of Boussa, showing the features of the face to be very regular, the lips also not so thick as we usually find to be the case among the negroes. The Eyeoes, moreover, trace their origin from Bornou. Most of the Guinea negroes exhibit all the characteristics of the negro race. Their skin is thick, like velvet to the touch, and secretes a perspiration of an unpleasant odor. The color is black, and the crisp, woolly hair is also generally of the same hue. But the stocks living between Cape Palmas and Cape Three Points (Ivory Coast), as well as those of the country extending from the latter cape to the Rio Yalta (Gold Coast), to wit, the Quaques, Buntakees, Ashantees, Fantees, Intas, (fee, have very little of the negro physiognomy; on the contrary, more of the Indian, or almost regularly Grecian style of features.

The Hottentots, according to Barrow, are well proportioned and straight; have forms rather delicate than muscular; their joints and limbs are very small; countenance ugly, but differing, in this respect, in different families. Some individuals possess very flat noses, others have them quite prominent; their eyes are dark chestnut brown, long with narrow openings, widely separated, with the inner angles rounded as in the Chinese, to whom, generally, the Hottentots have much resemblance. The cheek bones are high and prominent, and with the small pointed chin, form almost a triangle; the teeth are white. The young women are well and pleasingly formed; the breasts are unusually large, and the bosom very full; but soon after the birth of the first child, it becomes flabby, and in old age very pendulous. The abdomen swells out, and the hinder part is covered with a thick mass of pure fat. Burchell describes them in a similar manner. “The hands and feet,” says he, “are small; the eyes so oblique that transverse lines drawn through the angles do not converge upon the same plane, but sometimes intersect half way up the nose; the face between the two cheek bones is flat; the ridge of the nose is scarcely perceptible, but the end is broad and flattened; the nostrils diverge; the chin is long and projects in front: the small size of the lower face is also a characteristic of the race.” The hair grows in small crisp knots, tufts, or long rope-like locks, which stand apart from each other at certain distances, and cannot be penetrated by a comb. The complexion is of a yellow leather color, or pale yellowish brown. Sparrman compares the hue to that caused by the jaundice.

The People of Europe

In Europe there are twenty different stocks of people, all of whom, however, except the Lapps, Finns, and Calmucs, who appertain to the Mongolian race, belong to one race, the Caucasian. Three of these stocks are distinguished as well for their intellectual cultivation as for their numbers and power. The first is the Graeco-Latinic, to which belong the Arnauts, Albanians, Wallachians, Greeks, Italians, French, Spaniards, and Portuguese; who speak languages derived from the Greek and Latin; exhibit graceful, unconstrained movements; have black eyes, black hair, brown complexion, and sharp, distinctly marked features; are lively, ardent, courteous, but generally fickle and frivolous, easily influenced by the passions, and indefatigable in their efforts towards the gratification of their wishes and desires. They are, nevertheless, temperate in eating and drinking. Peculiar circumstances have, moreover, here and there called forth a deviation from these traits; thus, for example, the inhabitants of Andalusia and Algarves have an African tincture, through their contact with Arabs and Moors: the fiery Spirit of the Belgians and Northern French has become somewhat tempered by the admixture of Celts and Germans; and the Greeks, through their contact with Slavonia, approach somewhat to the disposition of the Slavonic stock. These Grseco-Latinic people, moreover, inhabit the southern islands and peninsulas of Europe, France, and Belgium the greater part living in the volcanic region on the Mediterranean Sea. The religion is the Roman and Greek Catholic.

The second large stock of people is the Germanic or central, of a powerful frame, with less sharply marked features; hair mostly blond; blue or grey eyes; a more sedate, firm carriage, and a fixed ease of manner. In an intellectual point of view, it is distinguished by tranquil reflection, strong reasoning powers, deep, quiet feelings, firmness, candor, absence of southern duplicity and falsehood, as well as by indefatigability in labor. The people of this stock have a fondness for spirituous liquors. The languages are the Germanic, and the religion chiefly Protestant. Here belong the people of Germany, Holland, Denmark, Scandinavia, and England, for the most part living upon the central chain of mountains and upon the North Sea and Baltic. The English and Dutch, by reason of their maritime commerce, have acquired a character somewhat different from the above. Finally the Slavonic or Oriental stock, which inhabits Russia, Poland, and non-German Austria, professes in general the Greek religion, and speaks the Slavonic languages. The frame is muscular, the physiognomy coarse, savage, and expressive of sensuality. The spirits are easily elevated or depressed; the will strong: the imagination seldom very lively. The people of this stock have a hankering after solid food; in abundance they readily indulge to superfluity, but are capable also of enduring a long abstinence. Susceptible of high development by civilization, they are degraded by tyrannical treatment to a state little higher than that of beasts. Polish men of rank have become refined in their manners through western civilization; the common people, on the other hand, are still quite rude.

The remaining smaller stocks in Europe are:—(1) The Iberians or Basques, in Spain and France: (2) the Celts, including the true Celts, in Ireland, the Highlands of Scotland, and upon the Isle of Man: the Welsh (Cymri) in Wales, and the Bretons in France: (3) the Tschudes (Uralians), the Finns, Esthes, Lapps, Tcheremisses, Tchuwaches, Watiaks, Kumans, Udi, Woguls, and Magyars (Hungarians): (4) the Samoyedes, in the polar regions: (5) Turks—Osmanni, Turcomans, Baschkirs: (G) Calmucs: (7 to 14) the inhabitants of Caucasus, with Avari, Kasikumuks, Akooches, Koorahs, Circassians, Abassians, Mizchegis, and the Ossetes (Bucharians): (15) the Semites—Jews and Maltese: (16) the Hindoos, or rather the Zigeuni (Gypsies) descended from them: and (17) the Armenians.

In our short description of the inhabitants of Europe, after having first treated of Germany, including Austria, Prussia, and Switzerland, we will from thence pass on to Denmark, Sweden, and Norway (Scandinavia.) Taking up, next, England, Ireland, and Scotland (Great Britain), we will then turn to Russia, go through the whole of Eastern Europe, not forgetting the nations of Asiatic Russia, and finally visit Turkey, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and France.

The German People

The German people live along the Rhine, the Weser, Elbe, Oder, and the upper Danube, in a dense mass. Further over beyond this natural district the Germans have mixed with other European stocks: thus, towards the East, between the Oder and Vistula, with the Slavonians: towards the Adriatic Sea, with the Slavonians and Latins; towards France, with the Franco-Latins. Within the limits above mentioned the pure German genius now displays itself; not animated, indeed, by southern fire; distinguished by no elasticity of disposition nor of character: by no nicety of taste; but which, nevertheless, is elevated above that of other people by many other fundamental traits. One of these distinguishing characteristics is the love of liberty, which, no matter how oft it may be smothered, always burns again afresh. To this is joined a strong moral sense, from. which proceed a deeply implanted love of truth and rectitude, unshaken fidelity, veneration for the female sex, attachment to the ruling princes, which qualities are dignified by the religious fervor pervading all the feelings of the Germans. Another characteristic of the Germans is their profoundness of thought and love of research. The effort to discover new things and improve those already known to them proceeds from this, as well as the propensity to travel, which carries the German into foreign lands, where he, by his versatility of mind, easily accommodates himself to what is strange, and adapts foreign habits to his own disposition. To conclude, steadfast courage, great perseverance, and cheerfulness are associated with these characteristics of the German.

Diverse as is the configuration of the soil of Germany, so different also are her stocks of people, in their external appearance, their occupations, their manners, and their language; although the German fundamental traits above referred to always predominate. The Germans are generally divided into two principal groups: in the north they are large and fair; in the south, somewhat smaller and darker. Their language is divided into the soft sounding low or broad German, the harsh middle German, and the sharp sounding high German. In religion, science, and art the Germans stand upon a high, if not upon the highest eminence; as respects husbandry and industry, Germany rivals other lands; her commerce, also, is in a flourishing condition.

After these general characteristics of the Germans, we will consider more closely some German stocks of people, with reference to Plates 2 and 3.

Wirtemberg and Badeti. In general the inhabitants of Wirtemberg and Baden are strongly built and well formed; the handsomest and healthiest of them are found in the Schwarzwald (Black Forest), and in some of the north-western valleys of the province of Alp, especially in the hilly parts, and also in a few small districts of the lowlands. Their kindly disposition is characteristic, and attendant on this a quiet, domestic, industrious, honest, religious feeling, a conscientious thoroughness, heartiness, poetical turn of thought, and enthusiasm. Wirtemberg is the heart of ancient Suabia. The Suabian dialect, in a more restricted sense, however, prevails between the Schwarzwald and the river Lech, and from the Allgau Alps to the river Kochcr, or in the greater part of Wirtemberg, and beyond the latter, as far as Augsburg. The people of Baden are esteemed industrious, faithful, sincere, honest, and brave in war. The inhabitants of the Schwarzwald exhibit, in the highest degree, the simplicity and honesty of the German stock. They are sensible, enduring, frugal, temperate, modest, and very religious; they are lively and cheerful; in many places, indeed, also brawling and quarrelsome; in others, on the contrary, of very peaceable disposition.

The inhabitant of the Odenwald is, with all his poverty, cheerful and hospitable. He lives quietly, and thinks much and freely. The people of the Rhine valley are represented as well formed, sensible, laborious, and neat. They are quicker and apparently more enlightened than the inhabitants of the mountain forests, but neither so frugal nor altogether so correct in their morals. Here, again, great differences are exhibited in character, which varies according to the configuration of the country. The Wirtemberg peasant is accused of an extravagant refinement in customs and mode of life, and especially of abandoning his national costume, particularly in the neighborhood of the towns. To the costume of the Wirtemberg peasant belong, more particularly, a triangular hat, worn upon the smoothly combed hair; also a comb in the hair; a warm smock-frock, with polished metal buttons; shoes with buckles; a kind of bodice; red stockings and high heels.

IV. Plate 2: Germanic Peoples
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Our plate represents, in the first place, a peasant girl of the district of Furtwangen in Baden (pl. 2, fig. 1). She has on a narrow-brimmed straw hat, a black jacket over a red bodice adorned with blue ribands, and a white apron embroidered at the bottom over a black and red striped petticoat. The stockings are red.

Fig. 2. A shepherd of Hauenstein, in the highland of Baden. His hat is turned up at the sides, and ornamented with a black riband and a buckle; above a red undercoat, bordered at the top with black, he wears a short black sack coat; the breeches are short, black, and gathered up in puffs in several places; the stockings are white.

Figs. 3 and 4. Schwarzwald tavernkeepers, from the region about Schrambero;. The dress of the man is black as far down as the stockings, which are white, the waistcoat being bordered with red. The woman has a peculiar, high, black lace cap, with broad ribands, a yellow stomacher, cinnamon-colored jacket, red apron, and blue petticoat. The stockings are grey or white.

Figs. 5 and 6. Male and female peasants of the district of Reutlingen, in Wirtemberg. engaged in making hay. Both the man and woman have on black caps. The woman wear a riband with a medal around the neck; the bodice is peach-blossom colored, with double broad green trimming above and black lacings below. The chemise sleeves are wide, petticoat blue with a yellow border; stockings and apron white. The man wears short yellow leather breeches and a long white loose coat, over a black waistcoat, mounted with many metal buttons; over the shirt, however, he wears colored suspenders.

Figs. 7 and 8. Bridal party from Fullheim, in the district of Tuttlingen, in Wirtemberg. The entire dress of the bride is black, with a red bodice, over which blue ribands are laced. Stockings red. A coronet covers the head, and from the long plaits of hair ribands hang down to the ground. The bridegroom has a triangular hat, blue breast straps, with trimming over the white shirt, over that a waistcoat with many buttons worn open, and a cinnamon colored jacket. Breeches short, stockings white. Both bride and bridegroom wear a nosegay of flowers at the breast, and the latter one also in his hat.

Fig. 9. Female flaxbreakers from the Steinlach valley, in Wirtemberg, district of Tübingen. The foremost with black dress, the frock bordered with green, the apron blue, neckerchief red, cap trimmed with broad lace. The hinder one with a green bodice, pink breast-bands, blue apron, red frock, and black cap upon the head; chemise sleeves white.

The Bavarians. Three stocks of people may especially be distinguished in Bavaria; namely, the Old Bavarian, Franconian, and Suabian, which differ from each other very much in character, dialect, and customs; but all bear the South German stamp. The Old Bavarians have a strong-boned, muscular frame, but are rather stout than tall; they are of a cordial, kind disposition, strongly attached to what is ancient, religious, devoted to their priest, and obeying him submissively; not unfrequently very superstitious withal. They are a robust, stout people, very quarrelsome, but brave in battle; often reproached with sensuality and want of cleanliness and industry; although it is conceded that their heart is right, and needs only proper education. The fashions of dress in the highlands differ from those in the plains. The highlander wears the usual dress of the inhabitants of the Alps: the pointed hat, the short breeches with Alp-stockings, the suspenders with breast-bands, and the short, wide coat; sometimes waistcoat and long coat are worn. The female dress is seldom becoming, as a sort of man’s hat, or a great fur cap, or a handkerchief, usually covers the head, and the jacket is not particularly neat. At a greater distance from the Alps, in the towns of Old Bavaria, the female attire is much neater. A small silver-lace cap, which only covers the black hair, and a dark bodice, laced in front with silver chains and adorned with glistening medals, constitute the principal finery. Midway between the Old Bavarian and the Franconian stands the inhabitant of the Upper Palatinate. The Franconian is distinguished from the Old Bavarian by greater liveliness, a finer taste for the arts, active industry, more zeal for political liberty, greater cheerfulness; in a word, more elasticity both of mind and body On the other hand he is justly reproached with an excessive fondness for beer.

At figs. 10 and 11, male and female peasants of the district of New Ulm, are represented as they are coming from the fair. The coat of the man is brown, waistcoat and breeches black, suspenders pink, waistcoat and coat mounted with polished buttons. The woman has a black jacket, black apron, light blue petticoat with a dark border, and over the white bodice pass pink ribands. The black cap, which covers the hinder part of the head only, is tied under the chin with broad ribands of the same color.

Pl. 2, fig. 12. An Upper Bavarian woman of the citizen class, distinguished by the head-dress, the short bodice adorned with chains and coins, and a pocket with a clasp attached to the side.

Figs. 13 and 14 represent women of Dachau, in Upper Bavaria, having peculiar black lace caps, with large bows of riband above, and surrounded by a broad red riband. The jacket of the one is very short, red, with a white cuifs and border: around the neck is worn a black riband with a shining metal clasp; chains and coins likewise adorn the bodice; the petticoats hanging in long folds are black, bordered with red, and the aprons blue.

Fig. 15. A man from Lake Schlier, in Upper Bavaria, with the sugarloaf hat of the inhabitants of the Alps, the brim, however, being small. The short grey coat is turned up with green, and the short black breeches are also trimmed with green. The stockings extend only to the ankles, as the shoes worn in the Alps cover the bare feet.

The Hessians. Arndt, in his “Essay upon the Comparative History of Nations,” describes the Hessians in the following manner: “The opposite of the Thuringian is his neighbor the Hessian, the descendant of the ancient Catti, who occupies Lower Hesse of the present time, between the Taunus and Rhon mountains on the south and east, and the bend of the Weser, where the Fulda Hows into that river, the district of Fulda, the greater part of Nassau and Waldeck, and a portion of Paderborn. The Hessian of the present day, and the inhabitants of Nassau and of Fulda, as well as the Friesian of the coasts of the North Sea, and the Saxon of Westphalia, of the Weser and Leine, as far as the western Hartz, have preserved their Germanic purity from all foreign admixture. The Hessian bears the stamp of his purely German extraction in his marked traits of character and peculiar manners, which still call to mind the description of Tacitus. He is nicknamed the blind Hessian. This word blind, however, denotes no defect, but a fixed, firm, immovable manner, which is subject to no changes and variations; it indicates the quiet, firm courage, with which the Hessian with his eyes open, as another with them shut, goes to meet danger and death. Tacitus highly extols the valor and military skill of the Catti, in which they were distinguished above all their countrymen and neighbors. A gravity and tranquillity of manner altogether peculiar marked these splendid men. Nowhere in Germany are the men so little inquisitive and talkative.” Arndt, however, considers the Hessians here only in their narrowest limits; by extending the boundaries, we find that the Franconian stock predominates, comprehending also the Lower Saxon and Thuringian. French and Netherlanders have also come in among them. In Electoral Hesse, the Franconian stock is spread over Upper Hesse, the greater part of Lower Hesse, and over Fulda and Hanau; the Lower Saxon is spread over the circles Hofgeismar and Schaumburg, and the greater part of the circle Wolfshagen; the Thuringian is found in the Werra valley and Schmalkalden. In general, true and upright, active and industrious, the Lower Hessian, on account of the advantages he possesses, in numerous towns as well as land and water communications, is inclined to the pursuit of a stirring, active business life; whilst the Upper Hessian devotes himself chiefly to agriculture. He is not inferior in integrity and industry to the Lower Hessian, excels him even in perseverance, is more straightforward in his manners, and generally more wealthy. He is distinguished by his stout frame and plain mode of life, and is ardently attached to ancient customs, thus preserving a strongly marked nationality. Hs still wears, for the most part, the white smock-frock, hat with flap bent downwards, and short breeches. The dress of the women is either entirely black, or fancy colored, with a peculiar small, double cap, and two long plaits of hair falling down the back; they wear a closely-fastened bodice, lying in small folds, with short tight sleeves, over which frequently fall down abundantly wide ones; a snow-white chemise, seen under these sleeves; a breast-piece, richly embroidered with gold; a petticoat with hundreds of gathers, reaching only to the knee; shoes with high heels; and on festive occasions they add a little mantle, which is hung upon the head, and which reaches only to the shoulders. The native of Schwalm wears a hemispherical red or green velvet cap, which is bordered with fur, and trimmed with gold lace; in winter this is exchanged for one of a cylindrical shape. Not unfrequently also the married man wears a triangular hat, especially when he goes abroad into the field. The waistcoat, mounted with many small metal buttons, is bright red; the coat and breeches are of fine white linen. The female dress is richer; it consists of a neat cap, trimmed with red and embroidered in fancv colors; a string of coral around the neck; a bodice of blue cambric, with short sleeves turned up at the elbows and richly ornamented with lace. Over the latter is worn a black corset, and upon the breast lies a black breast-piece, embroidered with gold and silver pearls and silk. From the hips depend eight to ten short skirts, the uppermost of which is black, the others bordered with gay colors. Every skirt is a little longer than the next outer one, the innermost being the longest, extending, however, only to the knee. The chemise, which peeps out below, is provided, moreover, with a hem of a hand’s breadth. The stockings are of linen, and furnished with cotton clocks; and the shoes have high heels. On extraordinary occasions the “schappel” (chaplet), a head-dress which is wrought of flowers, gold spangles, &c., and sits upon the head in the manner of a tiara, takes the place of the cap. Maidens only are permitted to wear fancy colors. The peasant of Fulda wears a green or blue linen coat, and a furred cap or broad-brimmed hat. The picturesqueness of the female dress is heightened by the long hair being wound round the crown of the head, and fastened in the middle with a neat wooden pin. The people of the Grand Duchy of Hesse are a peaceable nation, but by no means deficient in courage when the occasion demands. The natives of Rhenish Hesse are particularly lively and quick in their movements. The inhabitant of the highlands displays more distinctly and strongly marked peculiarities than the lowlander; he is rude, more laborious, frugal, active, and industrious. The inhabitant of the Odcnwald is vigorous and energetic in bodily labor, good natured, tender hearted and obliging, and possesses a strong sense of right. The people of Vogelberg and Hinterland are a strong race of men, possessing a courageous disposition, great uprightness, honesty, and complaisance, and are as yet but little acquainted with depraved manners and habits. On the other hand, their minds are not as highly cultivated as those of the people of the lower districts, the Bergstrasse, the regions on the Rhine, and especially Rhenish Hesse. The inhabitant of the Odenwald formerly wore a large comb, going entirely round the hinder part of the head, a turned up triangular hat, a green cowl, light blue waistcoat, woollen stockings with garters, and shoes with large buckles. At present the green cowl is rarely seen, and instead of this there is a long coat of dark blue cloth with a single row of buttons. The women have retained their old fashions tolerably well, and wear a dark blue cloth jacket, bordered with white; a long frock of the same material with numerous folds; a cap of black calico, which is trimmed on both sides and above with pearls; white or blue woollen stockings, and shoes with ribands.

In pl. 2, figs. 16 and 17, are represented an Odenwald female, and also a male peasant, from the district of Heppenheim, in the Grand Duchy of Hesse.

The inhabitants of Rhenish Prussia differ very much from each other in descent and manners; in general, however, what Duller says of all the people living along the Rhine, may also be said of them. “The Rhine,” says he, “exercises its powerful charm upon all the men who live near it or indeed in the districts watered by it. However different the employments may be (agriculture, especially the cultivation of the vine, and manufactures), influencing variously those who follow them; however decided the religious feeling: in all (no matter whether of the Roman Catholic or Lutheran Creed), the ever fresh enjoyment of life is the Palladium obtained by them from Old Rhine, father of wines; a sanguine, ardent race, with predominating activity of nerves, capable of every upward flight, quickly influenced by love or hate, with admirable mental talents, though these have been and are restrained in their development, in many districts of the land, under long standing clerical dominion and education; with w4t quick and sharp as an arrow, with iron-bound zeal for maintaining provincial independence, full of art-creating energy, fond of singing, rich in tradition, hospitable and sociable.”

The female reapers from Niederklee, in the district of Wetzlar, in Rhenish Prussia (pl. 2, figs. 18 and 19). have on white caps with black ribands, and black bodices; and wear a green jacket fastened with loops of ribands over the bodice. The frocks are brown, the aprons white or blue, the stockings black, the shoes fastened with ribands.

The women of the Aar valley (figs. 21 and 22) are distinguished by their white caps, with three sides, inclosed also at the place of their junction with broad lace. Both jackets and gowns have wide sleeves; over the breast is fastened a three-cornered handkerchief, and the hair is rolled up behind.

North Germans are the inhabitants of Waldeck and Schaumburg, Lippe-Detmold, Oldenburg, Bremen, the three Grand Duchies of Anhalt, Brunswick, Hanover, Hamburg, Holstein, Lübeck, Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and Mecklenburg-Strelitz. They are partly of ancient Friesian and ancient Saxon, partly also of Wendish descent. Of Wendish descent, but germanized, we find the inhabitants of Mecklenburg, whose line of princes is still of Slavonic descent, as well as the people living in Lübeck, in Ratzeburg, in Holstein proper, and in Wagrien; of Friesian descent are the inhabitants on the Oldenburg and Hanoverian coasts of the North Sea, those of Ditmarsch, who live in the dikeland between the Elbe and the mouth of the Eyder. Even beyond the Eyder there are people of pure German origin, but the Scandinavians predominate.

In the Duchy of Brunswick the young peasant wears a red waistcoat, mounted with numerous metal buttons in two rows, a dark short jacket or a coat, short breeches, and blue stockings with white clocks. A velvet cap, turned up with fur, covers the head. Old peasants often wear a large hat turned up at the sides and behind, a red waistcoat with one row of buttons, and a white coat lined with red. The peasant girls (pl. 2, fig. 20) wear on the hair combed back from the forehead a small black cap with long ribands hanging down behind; a broad black riband, embroidered with silver or set with stones, around the neck; a bodice bordered with riband, over which is placed a large white handkerchief; a light apron over a frock which is dark, but bordered with bright colors; a sash whose two ends hang down over the whole length of the apron; and grey stockings, with black clocks.

IV. Plate 3: Germanic and Austrian Peoples
Engraver: Henry Winkles

In Brunswick-Lüneberg, Wendish traces are still here and there manifested, as well in the names of places as in pronunciation, dress, decoration of the hair, marriage ceremonies, &c. The people are vigorous, temperate, hospitable, and obliging. Pl. 3, fig. 3, represents a female peasant of Lüneburg. She has a handkerchief bound around the head and fastened at the throat, and on this is placed a round cushion on which she carries her basket. The frock has tight sleeves, and is fastened tight around the breast, where it is cut out tolerably low. The inhabitants of the four provinces, Kirchwerder, Altengamm, Neuengamm, and Curslac, in the domain of Bergedorf, which is possessed by Hamburg jointly with Lübeck, are called “Vierländer” (Four-Landers). These four lands are a fruitful district on the Elbe, and here the cultivation of vegetables and fruit, as well as of flowers, is practised in a superior manner. Many a farmer sells annually 20,000 to 30,000 pounds of cherries at Hamburg, where strawberries from the same region of the value of 50,000 to 60,000 marks ($14,300 to $17,000) are also sold in a year. Cattle breeding is also carried on here, and the Vierland cows are large, handsome, and good milkers. The inhabitants of Vierland, who are distinguished by their peculiar fashion of dress and ceremonies, are probably the descendants of colonists who immigrated in the twelfth century from the Netherlands. Pl. 3, figs. 4 and 5, represent a Vierland man and woman. The man has on an ordinary round hat; a red waistcoat, with two rows of metal buttons; a blue jacket; short black breeches with metal buttons, and black stockings. The Yierland peasant woman is distinguished, in the first place, by a peculiar straw hat, which is turned high up and then bent down again. The hair is plaited into long braids, which hang down. Bows of black riband, with long tips, adorn the neck. A jacket, a short full petticoat, an apron, and black stockings complete the dress.

The Holsteiners are a vigorous, well set, very healthy race, and the peasants support themselves by horse-dealing, cattle breeding, and the extensive cultivation of grain and rape-seed. Holstein butter is celebrated. Pl. 3, fig. 2, gives us a picture of a Holstein butter woman, who is especially distinguished by a round hat, about which is bound a broad black riband with bows. The remainder of the attire has in it nothing peculiar.

The East Friesians are a people who love truth and rectitude, and who are loyally attached to their native country They are straightforward and guileless; serious and discreet; devoted to that which is ancient and mistrustful of innovations, but when the latter have been once tested, they introduce them energetically. They are withal frugal, temperate, chaste, hospitable, but in a measure still very superstitious. The mode of life and disposition certainly differ in different districts, but in the interior the ancient character and manner of life are still the most prevalent. Fig. 6, a female peasant of Saterland in East Friesia (in the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg). The people of Saterland are single-minded, good-hearted, friendly men, who are strongly attached to their old customs and usages, to their ancient rights and liberties. The woman here represented is in her Sunday dress, intending to go to church. She has on a white cap, with red ribands upon it; a red jacket and a red petticoat; black sleeves on the fore-arms, besides a fancy-colored handkerchief over the bosom, and a green apron tied around the waist. Fig. 7 gives the picture of a servant girl from Leer, a Hanoverian town on the Leda, thirteen miles south-east from Emden, and thirty from Oldenburg. Maritime trade is brisk at this place, where there are also considerable linen factories and horse-markets. The servant girl here represented has over the brown or generally dark-colored petticoat, a short garment which reaches only to the knees, with short sleeves, and cut out a little at the top. The hair is worn parted on the crown and tucked up behind. A long green apron is tied around the waist. The fish-women of East Friesland (fig. 8) wear red petticoats, black bodices, and no neckerchiefs; a straw hat with red ribands and red trimmings; grey stockings and coarse fishermen’s shoes, turned up high in front.

The Middle Germans also display many differences among themselves; and their manners, customs, costumes, and lancjuase, are mermns:, at the north and south, into those of the North and South Germans. The two principal portions are the Thuringian Upper Saxon and the Hessian group of territories. The former consists of the Kingdom of Saxony, around which are grouped the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar and the Saxon Duchies, and the Principalities of Schwarzburg and Reuss; and the latter extends upwards on the Eder, Fulda. and Werra, and downwards on the Lahn, and penetrates like a wedge into Franconia. It includes, however, also the districts of the Westerwald-Taunus (Nassau), the Bavarian Palatinate of the Rhine, Birkenfeld, Nahland, Saarland, and Luxemburg. The political boundary lines, indeed, cut in the midst the natural division lines of the people. On the whole, the Middle Germans inhabit a beautiful, large, and favored territory.

The Saxons received their name only at a late date. Until the tenth century, Slavonic stocks (the Sorben Wendes) inhabited the land of Saxony. Conquered by Henry I., a portion became converted to Christianity, part of them adopting German manners and intermingling with the Germans; others remained unmixed, as we find even now in Saxony, especially in Upper Lusatia, near 50,000 Slavonians (Wendes), who retain their peculiar customs and language. The name Saxony was first given to their possessions upon the Middle Elbe by the Ascanians when, at the fall of Henry the Lion (1180), the great old Saxon duchy was dismembered. From the Ascanians, through Frederick the Warlike, the Margraves of Meissen received the Ascanian electoral dignity, the Ascanian coat of arms, and the name Saxony. “They are,” says Duller, “a lively, sociable race, exceedingly capable of improvement, in whom a transition from the corporeal structure of the North to that of the South is perceptible. They possess great industry and aptitude; are careful as to what they do and what they leave undone; upright in their intentions and actions; respecters of the laws; brave in war; conscious of their own powers, without presumption or vanity; of yielding disposition, without weakness; tractable and civil; obliging and agreeable, without being inclined to yield what is due to themselves.”

Götzinger remarks with reference to the Upper Saxon dialect: “It prevails in Thuringia and the old Margraviate of Meissen, and has also been spread over Upper Lusatia and Silesia. With very immaterial alterations, it appears to be the same everywhere, great as is the extent of the country throughout which it is spoken, and presents, at all events, fewer variations and changes than the Franconian. Only in the modulation of the voice, and the high and deep utterance of the vowels, do the Thuringians, the people of Meissen, the Lusatians, and the Silesians differ from each other; the relation of sounds and grammatical structure are essentially alike everywhere.” Whether, however, an original Thuringian dialect forms the basis of this Upper Saxon, or whether the entire idiom has arisen from an intimate union of the Franconian with the Lower Saxon, Gotzinger leaves undecided; he thinks, however, that Thuringia, at all events, appears to be the native place of this dialect, since German stocks always lived here; whilst, on the other hand, Meissen was wrested from the Slavonians, and peopled with Thuringians and Saxons. Götzinger designates the Upper Saxon dialect, moreover, as an intermediate one between the high and low German; the skeleton being high German, the idiom and construction a low German dialect. The Saxons are attached with extraordinary fervor to the land of their birth, and are less inclined to emigrate than the people in South Germany. The mountaineers, who, for the most part, are poorer than the inhabitants of the fertile plains, are more good-natured and more complaisant, but more sensual also, than the farming peasantry of the low lands. The popular festivals most generally kept are the anniversaries of church consecrations (church-ale) and target shooting, which is carried on, on a grand scale.

The Wendes are less refined, but industrious and temperate, frugal and hospitable. They are a vigorous kind of men, and their language is melodious and energetic. In their manners and customs they have many peculiarities. At the birth of a child, the midwife goes out to invite the sponsors. In case the child is a boy, she holds in her hands a small black rod; if a girl, a white one, or else merely a white cloth. After the christening of the child, she takes it back to its parents, bringing at the same time the presents of the sponsors, to which. when it is a boy, are added nine kinds of seeds; when a girl, a sewing needle and a few grains of flaxseed. When giving invitations to a wedding, the bridegroom and the inviters (Hochzeitbitter) appear in black attire, upon black horses adorned with variegated ribands: it is only in case the bridegroom is poor that they appear on foot. On the wedding day the bride wears a black coat lined with fur, a black velvet cone-shaped cap, upon which is placed a broad brass ring studded with stars, and a green or red silk crown. The two plaits of hair, which hang down below the bridal cap, are bound around with a green silk riband. Strings of coral, and gold or silver chains with old coins, decorate the neck. When the procession proceeds to church, the bride is attended by a troop of bridesmaids dressed like herself and the bride-mother or Salzmiiste (literally salt box), which latter personage, upon the return, throws out cakes and small pieces of money. Musicians marching in front play the bridal march. Among rich Wendes many, among poor ones few dishes are customary, and after every course the guest cleans his wooden platter with a piece of bread. The bride holds the slice of bread first cut off, and preserves it carefully, as hidden virtues are ascribed to it. After the eating; comes dancing. At the home-bringing; of the bride to her future dwelling, she sits upon a wagon packed with her entire effects, and gives, as a present, to the first person who meets her in the yard of her new residence, a loaf of bread, and to the others beer out of a milk vessel.

The Prussian Province of Saxony comprehends very different stocks of people. It consists of that portion which formerly belonged to the Kingdom of Saxony, and which at the Congress of Vienna fell to the share of Prussia, and of the Altmark fused into the governmental district Magdeburg. Ancient and modern Saxon and Thuringian, as well as ancient German and Slavonic manners, are here combined.

The Thirringian stock is a peculiar one, and inhabits the Province of Saxony, the Grand Duchy Saxe-Weimar, the Duchies Saxe Meiningen-Hildburghausen and Saxe-Coburg-Gotha; also Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Sondershausen, and Electoral Hesse. The Thuringian possesses a true German character; he is faithful and honest; makes use of but few words, but his word once given is sacred. His inextinguishable love of home is still stronger than his genuine German migratory inclinations; he respects and exercises hospitality; is industrious, and manifests at the same time lively enjoyment of life, good sense, and ability. In the eastern part of the Thüringer-Wald, old persons still wear leather breeches, long dark-colored coats, with large polished or mohair covered buttons, shoes with buckles, and a large triangular hat; whilst the village youths, throughout almost the whole of Thuringia, wear a species of plain national dress, boots, long pantaloons of cloth or summer stuff, a green or brown jacket, and a light cloth cap; in Franconia the fur cap also. A prominent part of the female dress is an expensive cap, made of velvet or silk, with genuine gold and silver embroidery, and an abundance of bows of riband. The Franconian females wear a large straw hat in the form of a great hood, which for girls is mostly trimmed with green riband and rosettes, for women and for persons in mourning with black riband. A handkerchief wound round the head in the manner of a turban, the broad points of which fall down on the nape of the neck, is also often worn instead of the hood. The bodice of girls is mostly fancy colored, that of women dark colored; the full heavy frock of cloth or some other woollen fabric is green, with light green trimming. In Gotha countrymen wear a coat woven of wool and flax (linsey-woolsey), or an ordinary peasant’s coat of cloth. Under this they have a fancy colored waistcoat, and yellow leather breeches. Over it, when about to attend to business out of the house, the peasant throws a white or blue linen frock, shaped like a shirt. Grey cloth or white linen gaiters cover the legs. The women generally wear dark green or dark blue cloth, frieze or linsey-woolsey petticoats, trimmed with light blue and green ribands; out of doors, a yellow straw hat and black cloak. The bridal dress consists of a red head-dress of riband, lying evenly around the bound up hair, upon which is placed the wreath, a black bodice, long very full petticoat, and a black jacket with wide sleeves, and trimmed with strips of yellow velvet. From the left to the right side depends a belt of linked plates of silver with a gilt clasp; at the place where it hangs lowest, a key and handkerchief are fastened; Blue velvet muffs or gloves, tipped with marten’s fur, cover the hands.

The female peasants represented in pl. 3, fig. 1, in Sunday dress are from the neighborhood of Erfurt. They wear the above mentioned caps of black color trimmed with ribands; variegated kerchiefs, plain, colored, or figured long sleeved jackets, with a large turned over collar; under the latter a tucker; and besides these articles, a frock and apron with or without trimming.

Thuringia abounds in popular festivals, and also in peculiar local gatherings, of which fairs, shooting targets, and church-ale are the principal ones. The Thurinorians are fond of dancing; also, and their favorite, true national dance is a kind of figured waltz. Their simple, generally melancholy, and love-breathing popular ballads are ever sung by the musical sons and daughters of Thuringia.

The peasants in the Duchy of Saxe Altenburg are a species of people altogether peculiar. They are of Sorben Wendish descent, but by this time, however, have become fully germanized. Pl. 2, figs. 23 and 24, give us a representation of the costumes of a male and female peasant of Altenburg. It is very original, and even children wear it from the time they are three years of age. The hair is cut short, and round; and upon the head, as an esteemed ornament, sits a quite low, narrow brimmed, black felt hat. The shirt is furnished with a cellar resembling a border, embroidered with small figures of white linen thread. The name of the owner is wrought in black silk, and the shirt is fastened with a black riband, and a buckle, which is often valuable. Over the shirt is worn a broad black vest, which is edged at the neck with red cloth; and over this are worn suspenders of black varnished leather, neatly stitched with green silk, and held together in the middle by a cross-piece. Wide black buckskin breeches, fastened at the knee, form a part of the best dress, especially when the wearer, on holidays or at weddings, and in warm weather, throws off his upper garment, and goes in his fine, very wide, finely plaited, snow-white shirt sleeves. Over this under-dress, the peasant wears his principal garment, the cape, of black cloth, lined with green flannel, with three neat plaits upon the back, reaching from the short waist to the calf of the leg, and fastened in front with hooks and loops, or with buttons. Boots are worn on the feet, laced shoes less frequently, and then generally in summer. When the more aged peasant goes to town he carries his basket on his back, and has an iron stick. In summer the peasant has another cape of very white cloth, tight, without seam, with small plaits on the shoulder, wide sleeves growing narrower towards the hand, trimmed at the end with black leather, and adorned with velvet cuffs, which reach nearly to the elbows. From the neck, down in front, the white cape is lined with blue striped ticking, or some other linen fabric of a similar nature, sometimes also with English calico, with a narrow border of leather or velvet. Shoes are worn with the white cape. The peasants, at present, also frequently wear a cloth spencer, mostly of a green color, which is always kept buttoned up, and in winter trimmed with fur or plush. In winter, and in rainy weather, a large cloak, generally made of green or dark blue cloth, or a species of blanket coat, is also worn. Besides these the peasant often wears in winter a coat of handsome white fur on the outside, and a black fur cap, upon which the small hat is squeezed. Girls wear their hair in two plaited bands, which are twisted in the form of a circle around the centre of the head, and above this is the “nest,” which consists of a band of pasteboard about two inches broad, sewed together at the ends, covered with calico, or other stuff, beset with enamel or spangles, and encompassed by a rim of pasteboard or paper. It is held fast by an iron or brass needle (Senknäle), broad at both ends. Underneath and around the nest is worn a black riband binding, which ends on the forehead in a point, and at the place where the ends of the pasteboard are fastened in a neat bow. The throat and back of the neck are covered with a collar and ribands. At present, the girls frequently wear a variegated handkerchief over their braids in winter, from the knots of which the two long ends proceed like wings. Variously ornamented figured sleeves are worn over the chemise. The two ribands hanging down from the collar attached to the sleeves, are tied under the chin in a bow. Then comes the bodice. In front of this is the great pasteboard stomacher covered with stuff of some sort. This covers the entire chest, is flat as a board, and stands out so far that nose and mouth may be nearly concealed underneath it. On Sundays or holidays, as well as in cold weather, a jacket is put on over the latter. The petticoat, which often reaches only to the calf of the leg, is of calico, half silk, or woollen material, and is made with many gathers tightly sewed together. Above this is an apron. For mourning, as well as in old age, the dress is black. To the short petticoat belong very white stockings, often embroidered and open-worked, with handsome figured garters. The shoes and slippers, also, are frequently beautifully ornamented. Women defend themselves against the weather by means of a large calico cloak, or a cloth, or silk upper garment. Maidens, at weddings, or when acting as godmothers, are distinguished by the “Hormt,” a headdress in the form of a round bandbox without bottom, covered within and without with red damask or velvet, and secured by ribands under the chin. Around the Hormt are disposed thirteen silver plates or tablets, and upon every one of them stand three rows of raised silver buttons. Silver plates, heavily gilded, hang round about it on rings; and behind, on the Hormt, are two tresses of tow, which, bound around with red or green velvet riband, and arched in a half circle above it, are adjusted at the forehead. Between these tresses is a coronet of silver tinsel, set off, if the girl is a bride, with green silk, if she stands as a godmother, with red silk, and made still more gaudy by the addition of gilt beads. Behind, where the two tresses meet, there is a red silk riband bow, and another underneath it, to which are attached long, flowing, fancy colored ribands. These tresses, when forming a part of a bridal dress, are green, at other times red. A Hormt costs from 40 to 100 thalers ($30 to $75), and on this account passes in the family by inheritance, or it is often lent also for particular occasions merely The weddings of the rich are celebrated with great expenditure of money; and great processions, on foot, or on horseback, or in wagons, accompany the groom when he goes to fetch the bride. At such times the guests meet at the house of the groom, and after they have been entertained with cakes, beer, and whiskey, move in couples on foot and with music, to the house of the bride. If she, however, is in another village, they ride on horseback often to the number of fifty or sixty men, followed by forty or fifty women in wagons. The musicians at the head, on horseback, or in wagons, play cheerful airs; then comes the inviter to the wedding, who leads the nearest relations of the groom; next follows the groom himself, with his two groomsmen (who are brothers or near relations of his), and finally the guests above referred to. All the horses are provided with white, yellow, red, and black harness, adorned with ribands; the tail having, moreover, twigs of box tree, or a nosegay of flowers, attached to it. Maidens, adorned with the Hormt, accompany the bride. Our space will not permit us to describe the wedding festival itself.

In the house of an Alteiiburg peasant great neatness and order usually prevail. In the sitting-room we find for the most part tables, benches, and chairs, which are scoured to whiteness, and a rich, neatly-decked kitchen rack. The copper boilers placed in the tiled stove are highly polished. There are no true popular festivals in this part of the country; besides the three high holidays, church-ales, betrothals, weddings, movings of new married people, and christening festivals, only small family parties, cherry-gatherings, harvest-homes, (fee, are held in taverns. There is much dancing indeed at these festivals, but the peculiar national dances have gone out of fashion. Card playing is a favorite amusement, and high play, we are sorry to say, often occurs. Altenburg peasants know how to live well, and, especially when they pay a visit to town, spend a great deal of money. The country people of Altenburg are divided into three classes. At the head, as the most opulent, stand the large farmers, and farmers on a smaller scale but who still keep houses. The second class are farmers who cultivate rented land, gardeners, and cattle-breeders; and the third class are cottagers who neither own nor rent land, but have the use of a cottage and a plot of ground on the farm of a first class peasant, paying an equivalent in the shape of labor.

The Silesian. In very ancient times Silesia became inhabited by the Lygines and Quadi, who in the sixth century were dispossessed by the Slavonians, in consequence of which the country afterwards fell to the Poles. The name Silesia, is derived from the Slavonic word “zle,” which is the Polish translation of the word quad (bad). Under the Polish rule Christianity, and also the Polish language and customs, were introduced. The present inhabitants are partly Germans, partly Slavonians of the Polish stock; in Lusatia, however, also Wendes. The Slavonians on the right side of the Oder are more fully germanized, those living on the confines of Poland and in upper Silesia the least so. Here, as everywhere, the Germans are distinguished above the Slavonians by industry and greater civilization. To proceed: Silesia consists of the Duchy of Silesia, the County of Glatz, the Prussian portion of Upper Lusatia, and an unimportant part of New Mark. The Duchy of Silesia is usually divided, in ordinary acceptation, into Upper and Lower Silesia. Lower Silesia extends from Brieg, upon both sides of the Oder, as far down as the borders of Brandenburg; Upper Silesia, on the other hand, forms the south-eastern part of Silesia, on the confines of Moravia. The principalities of Troppau, Jägerndorf, and Neisse, and some other small principalities of Upper Silesia, belong to Austria. The inhabitants of the Riesengebirge (Giant Mountains) are strong, slender, and hale; temperate, industrious; pure in morals, benevolent, and religious, but credulous and superstitious also. The rural population still attach credit to the legend of Number Nip. The dress of the men is a blue, green, or grey cloth coat, reaching to the thigh or to the knee; a cloth waistcoat, short black or yellow breeches, grey or white woollen stockings, and a triangular felt hat. To these are added shoes with nails; and in snow, snow hoops: on glazed frost, ice-spurs. The snow hoops are mostly made of tough pine twigs. They are about ten inches in diameter, and are interwoven on the inside with cord. One of these hoops is laid flat under each foot, and fastened to it with strings, by means of which the sole obtains a greater surface and cannot easily sink in the deep snow. When the people cross the mountains they make use for support of a smooth pine stick about five Bohemian feet long and an inch and a half thick. The women wear a cloth bodice, with a large flat stiff stomacher; a short-sleeved chemise, fastened at the throat with a pin; around the neck and bosom a handkerchief of printed linen; a grey or gay colored woollen petticoat which reaches to the heels; and an under-jacket mostly of black stuff, woollen stockings, and shoes. Unmarried women wear the head bare, and the hair twisted in braids, which are wound into a nest around the crown of the head; married women wear caps of white or figured linen, and both classes when at work tie a handkerchief around the head. The mountaineer builds his house, very judiciously, upon the grassy declivity of the mountain. The architecture and size of the house are very much the same throughout the Riesengebirge, and “baude” (booth) is the universal name of these houses. Except a stone-walled terrace which forms the foundation, all the rest, for the sake of greater warmth, is built of wood. Boards closely joined together form the walls, the seams of which are stuffed with moss, and sometimes plastered over with loam. Indoors the walls are lined with boards, partly for the sake of greater cleanliness, but more for warmth, and the floor is planked; the outside, on the west and north sides of the house, is covered with shingles. The sitting-room occupies the smaller half of the house, and in it, even in summer, the fire is kept burning in the large brick stove. Before it are the entrance hall and kitchen, with the dairy adjoining. From the hall there is an entrance into the stable, which, however, has another entrance at the front of the house, through which the cattle are driven in and out. The inhabitants of Upper Silesia are also a vigorous race of men, Pl. 3, figs. 9 and 10, represent male and female peasants from the neighborhood of Krappitz. The man wears a fur cap; a short coat with large flaps, and one row of buttons; a white shirt with a turnover collar; a fancy colored handkerchief tied around the neck; short breeches and long boots: and a long coat over the whole dress. The woman wears a cap with a fur border; a jacket with a large collar and long skirt; a tolerably long petticoat bordered with riband; a broad gathered apron; a red handkerchief; and around the neck a scolloped collar. The stockings are scarlet colored, and the shoes have bows of bright colored riband.

The Bohemians belong to two different stocks, the Slavonic and the German. The Bohemian Slavonians, who constitute the fourth part of the entire population, calling themselves Czeches (Tchekes), belong to the north-western (Lechish) stock of the Slavonians, and their language, of all dialects, first became cultivated. The German Bohemians inhabit mostly the country bordering on Bavaria, Saxony, and Prussia, and their language is now that of the educated people of the country. The Czeches inhabiting Bohemia are not everywhere alike. In the north-east we find a tall stature and well shaped countcnanco, which is not the case in the southwest. The Bohemians, everywhere, are muscular and strong, but not obese. The German Bohemians are somewhat taller, especially those who live near the river Egor, who are a hardy, powerful race. True national dress is seldom found in Bohemia; the ordinary German style prevails almost everywhere. The Slavonic inhabitants wear a round cut coat, with a single row of buttons, a very low collar, and many gathers at the pockets; a vest with pockets and one row of metal buttons; short breeches; woollen stockings; a low round hat with a broad brim, or, instead of the latter, sometimes the old fashioned high Slavonic fur cap. The hair, in south-western Bohemia, is worn long and combed behind the ears; in the north-east, however, it is cut in different ways. The girls and women wear a high, stiff, and tub-shaped bodice, reaching to the nape and chin; very full skirts, often eight or ten, one over the other; red woollen stockings with white clocks; shoes with buckles, or sandal slippers; a silk or cotton apron, and a corset with a round folling; collar. The hair is worn in braids, through which silver or brass pins are stuck; above these is placed a round low cap, with a very large riband bow behind. Instead of the cap, girls wear a bandeau, the broad stiff ends of which stand out on both sides like wings. Around the neck they wear strings of pearls, or else ribands, on which hang gold and silver coins. South of Prague wooden shoes begin to be common. The German inhabitants are easily recognised by the dark blue coat and the bright red waistcoat, mounted with polished buttons. The triangular hat, with the flap turned down in front, with them takes the place of the small round hat of the Czeches. The peasant of the districts near the Eger remains true to his ancient style of costume and black color of dress, on account of which an affinity between him and the inhabitants of Altenburg may be presumed. In the circle of Pilsen, particularly in the principality of Chotieschau, the women (pl. 3, fig. 23) wear lace caps, with broad round sides, and a rosette of riband on the side, and which are tied with a broad blue riband. The waist is very short; the blue skirt, trimmed with variegated ribands, reaches to the knee. Under this frock, however, there are other petticoats, worn in such a manner as to cause a great projection behind. On the bosom is worn a white chemisette, and over this a red handkerchief bound cross-wise. The remainder of the dress consists of a short spencer, turned up with red, and provided with short skirts, having many gathers, and standing off from the body. Around the waist are bound a chequered apron, and a girdle embroidered with gold and silver. The stockings are scarlet, and the black leather shoes have large green riband bows. Their baskets are also trimmed with a number of light colored ribands. Girls wear long plaits, and a blue riband, in the manner of a diadem, around the bare head; and at the back of the head long, pendent, variegated ribands.

The male dress consists of a broad brimmed round hat, with a broad band, buckle, and lace upon it; a figured waistcoat and long coat, both of them bordered with red, and furnished with large button-holes embroidered with green, and a great number of buttons standing close to one another (forty on the coat alone). The coat is lined with white. Yellow leather breeches and black top boots cover the legs. The German dialect in the circle of Pilsen is not very different from the Franconian, and appears to be a transition from the latter to the Saxon. In the vicinity of Bunzlau, the male dress consists of a hat with broad brim, black leather breeches, and a short dark blue coat. The women wear a round cap, with a small lace border, lying smooth on the forehead and cheeks; girls, however, wear braids, which are wound together upon the crown of the head in a nest, which is held by a pin, and over this is a handkerchief. The remaining attire consists of a high stomacher; fancy colored ribands worn on the shoulders; a short full skirt; red stockings, and shoes with high heels. The German inhabitants of the central Böhmer-Wald are of middling size, fair-haired, and of muscular form; sometimes rough in manner; and having a great predilection and considerable talent for music and singing. They are industrious and pious in their family circles, friendly and complaisant towards their neighbors. In them, also, the love of travelling is united in a peculiar manner with the love of home. The male dress consists of short black leather breeches, trimmed at the seams with white lace; white stockings with shoes, or blue stockings with half boots, which fall down in folds below the middle of the calf; a crimson, blue, or green silk waistcoat, flowered with gold and adorned with polished buttons; a loose violet blue or black velveteen jacket, reaching to the hips; and finally, a cloth coat, extending to the ankles, with a narrow, simple, stiff-standing collar. A crimson handkerchief is tied around the neck; and from the pocket, on the right side of the breeches, projects a silver-mounted case, containing a knife, fork, and spoon. The women tie up the head in a check handkerchief which entirely conceals the hair, except at the temples, where a little of it is seen. Their stuff jacket does not reach entirely to the hips, is much cut out at the bosom, where it is broadly trimmed, and permits the chemise, which reaches almost to the throat, to appear. Under the jacket girls wear a bodice, which is black or red, and trimmed with a gold border. The petticoat formerly consisted of strong red linen stuff, and reached scarcely to the calf of the leg; at present it is longer, and composed of various materials. The stockings are most frequently white.

The Austrian, in general, evinces more cheerfulness and genuine good-nature than earnest depth of soul: he is honest, upright, hospitable, charitable, and intelligent. In the revolutionary movement of the year 1848, the truth of the following remarks of Duller with reference to the Austrians, was plainly shown. “Happy, thoughtless, excessively fond of pleasure, as is the Austrian, especially the Viennese, we must not nevertheless believe that his love of show and enjoyment of every description impairs the clearness of his views and his convictions. A strong sense of right especially supports him, much as he has become accustomed to endure; and in the cities, particularly in Vienna, under the external appearance of frivolity, the mind is agitated, imperiously claiming participation in the promotion of the interests of the German people. Powerful as this instinct is in the very heart of all the educated classes, their patriotism one of the most beautiful and honorable characteristic traits of the Austrian, is no less ardent. It is not only the soil that he loves, it is the sacred idea of the Fatherland, for the sake of which he joyfully meets every danger.”

The inhabitants of Upper and Lower Austria are not only distinguished by the different dialects spoken by them, and which our space forbids us to characterize in this place, but also by their different manners and costumes. There is even a marked difference among the Lower Austrians themselves, inhabiting different districts, observable not only in dress and habits, but even in bodily form, strength, and beauty. In the central part of the country, the dress is very much the same everywhere, and not very becoming. It consists of handkerchiefs (among the rich, of black silk) tied around the head, with two long ends covering the neck; short jackets with short waists and broad shoulder-pieces, variegated handkerchiefs around the neck and bosom, long petticoats, and aprons. The men, especially the artisans in small towns, wear cloth caps, or old-fashioned felt hats, coats of medium length, and short or long breeches. In the vicinity of the mountains and in the mountains themselves, however, the peculiarities of the mountaineers, or inhabitants of the neighboring Alps, may be observed; in the same way the vicinity off towns is ound to influence the dress of country people.

The Upper Austrians are a very susceptible people and full of humor, as well as industrious, benevolent, and honest; in them cordiality is united with prudence and activity. They understand the mode of cultivating their beautiful country better than the Lower Austrians, and are more advanced in husbandry generally than the latter. They are withal a handsome, healthy race; the beauty of the women of Upper Austria, especially in the vicinity of Linz has even become proverbial.

The people of Salzburg are able-bodied, courageous, and of a poetical temperament. Pl. 3, fig. 19, represents a Salzburg woman, With the becoming cap; rich in gold. The females of Linz and other Austrian women wear a similar cap, which, however, is going out of fashion. The peasant of Pongau in Salzburg (fig. 16) wears a broad girdle around the waist; green suspenders, with a cross-band; a waistcoat with two rows of buttons; short black breeches; white or grey stockings; shoes; and a brown coat, bordered in front with green, without lappels, and with a short collar. The hat is the usual round one. Fig. 17 represents an Upper Austrian peasant from Lake St. Gilgen, with round hat; short red waistcoat, trimmed with gold lace; short ordinary blue jacket with metal buttons; short black breeches, with broad waistband, trimmed with lace, and either tied or buttoned at the knee; white stockings, and half boots laced in front. The country girls on Lake Fuschl, in Upper Austria (fig. 18), wear a round, somewhat broad-brimmed hat, a low stomacher and breast-piece, a long colored frock, and a blue or fancy colored apron. Around the neck they wear a broad pearl necklace, with a large locket.

The Styrians belong to two entirely different stocks, the German and the Slavonic; the former inhabiting the northern, the latter (the Wendes) the southern part of Styria. The Germans speak the rough and harsh dialect of South Germany, rich in obsolete words and provincialisms, but approaching in sound to the true Austrian dialect. The whining, sing-song enunciation of the people of Middle Styria is endurable only through habit. The Upper Styrian has a more solid, stronger body, and better established health than the Lower Styrian, who, owing to the mildness of the climate, and his less burdensome work, is taller and thinner, but less enduring. The Upper Styrian still retains the ancient German probity in a high degree, and it is but seldom accompanied by rudeness. In the mountainous tracts, his harmless, gay taste is displayed in a great love of singing and dancing, and in the characters of his national songs. The tunes of the dancing music, produced on a kind of cymbal (dulcimer), which is never wanting upon such occasions, and but two violins and a violoncello in addition, are mostly taken from popular airs. Notwithstanding the expressiveness of the national Styrian dance in itself, owing to its twisting, turning, entwining, releasing, withdrawing, recovering, and gentile balancing, the dancers are not satisfied with such a pantomime of jovial frolicksomensss and hearty good will, but will often intermingle detached verses of songs, and jumping up will clap their hands, sing a snatch from a yodling song (characteristic, undulating melody of the mountaineers), or utter a piercing whistling, the embodiment of the highest glee. The Upper Styrian, withal, is pious even to bigotry and superstition, but also compassionate and charitable. The peasant is insolently proud of his rank in life, free &om servility to his superiors, and hates nothing more than partiality. Serenading is customary in Styria, and the low tones of the jew’s-harp attract the chosen maiden to the window. Besides singing and dancing, the Upper Styrian is passionately fond of shooting at a mark and hunting. The dress of the Styrians varies greatly; the German inhabitants dress chiefly m the German style; the Wendes adopt partly the German, more frequently the Croatian dress. The costume of the Upper Styrian consists of a dark green, or brown, or grey coat, turned up with green, green suspenders with or without breast straps, black leather breeches, a broad leathern belt, tie shoes, and large, black, often tapering, and high. hats. He adorns his hat with feathers of the mountain cock or heath-cock, and the beard of the chamois. Instead of a coat he sometimes wears a brown or grey jacket turned up with green (pl. 3, fig. 20); the hat is sometimes of green felt, and not tapering, but on the contrary becoming larger towards the top, and having a broad green riband and a large buckle. The women (figs. 21 and 22) wear full skirted woollen petticoats of green, brown, or black colors, a variegated stomacher, a colored bodice, short corsets of printed linen or calico, blue linen aprons, red or green woollen stockings. On the head they wear hats of felt or of black stuff with a broad plaited brim, or a black cap, either conical or round, and plaited, bound with gold lace.

The Illyrians. The northern portion of the kingdom of Illyria consists of the Duchies of Carniola and Carinthia; the maritime country constituting the southern section. Most of the inhabitants are of Slavonic descent, the Germans, Italians, &c., residing here being much inferior in number to the former. The Slavonians living in Carinthia, as well as the people of Gailtlial, Rosenthal, and Faunthal, are Wendes. The Germans in Carinthia are of Franco-Boiish descent. Carniola is inhabited almost entirely by Wendes, who are usmilly called Carniolans; and in the midst of them are a people of true German origin, the Gottscheers. Slavonians, together with Karsti, Istriani, Liburnii, Furlani, and some others, constitute the inhabitants of the greater part of the Hlyrian maritime country. The Slavonic inhabitants are in general well formed, hale, and long lived. The German Carinthians, as respects externals, bear great resemblance to the Styrians. They are a kind, upright, active, industrious people. The Wendes of Carinthia are less industrious than the Germans of the same country, and, excepting the people of Gailthal, less cleanly. The Carniolans are honest, upright, industrious, and gay, but at the same time choleric and superstitious. The Gottscheer is considered a good-natured, frugal, loyal, pious man. The character of the inhabitant of the Illyrian maritime country is partly the Slavonic, as in Carniola, and partly passes into the Italian. The national costume of the Carinthian resembles in general that of the Styrian. The peasant wears a short woollen coat with a nap on the inside, which, in winter, is exchanged for a furred smock-frock; a coarse woollen or leather jerkin, with one row of buttons in the middle; a black handkerchief tied around the neck; short leather breeches, in the side-pockets of which, according to the custom of the mountains, a knife and fork are placed; white stockings; and tie shoes, which are fastened to the feet with thongs. The female peasant wears a short petticoat; shoes fastened with ribands; a hood that lies smoothly upon the head, and which is ornamented all round with riband, or instead of this a fur cap. On the top of these she places a very large round hat. The German Carniolan generally wears a red jacket, a dark brown cloth coat, short black breeches, and blue stockings. When upon a journey, the Lower Carniolan carries the “torba” (a small pouch); the Upper Carniolan, under similar circumstances, throws the “bassaga” (wallet) over his shoulder. A black silk hood, trimmed with white lace, a very full, black over-gown, and red woollen stockings, constitute the usual attire of females of Carniola. The Gottscheer of the same country (pl. 3, fig. 24) belongs to an industrious race of traders, who, at home, manufacture linen, wooden ware, sieves, &c., in large quantities, and take these things, or southern fruits, olive oil, rosoglio, iron ware, and other articles, to the fairs all over Europe. The Gottscheer wears a broad-brimmed, round, low, felt hat; neck and breast generally remain bare. He also wears a shirt with a broad collar that can be turned over the coat, wide coarse cloth pantaloons, or long leather breeches trimmed with riband. With the latter article, low shoes with numerous leather thongs, or short boots, are worn. A short jerkin, or a short whitish-grey or brown cloth habit, without gathers and pockets, a broad leather girdle around the waist, and (in winter) also a whitish-grey coarse cloth cloak, complete the dress. Women wear a large white blanket around them, fastened in front under the chin. Their hair is cut short; the girls only wear plaits. A long chemise, with ruffled wristbands and broadly plaited collar, linen petticoat and apron, a wide, coarse cloth frock, without sleeves, over the articles first mentioned, and a blue or black woollen belt around the waist, constitute the attire of these women.

The Tyrolese are divided into the German in the north and the Italian in the south. The German Tyrolese are handsome, often rather lank, but at the same time muscular. They have small eyes, open countenances, high and broad shoulders; are hale, vigorous, and active, to an advanced age. Many a Tyrolese mountaineer might serve as a model of manly beauty; the women, on the contrary, are but seldom very beautiful. Those of the district of Innsbruck, however, are often noticed for an attractive physiognomy, oval face, sometimes dark, sometimes light hair, and handsome brown eyes, and always for their fair skin. In other districts, on the other hand, the women have such colossal figures, that they form the greatest contrast with those of Innsbruck. The dialects of Tyrol differ, but may be ranked in three principal groups: that of Bregenz, that of the valley of the Lower Inn, and that of the valley of the Zill. The first is of Allemannic derivation, and still has many ancient German forms of speech; the second is the softest, is easy and careless; the third, on the contrary, is energetic and harsh, with strong accentuation of the guttural sounds. The two last ones are made up of Bavarian roots. The dress of the Tyrolese is picturesque, but different in every valley. The Passeyrian (pl. 3, figs. 12 and 13, man and woman) has his brown jacket bordered with red and green; his suspenders are brown, and his green hat is bordered with yellow. Short black breeches, a violet breast-piece under the suspenders, a broad black leather belt around the waist, white stockings, which only extend from the foot to the upper end of the calf, leaving a bare space below the knee, and shoes trimmed with red ribands, constitute the remainder of his dress. The women, on the contrary, are unbecomingly dressed, as the large thick quilted cap, open jacket with short sleeves ruffled at the wrists, the wide, long, full petticoat, wide apron, and the waist (anything but diminutive), give them a very awkward appearance. The woman of Bregenz (fig. 11) wears a similar cap, somewhat more conical, a long, black, full petticoat, which is cut out angularly at the breast and trimmed with a border. A piece of gold embroidery, or a white chemisette, is displayed above this. The gown reaches to the ankles. After those of the Zill valley, the women of Bregenz are esteemed the handsomest. The inhabitant of the Zill valley (figs. 14 and 15) wears a large tapering hat, adorned with the beard of the chamois, flowers, and cock feathers; a red breast-piece, bordered with yellow or gold; a coarse brown woollen jacket; short breeches; a black leather girdle, embroidered with peacocks’ quills (the name of the owner being inserted in the middle of it); white stockings, and black shoes of the ordinary kind. A black handkerchief is tied around the neck. The women wear green, or, more commonly, black hats, of the same kind: the remainder of their dress does not differ, at present, in style from that usually worn in Germany. The peasants of Botzen wear long brown coats; those of Pusterthal, short breeches and jackets, dark vests, black leather belts, white or blue stockings; those of the valley of the Upper Inn, short black breeches, scarlet waistcoats, over which green suspenders are worn, jackets of various colors, green or blue stockings, and broad-brimmed black or green hats, with riband.

The uprightness of the Tyrolese is well known. They are a very religious people; industrious and frugal, ingenious, courageous, and high-minded; they combine with the love of their native land a great ])ropensity to travel; are always of a cheerful and gay disposition; and. like the Styrians, are fond of singing, yodeln, whistling, music, and dancing.

The Swiss (with the exception of the inhabitants of the canton Tessin, who are of Italian descent, and those of the canton Geneva, and the people living on the confines of France, who are of French lineage) are likewise of German origin. At the fall of the Roman Empire of the West, the Alcmanni, Burgundians, and Ostrogoths took possession of the almost depopulated country, permitting the aborigines, the Helvetians, to retain their customs and laws. By this means the different stocks became intermixed, and the German stock remained at last predominant. The Swiss appear to be, in general, an excellent people; they are vigorous in body and energetic in character. The women are generally very pretty, and sometimes even of exquisite beauty, a remark which applies particularly to those living in the Hasli valley in the highlands of Berne, as they exhibit softer features and more delicate figures than the women of other cantons. The Swiss are a truthful and honest people, who steadfastly retain their original character, and are immovably attached to their native land, and to the customs of their forefathers, from whom they have inherited the most ardent love of liberty. In some cantons, manufactures and commerce, facilitated by excellent highways, are in a most flourishing-condition. Cattle breeding and alpine husbandry form, however, the principal pursuits of the people. The cantons Lucerne, Schwytz. Uri, Unterwalden, Zug, Freiburg, Solothurn, Tessin, and Valais are Roman Catholic; Zurich, Berne, Basle, Schaffhausen, Geneva, and Neufchatel, are Calvinistic; Grisons, St. Gall, Appenzell, Glarus, Thurgau, Aargau, and Vaud, profess different creeds. The Roman Catholics constitute about three eighths of the inhabitants. The male dress varies less than that of the female sex, the latter being different in almost every canton.

After the foregoing considerations of these different German nations, or at least nations speaking the German language, we proceed to view them in general, with reference to their mental and bodily condition. Notwithstanding the climate, formerly so inclement, has become mild by the clearing of the forests, and in spite of the introduction of foreign customs and vices, by which the descendants of the ancient Germans have been, in a measure, effeminated, very vigorous forms are still found, especially amongst the mountaineers; and fidelity, honesty, candor, frugality, and industry, are the predominant virtues of the German people. Their correct judgment, their perseverance in scientific pursuits, and their knowledge obtained by these means, are productive of excellent results; even if, in consequence of the depth of their researches into the arts and sciences, and their deliberateness, the fruit of their labor is of slower growth than is the case with other nations. It was Germany, principally, that formed the most eminent philosophers; and in no part of the world is so great care bestowed upon a thorough education as in Germany, although it yields the palm to the United States with regard to the general instruction of the masses, due to the public free schools of the latter country.

The fine arts and the sciences, commerce, and the industrial arts, have always flourished among the German nations of modern times; and the great prosperity of Germany affords, plainly enough, the best evidence of their mental and physical activity. In spite of the less favorable geographical situation, in spite of the wars and revolutions which have raged among them, in spite of the internal divisions of their country, they stand, intellectually and physically, on a level with the people of the most favored country. When, moreover, the youth continue as they have already commenced, acquiring activity, strength, and health, by means of systematic bodily exercises, the German may easily invigorate not only the body, but the mind, to a degree never before attained. The experience of organized gymnasia shows that the mind becomes fresher and stronger by the practice of gymnastic exercises, which have been, therefore, wisely adopted as a part of scholastic training.

Gymnastics, according to the best authors upon this subject, is the art of taking bodily exercise according to certain rules, as was formerly done in the gymnasia of the ancient Greeks, and hence the derivation of the name. The usual gymnastic exercises are: (a) lifting, carrying, and drawing; (b) walking with grace and ease; (c) running, with a view to rapidity and steadiness; (d) jumping upwards, horizontally, and downwards, with or without a leaping pole; (e) wrestling, with the view of throwing the adversary on the floor, or of snatching something from his hands; (f) throwing with stones, aloft, to a distance, or at a mark, with or without the sling, and hurling the javelin; (g) climbing up a pendant rope, or a pole, trees, &c.; (h) balancing (the art of equilibration) of the body, in standing upon one leg, or standing or walking upon a beam, or a rope, in running on stilts, and in skating; (i) dancing, riding, swimming, and fencing.

At the gymnasium, that is to say, the place prepared for the practice of gymnastic exercises, fixtures adapted to the various exercises are usually found. The bars and horizontal pole are altogether peculiar contrivances for these purposes.

The bars consist of two horizontal parallel rails, eight feet in length, each of which rests upon two posts. The rails must be of solid, smooth, sound, and thoroughly seasoned wood. Their size should be such as to allow a firm grasp of the hand; they must, therefore, be rounded above, and not so thin as to hurt the body when a person places himself upon them. They must also be properly erected, especially with regard to the distance between them, which varies from eighteen to thirty inches, according to the age, size, and strength of the gymnasts. The posts must not be broader at top than the rail, but must increase in strength downwards, and be deeply set in the ground, so that they may stand with the proper firmness, and in such a manner that the strongest man cannot make them shake.

The horizontal pole should be at least two inches in diameter, entirely round, six to eight feet long, resting horizontally upon two posts, similar to one of the sides of the bars, the difference consisting in the perfect roundness of the pole and the considerably higher posts, which are also much thicker than those supporting the bars, the pole being set in them near the top, not upon them. The horizontal pole must be so high, that the person standing underneath can just touch the bar with his hands extended straight upwards. The pole must, of course, be of particularly solid wood, and must not turn, and the; supporting posts should stand firm.

The simplest and easiest exercises upon the bars are: (1) swinging to and fro, with a hand upon each rail, keeping the arms and body entirely stretched; (2) walking on the hands, one on each bar, the body perpendicular between the bars, and without moving the feet; (3) jumping backwards and forwards with both hands, at the same time, the body and feet following the same rule as in the second exercise.

An exercise particularly good for strengthening the chest and arms is the gradual raising and lowering of the body, while the hands remain firmly upon the bars, and no other movement being allowed to the legs than the bending of the knees to avoid touching the ground. Swinging and rocking the body between the rails is also a very healthy exercise.

The exercises upon the horizontal pole are hanging, swinging, and oscillating, which admit of a variety of the most difficult feats.

IV. Plate 4: Gymnasium and Acrobatics
Engraver: Henry Winkles

In the two upper panels of pl. 4, two gymnasia are represented. Figs. 1 and 2, are the two positions of the body in jumping over a cord, the feet drawn up together and the feet stretched apart: figs. 3, 4, and 12q, are the vaulting horse; fig. 3 representing the raising of the feet on leaving the saddle; fig. 4, the vaulting leap with closed feet over the crupper; fig. 12q, the leap up from behind. Figs. 5 and 6 represent leaping with a pole, fig. 5 being the side leap (lengthways), and fig. 6 the upward leap (over a high object). Fig. 7, wrestling, one of the combatants being in the act of lifting his opponent from the ground; fig. 8, dragging a load up a hill; fig. 9, the cord stretched by weights between two posts, which are so arranged that the cord may be fastened at different heights between them, by way of practising leaps of various degrees of difficulty; fig. 10, standing upon the hands, upon the bars, the head being downwards; fig. 11, climbing forwards upon the rounds of a ladder. Fig. 12a, the parallel bars; b, horizontal pole; c, balancing beam; d, large mast with cross-trees; e, posts; f, cross-beam; g, climbing pole; h, leaning pole; i, wooden ladder; k, rope ladder; l, ropes; m, knotted rope (for climbing); n, iron rings attached to ropes, used for swinging suspended by the hands; o, hand staples, and p, foot staples, for keeping the body extended horizontally in the air and in a secure manner.

IV. Plate 5: Equestrian Feats
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Balancing arts, as they are often exhibited publicly for money by itinerant performers, are likewise represented in pl. 4, in the lower panel. Gymnastic performers of the present day frequently exhibit dislocations of the limbs the most contrary to nature, so that all the limbs of the body appear inverted. Feats of the last mentioned kind came from England to the continents of Europe and America, having been originally brought to that island from the East Indies. Somersets form part of these feats, and we see, for example, at fig. 1, the backward somerset with the hands on the ground. The feats of the Bedouins which were exhibited in Europe originally by Bedouins, for instance the pyramids represented at figs. 2–4, are now frequently witnessed. We perceive further (fig. 5), balancing between two chairs, in which the equilibrist holds fast on the cross-pieces of two chairs, and then extends his body in the air, head downwards, and keeps on grasping higher and higher with his hands, until he reaches the topmost rounds. He also adjusts himself with the tips of his toes upon the top rounds of two chairs, which he then pushes slowly from each other, to such a distance that the extended legs are in an entirely horizontal position. Balancing upon the hands and feet, as represented at fig. 6, is frequently seen in our day; likewise athletic arts of every sort, especially large groups of athletes, in which the athlete (fig. 7) supports upon himself three or more persons in different picturesque attitudes. The bottle dance (fig. 8) introduced from England into other parts of the world, is a feat usually shown at exhibitions, involving the very difficult task of balancing on the necks of bottles. Among equilibristics belong also the feats of jugglers, which are of East Indian origin, of rope-dancers, and circus riders. In the latter, which usually take place only at public exhibitions of itinerant performers, the rider displays his dexterity on horses trained for the purpose. He shows his skill in the management of these animals by standing with perfect ease upon a horse that is running round in the circus, or he dances, or leaps, or assumes upon its back the most difficult attitudes. The English are particularly expert in this art (an art practised, however, even among the ancient Romans), for which reason equestrian performers are frequently called English riders in some parts of the continent of Europe. Of late, however. Frenchmen, Germans, Italians, and Americans, have successfully rivalled the English; Frenchmen especially in training horses. The Italians excel as rope-dancers. The public having become surfeited with performances of this kind, it is essential, by way of compensation for the necessity of seeing again that which has often been witnessed before, that the most exquisite horses, brilliant ornaments, and gorgeous costumes, should be produced; and that scenes more comprehensive in their character, in which a larger number of performers take a part, should be introduced. Noble and splendidly furnished circuses are to be found especially in London and Paris. Pl. 5 represents scenes from Franconi’s circus in Paris; fig. 1, a waltz; fig. 2, a quadrille on horseback; fig. 3, Olympic games.

Childebert I. erected a circus at Paris and Soissons, in order that the taste for Olympic games might in this way be revived; but his plan did not prove successful. In that age of true chivalry, tournaments alone possessed attractions for the people, and they retained their charm until, in consequence of Berthold Schwarz’s invention of gunpowder, the mode of carrying on war underwent an entire change, and genuine knighthood began to decline.

The taste for riding exercises and racing became common at an early day in England, and soon passed over to France, and with it also the love of equestrian performances. Large companies of equestrians were formed in the latter country; and one of the most celebrated of our time is that of Franconi & Laloue, who, in the year 1845, built at the extremity of the Elysian Fields the most magnificent circus of the age. It was capable of seating in its amphitheatre more than 15,000 spectators, and, although finished with painted boards, pasteboard, and paper, afforded a captivating spectacle by reason of its size and tasteful arrangements. It was burnt to the ground a year afterwards, but rebuilt even more tastefully.

The Scandinavians

The Scandinavians inhabit the peninsula of Jutland, the Danish islands, the whole of Norway and the southern part of Sweden, in the Scandinavian peninsula proper, as well as the maritime provinces almost all round the Gulf of Bothnia; a great portion of the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland; also Run Island and a small part of the island of Œsel, at the mouth of the Gulf of Riga. In Finland and Livonia, also, traces of their former dominion are visible. They had, in the eighth and ninth centuries, but one language, the Norman or ancient northern, the language of the skalds in the Edda. They are at present split into three divisions: Norwegians, Swedes, and Danes. The Swedish language is divided into the pure Swedish (the written language of the country) and the modern Gothic, which is spoken in the southern part of the kingdom. In like manner, the Danish language appears to be divided into two branches, the pure Danish and the Norwegian, which are, however, essentially the same languages, all the difference being in the enunciation.

The Swedes have a tall, slender figure, white complexion, blue eyes, and fair or brown hair. In the female sex, ease and grace of movement are united to a good figure. The character of the Swedes is firm and serious; they are religious and fond of their native land, their laws, and liberty; honest, unselfish, moral, and courageous, and at the same time hospitable and communicative. They are acute in judgment, but less quick of comprehension than the people of Southern Europe, and are slow, also, in the undertaking: and execution of their designs. The Swedes are fond of music and poetry The educated classes are very refined; the lower ones, though industrious, are poor and ignorant, owing to their frequent excesses in drinking.

The Norwegians, although they are not favorably disposed towards the Swedes, resemble them very much in their mode of life and disposition; they are, however, more vigorous, still more serious, and also more temperate than the latter. They are admirable soldiers and still better sailors. The majority of them are husbandmen, and men of this class usually wear a leather or coarse cloth jacket, which is fastened by a broad girdle ornamented with a single buckle. Shoes and gaiters generally form a part of the holiday dress; a broad brimmed felt hat, or a woollen cap, covers the head. The females are renowned for their beauty more than for their intellect. Though gay and fond of dressing and amusement, they are distinguished for their moral purity and domestic virtues.

The Dalecarlians, the inhabitants of Dalecarlia. a province in the north of Sweden (Nörland), have tall and large bodies, powerful but slender limbs, broad foreheads, deep-set dark blue eyes, high cheek bones, full lips, and broad, generally cleft, chins. Their long legs are singular, being nearly without calves. The women are somewhat stouter than the men, and have mostly broad, fresh faces, and small sparkling eyes. The disposition of the Dalecarlian is serious, quiet, and discreet. The sterility of their soil frequently compels them to seek employment in other provinces, often at a distance of two or three hundred miles, from their villages. They travel, thus, for example, to the Lappmarks, where they labor in the smelting works. Others go to the metropolis (Stockholm) and take with them for sale, house clocks, wooden utensils, and other products of their domestic industry. They are everywhere liked on account of their honesty. Their dress is mostly the Swedish; but, in some valleys of Dalecarlia, the very ancient white national dress is retained, which consists of a cowl-like overcoat of heavy white woollen stuff, with one row of buttons and wide sleeves, knee breeches of the same material, shoes, and stockings. Women and girls dress in white linen jackets and caps, white standing collars, woollen aprons, and red woollen stockings. Their houses, which are of but a single story, are covered with shingles and painted red at the corners.

The Finns, now that Finland has been ceded to Russia, are to be found only in a few of the more northern provinces of Sweden. They are vigorous, hale, and hardy, and have round full faces and fiery eyes. They are stern and rough like their country, frank, hospitable, obliging, pious, and inoffensive. They are simple and frugal in their way of living, have much taste for music and poetry, and are skilful in mechanical employments. They are engaged chiefly in cattle breeding, but attention is paid also to farming, hunting, and fishing.

The Lapps or Laplanders (pl. 12, fig. 5, Laplanders in their winter huts) are of the same stock as the Finns, live in the extreme north, and have remained until the present time without the admixture of any other people. They call themselves Sami, and their country Samiland. The last traces of paganism have of late years disappeared from among them, and the entire body of the people is now Christian. They are small, have short slender legs, very small feet, a broad depressed face, large prominent cheek bones, and brown or black hair. Their eyes are dark, and are frequently observed to be bleared, in consequence of the smoke which fills the huts of these people; and the opening of the eyelids is long, but narrow. The large broad ears stand off from the head; the mouth is small, the color of the face yellowish-brown. Their body is not vigorous, but very hardy and flexible, and hence the Laplanders are capable of enduring very great fatigues. They are distinguished also for agility, and are usually faithful and honest, gay and cheerful. They are almost always laughing and singing; their songs, however, are very monotonous. They are very communicative, inquisitive, and timorous. Kiches, which among them consist almost entirely of reindeer, are of great importance in their eyes. Upon the whole they are temperate, but still very fond of "whiskey and tobacco; and both sexes smoke and chew the latter article.

The Laplanders, according to their mode of life, are divided into Mountain or Reindeer Lapps, Forest Lapps, and Mendicant Lapps. Herds of reindeer furnish the first chiss with the means of subsistence. In summer they go into the mountains, and in winter roam about in the Lappmarks, on account of the wood found there. Their pyramidal huts, which are set up at their different places of sojourn, are about six feet high, and from fifteen to eighteen feet in circumference at the base. The floor is covered with twigs of the birch tree, upon which reindeer skins are laid. The entrance is small, and covered with a piece of cloth; and there is an opening above at the apex, through which the light enters and the smoke passes out. Stones are piled together upon the floor, in the middle of the hut, in the form of a parallelogram, and the fire burns in this inclosed space. When a place of residence is about to be changed, the huts, which are constructed of poles covered with coarse cloth, are struck, and placed upon reindeer. Rich Lapps frequently possess upwards of 1000 reindeer; the individual, however, who does not own more than 100 head is considered a poor man. The great usefulness of these animals to the Laplanders is well known.

The Forest Lapps have smaller herds of reindeer, which they drive into the forests to pasture. They practise fishing besides, and the Fishing Lapps support themselves almost exclusively by this means. The latter possess but few reindeer, which are pastured by the Mountain Lapps. The Fishing Lapps have both large and small boats upon the lakes. The larger vessels are purchased; the smaller, which are built by themselves, are fastened together only with ropes and roots of trees.

The Mendicant Laps are employed as herdsmen or day laborers, or go begging. These, as well as the Forest Lapps and Fishing Lapps, are, for the most part, impoverished Reindeer Lapps, who have lost their cattle by misfortune, or sacrificed them to their love of whiskey. Poverty gains upon them continually; and as more than two children are seldom found in a family, the number of people is constantly diminishing. The dress of both the sexes is very much the same. Reindeer skins, with the hair turned outward, constitute their winter coats. A long coat is worn under these instead of a shirt. In summer the coats are of cloth or leather. At the belt which holds the coat, hangs a sheath in which are placed a knife and other utensils; the tobacco pipe is also suspended at the belt. The shoes, made of reindeer leather, are filled with hay. The head is covered with a small cap, or a high conical red, blue, or green cloth cap, that of the men being somewhat higher than that of the female.

The Lapps are good hunters. Their guns are furnished with rifle-barrels, and very simple locks. Wolves and bears are the animals chiefly slain by them with this weapon. They shoot squirrels with cross-bow and bolts in order that the skin may not be injured. Reindeer are taken with ropes, which the hunters know how to throw in a skilful manner around these animals. The Lapps employ their time in winter in making their clothes, and in manufacturing wooden-ware for sale, which they bring to market and purchase other articles with the proceeds. The sleighs of the Laplanders are very narrow, only one foot high, pointed in front, and are furnished with an upright board behind, against which the driver leans. When travelling on foot, large snow shoes are worn. These are boards cut out in the shape of a boat over four feet in length, fastened to the feet, and on which they glide swiftly along over the snow with great dexterity. Very recently, a great number of families have at length begun to construct fixed habitations for themselves, and to pursue husbandry and cattle breeding.

The Danes no longer resemble their forefathers. They have small, compact bodies, a mild disposition, are thoughtful, industrious, frugal, just, and fond of peace, not adventurous and warlike like their ancestors, and very hospitable, though cautious towards strangers. As respects dress they differ but little from the inhabitants of North Germany. The population of the towns and cities, especially on the islands, are generally thoroughly educated and devoted to the sciences and the fine arts. Society is very refined. They are less musical than the Swedes. The country people of Jutland and Friesland, as well as the peasantry of the islands, are more vigorously formed and have ruder manners.

The English People

This people inhabit Great Britain and the adjacent islands. They are descended from a mixture of Celts, Gauls, Scandinavians, Saxons, Normans, and probably other tribes, who came over from the continent at different times; and each, in its turn, yielding more or less to the invader, withdrew to remote districts of the country, where they remained comparatively unmolested. Hence have arisen those sectional peculiarities, which so strongly characterize various portions of the British Islands; hence those differences of physiognomy, so well defined even at the present day: hence those varieties of habits and dispositions, which centuries have failed to efface.

The ancient Celtic or Gaelic language is still spoken more or less in Wales, in the Islands and Highlands of Scotland, in Ireland, and, till very lately, in the county of Cornwall; and remains of the Danish dialect may be found in the county of Northumberland, where the Danes were most thickly settled. But the English language is now spoken by all who have received the rudiments of education; like the people, it exhibits unmistakable traces of its miscellaneous origin, and the Saxon, Danish, Celtic, Norman, Latin, French, and Greek, with some others, contribute largely to its copiousness and significance.

Though the sectional distinctions of language are gradually becoming less conspicuous, the form and features of the several races still offer such marked distinctions as to merit particular notice. Among the English, the head is somewhat flattened at the sides, but the upper part is well developed; the Scotch have the skull broad, and partially flattened at the back. The latter are also distinguished by high cheek bones and strongly marked features. The head of the Irish is narrower than that of either the English or Scotch, and the region immediately above the forehead is frequently much depressed. The forms of the English and Irish are more rounded than those of the Scotch, and the features are less prominent.

The differences of race are equally well defined in the mental characteristics as in the physical conformation of the natives of these islands. The Englishman possesses an energetic spirit; is industrious and fond of the useful sciences, and passionately addicted to the sports of the held. In private, he is a hospitable and agreeable companion; but in public he is reserved and unsociable. The English nobility are the only individuals in the nation who enjoy rank and privileges differing from those of the other subjects. They are mostly landed proprietors, and are mainly occupied with their legislative duties, the care of their estates, and the promotion of the arts and sciences by their patronage and example. The mercantile and manufacturing classes are those on whose industry the welfare of the community mainly depends, and the recent repeal and relaxation of many stringent laws affecting the operations of commerce are a striking proof of their growing power and ascendency in political affairs. The mechanics and cultivators of the soil are, generally speaking, in a better condition than those of the same class in other European countries; but much distress has of late prevailed, especially among the agriculturists, into the causes of which it is not our province to enter. The Protestant Episcopal is the prevailing form of worship.

The Welsh, who, from the mountainous character of their country, have succeeded in preserving their primitive usages almost unimpaired to the present day, are the descendants of the original Britons. They are choleric, honest, brave, and hospitable. Proud of their nationality, they cling to their language as its most conspicuous symbol. This latter characteristic has been a great obstacle to the educational advancement of the people; hence, especially in the rural districts, much ignorance prevails. Several circumstances have occurred of late years which have drawn the attention of Parliament to the condition of Wales; and we believe a strenuous effort has been made to introduce the English language, as a preliminary step to the general improvement of the people.

The inhabitants of the southern part of Scotland have, by long and intimate association with the English, been divested of most of their distinctive traits; and in language, habits, and dress, a general similarity prevails between them and their southern neighbors. But the natives of the Highlands and the neighboring islands have not entirely lost their individuality; and though their picturesque attire, their habits of roving, and their continual feuds with each other and their Lowland neighbors, are now matters of tradition, and the ruthless highland cateran has been converted into the peaceful drover, the primitive habits of former times may still be found in remote districts, and the Gaelic language still lingers on the domestic hearth. However, the days of these relics of the olden time are numbered, and the steam car and the steam press are silently doing what the sword had failed to accomplish.

The Scotch are a bold and hardy people; industrious, thrifty, and persevering; shrewd and cautious in their business undertakings; honest, hospitable, kind-hearted, and friendly; proud of their country and its history. The lower orders are generally better instructed than the corresponding classes in England. The form of religion is the Presbyterian.

The population of Ireland is of Gaelic origin. As in the case of Wales, the ancient language of the country, which is a dialect of the Celtic, is much in use even at the present day, and probably with much the same disadvantageous results. But the social and domestic condition of the Irish is far inferior to that of the inhabitants of the sister kingdom. Though the land is fertile and the climate propitious, scientific agriculture, as a general thing, is unknown; the soil is not half cultivated, the manufactures are only nominal, and the great mass of the people are in a state of abject destitution. If we seek for the cause of this anomalous condition, we are lost in a maze of contradictory evidence; books and newspapers are filled with discussions on the subject, but the cause or causes elude the keenest research, and unhappy Ireland still remains an object of wonder and compassion to the whole civilized world. The prevailing religion is the Roman Catholic.

The character of the Irishman, like his physical conformation, exhibits distinguishing features from that of the English and Scotch. He is far more impulsive than either; bold, even to rashness; patriotic, generous, and hospitable; quick tempered; overflowing with fun and frolic, and witty by birthright; fond of music, singing, and dancing. He is, however, too frequently revengeful, extravagant, and idle; the slave of prejudice and superstition; and more inclined to repine at than to repair his moral and physical condition. The state of education is exceedingly low.

IV. Plate 6: Races and a Ball
Engraver: Henry Winkles

To return to the English, who, as the leading race, may be considered as the type of the national character of the inhabitants of the British Islands, we may remark that they are especially distinguished for bodily vigor, activity, and muscular strength. This characteristic is attributable to the fondness for athletic sports which is common to all classes; and yachting, hunting, racing, boxing, wrestling, cricket, quoits, and other manly exercises, which call for the display of skill and strength, are popular diversions. Pl. 6, fig. 1, represents a horse race. Races take place at regular intervals, on established race-courses, in different parts of the country, the most celebrated being at Ascot, Doncaster, Epsom, and Newmarket. They are attended by crowds of the nobility and fashionables, and royalty itself is often present. The prizes run for are made up by subscription. The betting is generally very heavy, and a favorite horse is frequently backed up to a large amount. Fig. 2 represents a steeple chase, so called from some prominent object at a distance being selected as a goal, when the contending parties ride across the open country in as straight a line as the numerous natural and artificial impediments admit. This is a dangerous sport, and many accidents have occurred from desperate leaps and headlong riding through every obstacle.

IV. Plate 7: Scenes of Public Events
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Pl. 7. fig. 3, represents a public meeting. The speaker is mounted on a stand, surrounded by his friends with banners and badges, and haranguing in a style which all acquainted with electioneering tactics will readily comprehend.

The Englishman’s house is distinguished less by external splendor than by neatness, and an appearance of comfort which invests it peculiarly with the air of a home. As regards dress, the Parisian style is generally followed.

Agriculture has been carried to a high state of perfection in England; and the face of the country, with its trim inclosures, has the appearance of a continued garden to those coming from lands less highly cultivated. A knowledge of the theory and practice of the rotation of crops, draining, and deep tillage, is widely diffused; and the breeding and rearing of cattle, and farming stock in general, are carefully attended to. The working farmers are generally tenants of the large landed proprietors. Small properties are not common, partly in consequence of the operation of the laws of entail and primogeniture.

The Russians

The Russians are, in general, of medium size, well set, and compact; have large bones, and full, solid, tough muscles, black or blackish-brown hair, twinkling black or blackish-brown eyes, and prominent cheek bones. Their Slavonic character is, in general, distinctly visible; of the higher classes only this does not always hold good. The latter have frequently not only perfect figures, but also a taller stature, on an average, than the lower classes. Blooming complexions are very rarely seen among the common people of Russia; the color of their skin passes into yellowish; and reddish or reddish-brown hair is very frequent.

IV. Plate 10: Russian and Caucasian Tribes
Engraver: Henry Winkles

With regard to dress, the Russians, even people of rank, still adhere to their old national costume. They bid defiance to the terrible cold in winter by long fur coats, warm boots and fur caps. The common people, however, only wrap their legs with bandages of linen, or pieces of woollen stuff or felt, and then cover their feet with shoes made of bast. Their fur coats are generally made of sheepskins; people of rank, on the other hand, offten pay prodigious sums for the rarest furs. In summer, the common Russian leaves the head and feet uncovered, and wears no cravat; his cloth coat (kaftan) reaches below the knee, and crosses over the breast, where it is fastened by metal buttons. A girdle of woollen stuff, linen, &c., is worn around the waist. The merchants wear long cloth coats, which reach almost down to the feet, fit closely, and are buttoned over the breast. These coats are without pockets, and have numerous gathers on the lower part. They tie a silk sash around the body, and usually permit the beard to grow long. The color generally esteemed in Russia is green, and most of the uniforms of the soldiers and civil officers are of that color. Women of the lowest ranks wear a short blue cloth petticoat, with a border of some other color. The stomacher is fastened with one row of buttons, and upon the head they wear a light-colored figured handkerchief, tied under the chin. Married female villagers conceal all their hair under the handkerchief; the unmarried, on the contrary, wear it combed smooth and tied together at the end with a riband (pl. 11, figs. 1, 2, and 4). The wives of the artisans and merchants are dressed with more taste. Their peculiar caps are usually of velvet trimmed with gold, and of divers forms; the most oddly shaped are worn in Kaluga. They are called “kokoshniks.” Those worn on Sundays and holidays are made of gold brocade, and embroidered in flowers of gold and silver. The highest classes are dressed like people of the same rank everywhere in Europe. Pl. 10, figs. 4 and 5, country people of Little Russia; figs. 6 and 7, a Russian shopkeeper and his wife; figs. 8–10, fishermen of the Volga; fig. 11, wife of a citizen of Nishni Novgorod; figs. 12 and 13, country people from the district of Twer; fig. 14, girl from the Ukraine; fig. 16, peasant from the vicinity of Moscow. The peasants’ houses of the Russians are usually log cabins (pl. 12, figs. 3 and 4).

The villages in Russia are mostly small, but long, as they have but one street. In the southern part of the Government of Voronesh, and in many other regions of Russia, however, we find also large and handsome villages, where the houses are built of stone. The people of Little Russia have houses of loam and wicker-work, that are whitewashed within and without. The villages in the military colonies present a very cheerful appearance, especially those of the German colonists.

The villages of the Don Cossacks are composed, for the most part, of well built, neat houses. The dwellings of the Tartars upon the shores of the Crimea are neater than those of the Russian common people and Poles, and their roofs are generally fiat. The Esthes and Lettes do not live much better than the Poles and Lithuanians. The habitations of the Finns usually present a very miserable appearance; a few holes supply the place of windows, and a breach in the roof serves in place of a chimney. Those on the sea coast are better than those in the interior of the country.

IV. Plate 11: Scenes of Russian Life
Engraver: Henry Winkles
IV. Plate 12: Scenes of Russian Life
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The serving classes (peasants and menials) are still, as a general rule, treated very harshly. The opinion that the Russian can be governed only by blows, is too deeply rooted. The usual punishments are blows of the knout, in which the distinction into the great and small knout is made (pl. 11, figs. 4 and 5).

Hospitality is everywhere met with in Russia, owing in a measure, probably, to the general cheapness of victuals, which are only more expensive in a few districts. The Russians are fond of social pleasures, and hence like to meet in their domestic circles for the purpose of amusing themselves. The long winter evenings are devoted, in particular, to these social gatherings, where, after work is over, they have a very merry time of it. You not unfrequently see rural farces and regular masquerades performed by the young people of both sexes, who flavor them with jokes, sometimes of a rather practical nature. A game of forfeits, or a dance to simple music, usually closes the whole affair. The older people amuse themselves meanwhile with card playing, droughts, or chess. The two latter games are in universal favor. Russian country people not unfrequently practise, as a pastime, jumping on a board and bone-playing, in the manner represented in pl. 11, at figs. 1 and 2. Skating, sledge riding, and sliding down the ice-course, are, in winter, next to dancing, the principal recreations. The peculiar structure called the ice-course, or gliding-hill, is represented in pl. 12, fig. 1. The Russian national dance, which is pantomimic in its character, and in which the woman at one time approaches the man and then retires from him, is represented at fig. 3. At the entertainments of people of rank in the principal cities of Russia, great abundance and luxury prevail, regulated by a refined taste. The wealth is displayed chiefly by the number of servants and by the abundance and splendor of the tables, at which, moreover, there are no rules of precedence, the most distinguished persons often sitting in the midst of unimportant characters. Good wines, chiefly champagne, are provided in abundance.

The Russians are accustomed, from childhood, to frequent bathing; even the poor Russian peasant bathes at least once in the week, or oftener. As each house has its bath room, the bath is not refused even to the beggar, still less to the guest. It is a singular circumstance, that both sexes, at least among the poorer classes of the people, bathe promiscuously. (Pl. 11, fig. 3, a Russian public vapor bath.)

Petty thefts are not unfrequent in Russia: highway robberies and burglaries, on the contrary, are almost unknown there. A Russian, moreover, will not steal household utensils, in his own country; such articles are inviolable with him, and he lays hold of other things to which he may have taken a fancy. Hoftman, in speaking of the pilferings of the Russians, says: “My love for the Russian nation, which I have no desire to conceal, need not prevent me from mentioning; some things which cannot be reckoned among; those worthy of admiration. Where, however, so much kindness, such a groundwork of true moral feeling exists, as is the case with these unsophisticated men, it cannot be difficult also to extirpate these remaining blemishes, even to their last vestiges. The most certain known means of protection against a thief within doors, is to take him into your own service. From that moment you are certain not only to be robbed no more by your new domestic, but to possess in him also the best guard against all other thieves, as it becomes with him a point d’honneur to repress all pilfering, by reason of which suspicion might fall upon himself; the opinion being held by the man of the common ranks of life, that he may perhaps steal certain articles of trifling value from strangers, without on that account being considered directly dishonest; but to defraud his own master, according to his idea of the matter, is a heinous and inexcusable sin.”

The Russians of the lowest classes are accustomed to simple fare. Buckwheat groats, and, among the inhabitants of Little Russia, millet groats, are frequently eaten: sour krout, pickled beets, onions, cucumbers, and dried fish, are favorite food; and in the evening, milk, honey and bread constitute the frugal supper. The bread is mostly baked of rye meal, crushed wheat, and buckwheat meal. Meat is served only on Sundays and holidays. Quas, or kwas, is the usual drink, as well among people of the higher as among those of the lower classes of society. This beverage is composed of water and meal, or malt, has a sour taste, and may be compared to sour small beer. It is often improved by lemon peel and spices. In winter a warm drink is commonly prepared from winter, honey, and Cayenne pepper, which is called “sbitin.” In the western part of the Russian Empire, a great deal of mead is consumed, and whiskey is a customary drink throughout the country. Expensive as is the latter, even the poorest man contrives to procure it. Drunkenness is rather common in Russia; and the Russian not only sympathizes with an intoxicated man, but has a kind regard for him, and lends him a helping hand as if he were a saint. This arises, perhaps, from the fact that the common people know full well that they have often been found in the same condition, and may often get into it again. It is remarkable that the Russians, even under the influence of whiskey, are uncommonly peaceable. The quarrelsome Russian is rendered meek by this fluid, and disputes and brawls seldom occur among drunken persons. The bitterest enemies, when drunk, treat one another like the tenderest friends. Tea, also, in large quantities, is drunk in Russia.

We mention, in conclusion, a few of the Russian festivals. The merriest time for the Russian is the so-called “butter week,” the Russian carnival; since at the close of this week the Easter Lent commences, a fast which continues fifty-six days. It has obtained its name butter week (masliza) from the circumstance, that in it, if even no meat, yet a little butter, milk, and eggs are permitted to be eaten. The masliza bear is one of the sports of the season. A man in a bearskin is the principal figure. Seated on a low sleigh he is drawn all about town amidst unlimited fun. Whiskey, of course, is the grand stimulus, and the bear is allowed his due share. The Semick is a popular festival held on the Sunday after Ascension day, a kind of celebration of spring, which has come down from the times of Slavonic heathenism. At Christmas masquerades are held, known as akrutshniks, and which last a fortnight. Easter week, which concludes the long period of rigorous fasting, is celebrated by all classes of people with great rejoicing and universal merry-making. On Easter day at midnight all church bells toll, calling to solemn worship, and everybody goes to hear the night mass. The universal salutation between friends or strangers on Easter day is the phrase, “Christ is arisen;” to which is answered, “He is in truth arisen.” On Easter Monday presents of Easter eggs are given and received. All kinds of gifts are, however, on this day called Easter eggs.

On the sixth day of January, at the feast of the Epiphany, the consecration of water, in remembrance of the baptism of Christ in the Jordan, is celebrated in Russia, principally in St. Petersburg, with great pomp (pl. 7, fig. 2). The celebration is held upon the ice of the Neva. A hole is cut in the ice, which Is named the Jordan. After the customary prayers, the priesthood repair thither in their richest robes, followed by the imperial family and the entire court. All the troops are under arms with flying colors. One of the priests hereupon consecrates the water of the Neva, dipping the holy cross thrice In the Hood, and pronouncing the words of consecration. Then he fills a vessel with the water, with which he sprinkles the clergy and all other attendants. Discharges of artillery conclude the solemnities proper. As soon, however, as the court have withdrawn, all hasten to the Jordan to fetch water for themselves, which, according to the opinion of the common people of Russia, will remain for years pure as the clearest spring water, and will have the power of healing diseases.

On the evening previous to the feast of St. John, bonfires are kindled in many places, which are visited by processions of the people (pl. 12, fig. 4).

Pl. 10. figs. 1–3, represent characters from the early history of Russia, to wit: figs. 1 and 2, two Strielzi; and fig. 3, a soldier of the old Russian Polish Guard. The Strielzi or Strolzi, signifying riflemen, were a Russian militia established in the latter part of the sixteenth century by Czar Ivan Vasilijewitsh as his life-guards. They numbered from 30,000 to 40,000, and were clad and armed entirely in the ancient Russian style. The Strielzi were the best troops of the Russian army at that time, but stubbornly attached to their ancient regulations and privileges. Indeed, they soon acquired the general consequence and character of the Janizaries. They rebelled more than once; and Peter the Great at length found himself under the necessity of disbanding the few remnants of the once formidable body, in 1705.

The Russians are the most important of the Slavonic nations, partly on account of their prodigious number, and their extension over a very large territory, partly on account of the commanding position maintained by their sovereign in Europe. The Russian race rule from the Black Sea to the Arctic Ocean, from the Vistula and Wartha as far as Kamschatka and Sitka. The Russians are usually divided into: (1.) Little-Russians, who inhabit the entire southern portion of Russia, Galicia, and the northeastern part of Hungary; (2.) White-Russians, along the borders of Poland and Lithuania, bounded by the territories of the Little-Russians in the south, the Great-Russians in the east, and the Novogorodians in the north; (3.) Great-Russians, or the Russians proper, who form the centre of the Russian power; (4.) Novogorodians, the inhabitants of the former republic of Novogorod, whose independence was superseded by the monarchical rule of the Great-Russians.

The Russian territory includes not only European, but also Asiatic and American countries; and Asiatic Russia comprehends almost one third part of the whole continent of Asia. The inhabitants of Asiatic Russia are partly of Slavonic stock (Russians and Cossacks); partly Finns (Permians, Woguls, Tchuwaches, Tchcremisses, Wotiaks, Morduines, Ostiaks); Tartars (Tartars proper, Karakalpaks, Bashkirs, Kirghiz Teloites, Yakoutes); Armenians, Circassians (Lesghians. Kistes, Ossctes, Circassians, Abasians, Mingrelians, Imeritians, Georgians); Mongols (Calmucs, Burates, Tunguses, &c.); and finally, the inhabitants of the extreme north. Samoyedes, Ostiaks of Narim, several East-Siberian tribes, as the Kamschatkians, Koriaks, Tchouktches, Kuriles, Aleoutes, and Europeans and Asiatics of other stocks scattered in different parts.

We shall give the characteristics of most of these stocks under this head, although they properly belong to the section relating to the people of Asia.

The Cossacks (pl. 1, fig. 4, and pl. 10, fig. 15) are a stock of people in Little-Russia, who probably derive their name from the word kosack, a word which in Turkish signifies “robber,” but in the Tartar language, “light horse.” Apparently, they are of Tartaric origin. The form of their bodies is, in general, handsome. Their language is the Russian, with which, however, they have mingled many Polish, Turkish, and West European words. They live in small houses, fifty or one hundred of which constitute a village (stanitza). These villages are situated upon rivers, have unpaved streets, one or more churches, and an earthen rampart as a fortification. The occupations of the Cossacks consist, in time of peace, in the rearing of horses, sheep, and bees, in horticulture, and the cultivation of the vine. Their agriculture embraces the ordinary products of the fields, and they manufacture whatever is necessary in their households. Tradesmen proper are also found in many places. In time of war they serve as light cavalry. Their principal weapon is the lance; but they have the sabre and pistols besides, and in case of necessity also bows and arrows. In a regular attack only the fine truly military regiments are employed, especially the Don Cossacks; the others are formidable on account of the great steadiness of their small horses, and their indefatigability in oft repeated charges. They are the terror of flying, enemies, and fearful in their attacks upon the baggage. Their assault is irregular, and with a loud hurrah. They are employed chiefly in the advanced posts service and as patroles, being distinguished for the extraordinary acuteness of their senses. The regiments are not all dressed in uniform. The Don Cossacks of the guard have a uniform consisting of a blue jacket, wide blue trowsers, and a fur cap with a light blue or red bag at the top of it, or a blue cloth cap with a red band. The black leather belts are ornamented with silver or tin. Dress, arms, equipments, and horses are provided by them at their own expense. The Cossack sits very high upon his horse, as the saddle forms a soft round cushion very thickly upholstered, under which he moreover keeps his clothes and booty. Their commander-in-chief is only confirmed by the Russian government, being chosen by themselves. According to their different districts, they are divided into regiments or pulks of 500 to 3000 men, commanded by a colonel (ataman, hetman, pokolnik); and companies led by a captain (sotnik), the company always having an ensign (kharunsha). A commander-in-chief (ataman, woiskowi), holding the rank of general, commands the collective body of all the regiments. The rest of the officers do not hold any military rank; and it is considered no disgrace among the Cossacks to be at one time an officer and at another a common soldier. The time of service from the eighteenth to the fiftieth year. They are estimated at about 800,000 fighting men; the whole population, however, at three millions. From the collective body of the Cossack pulks the tallest and finest-looking men are usually formed into Cossack guards. In the war of 1812–14, the Russians had recruited peasants also, who went to war in their peasant dress, and were known as peasant Cossacks. Pl. 12, fig. 2, serfs on the Don upon the march.

The Tartars are slender and of medium height, have an oval head, handsome regular features, small, sparkling, mostly black eyes, a fine, downwardly arched nose, small lips, strong white teeth, and dark hair. In their movements they are active. The men are more lively than the women, and the latter rouge their faces and dress very untastefully. They are frank, hospitable, and friendly towards strangers, neater, and more orderly than their neighbors, fond of comfort without being lazy, and jealous of their honor. They are of the Mohammedan religion. Reading and writing; are tau2;ht in the schools, and the girls are instructed also in sewing and the art of embroidery in gold and silver upon leather. The male dress usually consists of a linen shirt; a fancy striped, long, close-fitting; undercoat of half silk stuff; linen or chintz trowsers; a fancy colored overcoat, somewhat like a dressing-gown, manufactured of cotton or linen stuff, and a handkerchief of similar material that is tied around the waist. Their yellow or green morocco boots have soft soles, and their slippers of the same, or of sheepskin, are without heels. Instead of a turban, the poorer people wear a fur cap. In winter, the sheepskin coat and other articles of the Russian dress are worn.

IV. Plate 16: Scenes of Eastern Life
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Females wear cotton or silk (usually red) chemises, with long sleeves hanging down over the arms, wide trowsers, leather stockings, and a dress of fancy colored stuff, fastened with a neat clasp. Their finery consists of a string of beads, with coins, small plates of metal, and gilt balls; or instead of this necklace, a case with amulets or perfumery: bracelets adorned with pearls and stones, and golden ear and finger rings. They blacken their beautiful teeth with a powder of copperas and nutgalls, and paint their nails red. The head-dress varies. Some wrap a handkerchief around the neck and head, in such a manner as to leave only the face uncovered; and many place over it a net, from which long cords hang down behind. Pl. 16, figs. 4 and 5, a Tartar family.

A portion of the Tartars have permanent places of abode, and dwell in wooden buildings, with windows of glass or mica (among the poor, of fish skin or oiled paper). The roofs are usually flat. The nomadic Tartars are less neat, and live in small buildings without windows, and with an opening at top instead of a chimney. These tents are not taken apart when a migration occurs, but are removed on carts as they stand, from one spot to another.

The Tartars collectively are a free people. Their princes are called Murses, their chiefs Baschliks. The Mufti is their spiritual head; the higher priests are termed Achums, the lower, Mollas. Their mosques are known as Medsched.

They are expert in riding to an extraordinary degree, and sometimes have horse races. (Fig. 6.)

The Caucasians, that is to say, the nations which have inhabited the Caucasus since the historical era, form three great divisions, according to their languages, viz., the Lesghi, or East Caucasians; the Mizdshegi, or Kistes, Middle Caucasians; and the Circassian and Abasian tribes, or West Caucasians. Many other nations, as, for example, the Ossetes, Georgians, and Bassians (the last of Turkish origin), settled in the Caucasus and its southern borders only in later times.

The Lesghi, Lesghians, or Lesghines, are the inhabitants of the eastern part of the Caucasian range, lying between the Koisu, the Alasane Rivers, and the plains on the shores of the Caspian Sea, and which is called by the Turkish and other Asiatic people, Daghestan, i. e. “hilly country,” or Lesghistan, i. e. land of the Lesghi. The Lesghi are divided into numerous small tribes of people, most of whom have lived in the Caucasus for a very long time, as even Strabo and Plutarch speak of them; they appear to have mixed since with other stocks. Klaproth conjectures that the wari, a Lesghian tribe inhabiting the Chundsah, might perhaps have descended from the ancient wari, who were the second branch of the Huns. Like all Caucasians, the Lesschi are savage, cruel, rapacious, and always ready to serve any one who will pay them. Their daring courage often borders on foolhardiness. Their weapons are gun, sword, and dagger, which are used with great dexterity; they are, however, good archers also (pl. 15, fig. 18). They are as good footmen as horsemen, and bear the fatigues of a compaign with great patience, provided their pay is only regular. Their bravery is so great, that their participation has decided many battles. Most of the Lesghi are Mohammedans of the sect of the Sunnites; among a few stocks, however, faint traces of Christianity are still found. The most powerful stocks are the Kasi-Kumucs, Avari, Akooshahs, and Koulitshi.

The Mizdshegi or Kistes. to the west and north-west of the Lesghi, are still more decided robbers than the latter, and the Russians have as yet failed to subjugate them. The most barbarous of them are the Tshetshentzes, the stock inhabiting the country watered by the Gicha, Earthan, Argun, and the Dsahlk Rivers. To the west of them live the Karabulak; and the western-most stock are the Ingoushes, who are less rapacious, and almost entirely subjected to the Russians.

The Circassians and Abasians of our day inhabit the country extending from the Upper Kuban to the Black Sea.

The Abasians (pl. 10, fig. 24) appear never to have left the coasts of the Black Sea and the western part of the mountain range. They call themselves Absne, or Abene; they are termed, however, by the Russians and Turks Abasa, and by the Georgians Abchassi, from which Europeans have made Abases, Abasians, Afjases, Abgasetes, &c. They resemble the Circassians in manners, dress, and ceremonies, their languages being also related to each other. The Abasians are agriculturists, but live chiefly by cattle breeding. Their large and handsome breed of horses is renowned. Their possessions extended in former times to a much greater distance than at present, the Circassians having pushed them back to the mountains. They became converted to Christianity by the Byzantine emperors. In the eighteenth century, however, they were reduced to subjection by the Turks, and compelled to adopt Islamism. Subsequently, in the year 1771, they revolted against the Porte and returned to their ancient superstition, which they preferred to newer doctrines. Piracies are frequently committed by them; their vessels, however, are mere rowing boats, and being without cannon are not dangerous, at least to ships of war. In earlier times, many young Abasians went to Egypt, and there sold themselves as slaves to Mamelouks and to the princes of the country, in order, in this way, to make their fortunes, and by personal valor to obtain a distinguished military position; and many have actually succeeded in attaining these objects. The Abasian women are handsome, and as much in demand for the Turkish harems as the Circassians.

The Circassians inhabit Great and Little Kabardah, and the country beyond the Kuban, as far as the Black Sea, call themselves Nobles, and were known in the middle ages as Sikhs. Formerly they dwelt still further towards the north, but have been pushed back by the Russians below the Terek and Kuban Rivers. Those inhabiting Great and Little Kabardah are usually called Kabardes, or Kabardines.

The people are divided into five strictly defined classes. The class of “psheh” comprehends the princes; the second class, the ancient nobles, who are called “work” in the language of the country; the third class, the freedmen of the princes and ancient nobles, who, however, remain bound to serve in war under their late lords; the fourth class is composed of the freedmen of the new nobles; and the fifth, of the serfs, “tchokotl,” who are partly the property of the higher classes and partly of the country people. The several branches of the princely families have again families under them, and under the latter are peasants as hereditary property. The nobles together with their serfs can pass over from one prince to another. In this manner certain princes acquire ascendency over others. Nobles and princes are lords of the serfs, even as far as life and death are concerned. Before Islamism was established amongst the Circassians, the princes had, however, still greater privileges than at present.

Old age is held in high respect by the Circassians, and hence the most aged of each class meet in council on important affairs. There are neither fixed places of administering justice nor written laws. Judgment is passed according to old usages; the meeting, at which the princes preside, are held in the forests, and at them almost all matters are judged. If the family of a slain person do not demand the blood of the murderer, but are willing to enter into a composition with him. the assembly assesses the fine to be paid down by the slayer. The disturber of the public peace is also fined in money, and thieves who are caught in the act are obliged to restore many times the value of the stolen articles. Thefts accomplished with adroitness, however, do not bring disgrace upon the perpetrator, but are considered almost as meritorious as skilfully executed expeditions of war. Hence all take pains to learn the art of stealing cleverly; and the greatest reproach which a girl can make to a young man, is to say to him that he has not been able to steal even a cow.

Hospitality is esteemed a sacred duty by the Circassians, and is fully carried out among them.

When a child is born to a prince, the father prepares a great festival. If it is a son, he delivers the child, on the third day after its birth, to one of his nobles, to be brought up by him. The guardian obtains a wetnurse for the child, and she gives him a name. The son never visits his father before his marriage, hence the love of both towards each other cannot be very great. The person who inquires after the health of the consort and children of a prince commits a grave offence against the laws of etiquette, and excites great indignation on the part of the latter by such a proceeding. Sons of noblemen are committed to the care of a guardian of similar rank, but not until their third or fourth year. The tutor chooses the consort for the young prince; and, when the presents which the parents of the chosen bride are entitled to have been offered and accepted, the prince, accompanied by a friend, kidnaps the lady, the companion taking her before him upon his horse. They then ride at full gallop to the house of the bride-groom’s parents, where the friend introduces the bride. She thereupon is conducted to the chamber selected for the newly married couple, where she awaits the bridegroom. The young groom remains in the forest until he is called by his friend, and conducted by him into the presence of his wife, which is not done before all the inmates of the house are supposed to be asleep.

The Circassians are, in general, well formed, and the men in particular are distinguished for their handsome figures; and as they employ every means to keep themselves slender, fine forms are very common. They are of medium size, of great nerve, and only very rarely stout. The shoulders and chest are broad, but the lower part of the body is very narrow. The hair and eyes are brown; the head is high and narrow, the nose thin and straight. The Circassian women are always deemed the handsomest in the entire Caucasus, yet those of Georgia greatly excel them in beauty. A turned up nose and red hair are not uncommon amongst them, but are never found amongst the Georgians.

The men wear their beards, or at least moustaches, but shave off the hair of the head. The dress is easy and neat. The head is covered with a cap sometimes higher and melon shaped, sometimes lower, stuffed out with cotton and quilted. People of distinction wear it generally of white color trimmed with gold and silver lace, the lower classes of dark color edged with fancy colors. Upon each side of the breast of the short light coat is found a pocket sewed throughout in such a manner as to form numerous tubular divisions, which are used as receptacles for cartridges. The long trowsers fit closely, and with men of rank are frequently ornamented with gold and silver lace; and the morocco boots, which might with greater propriety be called socks, are adorned in a similar manner. The lower garment is of fine light stuff, and mostly white. Over this, the man of rank wears a shorter rich waistcoat, either with or without a skirt. The latter, if present, Is made of thicker material, of cloth or fur. Upon state occasions princes and nobles wear a coat of mail and full armor, instead of the under garment. This coat of mail is ingeniously composed of polished steel rings; and from the hinder part and sides of the helmet, made in a similar manner and pointed at top, a piece of the same durable network hanirs down and serves as a defence to the neck and shoulders. The armlets also are of polished steel. A broad black belt is tightly fastened above the hips, and serves at the same time as a receptacle for the dagger and pistols. A narrower one hangs around the hips, supporting the bow and quiver with the arrows. The sabre seldom leaves the side of the Circassian, even in the house. The common people wear clothes made of coarser material, and almost always over them a cloak of fulled shaggy felt, which they call burki, and do not willingly lay aside even in the greatest heats of summer. When the Circassian of the lower classes walks or rides abroad, and takes with him neither sword nor gun, he never omits to arm himself with a long, strong stick, furnished at top with a heavy iron knob, and at bottom with a sharp ferule of the same metal almost two spans long, which he can use also as a javelin. (Pl. 10, fig. 17, Circassian prince of the Great Kabardah; fig. 18, Circassians of rank in the house dress; and figs. 19 and 20. in war equipments.)

The women cover the head with a white cloth which lies flat over the forehead and is fastened under the chin; but the girls wear caps with embroidery and lace similar to those of the men. The hair is braided into a thick plait behind, which they cover over with linen. The under garment reaches to the ankles, and has long sleeves. It is open in front and held together by lacings; the over gown, whose sleeves are cut open, is not fastened at top in front. Women of rank choose different fancy colors and fine stuffs for these articles of dress, and trim them with gold and silver lace. Married women wear wide trowsers, and all cover the feet with close-fitting boots or rather socks, ornamented at the edges with embroidery or lace; and over these, when going abroad, they put on stilt shoes. A broad belt or corset is secured or fastened with clasps around girls after the tenth year, which compresses the waist very much, and is not to be removed before their marriage. This small wasp-like waist is considered a great beauty amongst the Circassians, as it frequently is among Europeans and Americans also, much to the detriment of health; and in order that It may be retained for as great a length of time as possible, but scanty food, chiefly pastry and milk, is given to girls. The men also, as has been remarked above, endeavor to preserve their slenderness of figure.

Concerning the habitations of the Circassians, Pallas observes: The Circassians live in villages, which they desert from time to time either on account of increasing uncleanliness or insecurity, &c., taking with them only the best spars and timbers of their dwellings, after having burnt the remainder. They then choose another convenient site for their village, and in case they do not find water in the immediate vicinity contrive to conduct it thither by means of dams and small canals. They build their dwellings close together in one or more circles or parallelograms, so that the inner space may afford a large cattle-yard common to all, which has but one gate, and is entirely shut in, and thus in a measure defended by the houses.

Outside of the circle stands the house of the prince, which consists of a greater number of apartments; and here and there are also single buildings for the reception of strangers. Hound about are placed hay or corn-houses, as well as large baskets securely set in the ground, and furnished with covers, in which the threshed grain is stored up.

The houses themselves are oblong parallelograms 20 to 30 feet broad, made of wicker-work, closely plaited, and covered with loam within and without. Upon the top of the wicker-work rests a fiat roof of light spar-work covered with turf. The wife has a larger, the female slaves and girls a smaller chamber; the husband usually occupies a separate dwelling. Some tribes of the Circassians fortify their villages by propping up thick posts crosswise against each other, and filling up the interstices below with earth, and those above with thorn bushes.

The principal food of the Circassians is millet softened with water. They also make of it a kind of bread, as well as their usual drink, which is called by them “handkups.” Carrots, turnips, onions, pumpkins, and watermelons, form, moreover, a part of their ordinary fare. Mutton, beef, and game, are often eaten by them. Honey, obtained by means of their careful rearing of bees, is converted into mead by the infusion of hot water, or is mixed with the “busa,” a strongly intoxicating drink, brewed from millet and fermented. It is also eaten, and the wax obtained from it is an important article of commerce with the Circassians.

The herds are numerous, the country possessing beautiful pastures that furnish sufficient food for cattle, sheep, goats and horses. The sheep have fat tails and fine wool, and out of the latter the women weave very strong woollen cloth. Wool, as well as cloth and ready-made clothing, the latter being also manufactured by the women, are sold also to the neighboring states. The black cattle are of a small breed, and are used as draught cattle. The horses are exquisite, and in fact the best after those of Arabia. They rove freely over the fields, and never go into a stable. The agriculture of the Circassians is very simple. In spring they burn the herbs that cover the fields, meadows, &c., and this is the only manure that they give them. The soil is then ploughed and harrowed, the harrows being; trees bavins: the foliage still remaining on them. The dance of the Circassians is peculiar. Their games are founded upon activity, strength, and skill.

The Georgians differ from the rest of the inhabitants of Caucasia in language and form of body. In the north they are bordered by the Caucasus, and in the south separated from nations of different language and origin, by the river Kur, in the mountains of Karabag, Pampaki, Tshildier. and Pontus. Their name is derived from the word “Gur” or “Kur,” which is the present name of the river Cyrus of the ancients. The country is called Gurgistan by the Persians, Gurtsh by the Turks, and Gruila by the Russians: in ancient times, however, it was denominated Iberia, and comprehended ancient Albania and Colchis. Since the earliest times the Georsinns have enjoyed n-reater civilization than the northern mountaineers. Their history proper begins, however, with the introduction of Christianity in the fourth century. Nevertheless their old traditions are mixed up with biblical history, as they maintain that the ancient Georgians sprang from Targamos, a descendant of Japhet, on which account they call all people belonging to their stock Targamosians. The true Georgians of the present day denominate themselves “Kart-uhli,” from Kartlos, the son of Targamos.

The Georgians are divided into four main l>ranches. The first, the Georgians proper, live in Kartli, Kacheti (ancient Albania), and Imeritia, extending to the banks of the Tscheniss-Skali. a tributary of the Phasis. The Pshawi and Gudamakari speak the Old Georgian language, which is very different from the New Georgian (Grusian or Iberian): still they must be reckoned with this stock. They inhabit a few narrow valleys of the high Caucasus, eastwardly from the Upper Aragui River.

The inhabitants of Mingrelia (ancient Colchis), Odischi, and Guria, constitute the second branch, speaking a rude dialect intermixed with many foreign words.

The third branch, the Suani or Snaw (Tson), speak a dialect differing still more, and which has received many Caucasian words. They inhabit the high mountains of Caucasus, westwardly from the Elboors and northwardly from Imeritia, as for as the sources of the Tscheniss-Skali. Enguri. and Egrissi. They are independent, and are considered the most uncleanly in their habits of the inhabitants of the Caucasus.

The Lasi (Turkish, Lash), who constitute the fourth branch, are barbarous, rapacious mountaineers, along the Black Sea, from Trebizond to the mouth of the Tshoroki or Thoroch. which separates them from Guria.

The Georgians have a vigorous frame, tall figure, generally handsome, sharply chiselled features, black, finely formed eyes, and a large nose, which is often aquiline, but less of a Roman than a Jewish outline. Their carriage is proud, the salt is somewhat swinging. A recent writer says: “The men and women of Imeritia are world-renowned for their beauty. No race of men in the wide world equals the people of Imeritia, Mingrelia, Guria, and Adshari, in symmetry of limb, and regular beauty of the physiognomy. In these respects even the slender heroic figures of the men of Circassia are inferior, in the solitary forests of Mingrelia I at times saw true ideals of the handsomest male figures, that might have served as models to a Thorwaldsen. The Georgians inhabit a country which until lately has been continually exposed to the incursions of foreign nations, for the Russians have but recently obtained possession of the land, with the exception of a small portion of Guria and Lasi yet belonging to the Ottomans. In consequence of this state of things, the Georgians have been under the necessity of always standing upon their guard as well against the Ottomans as against the Persians and Lesghians. This position in the midst of these nations has rendered the Georgian warlike; but as he does not belong to a numerous tribe, he has been compelled to fight against forces vastly superior in numbers, and has accordingly accustomed himself more to a partisan warfare than to regular battles.” The Georgians are excellent horsemen and very brave; they are upright and trustworthy, but at times somewhat rude; hospitable indeed, but not very friendly and polite; ingenious and quick of apprehension, but ignorant in the highest degree. The people of the country, though they do not display the pride that characterizes the men of rank, yet by their tone and entire manner betray their martial character, as in general the Georgians have acquired the virtues as well as the vices of soldiers. Georgians practise farming, and cultivate the vine to a large extent, as a great deal of wine is consumed by them. Silkworms are reared, and cattle, principally sheep, raised. They have not, as yet, entered upon the practice of the industrial arts to any extent. Their domestic life is very plain. The carpets upon which the Georgians sit with their legs turned under them, according to the oriental fashion, constitute almost their only furniture. Rich and poor live in the same manner, with the exception of a few people of Tiflis, who endeavor to imitate the Russians. Their dress is very comfortable and good, and consists mostly of woollen material. The women wear trowsers, are initiated also in all the arts of the toilette, and even take pride in rouging very handsomely. Their dress is modest, and shows to advantage the beautiful slender figure, the regularity of the features of the face, the fairness of the complexion, and the inexpressible mildness in the glance of the eye. The reader will best learn the dress from the representations given by pl. 10, fig. 25, a Mingrelian girl; fig. 26, and pl. 15, fig. 15, an Imeritian prince (overcoat orange, under garment and breeches green, boots yellow, no stockings, the legs naked to the knee, hat yellow); pl. 10, fig. 27, Georgian prince; pl. 15, fig. 16, a Georgian female of the higher ranks. Gown scarlet, head-dress and veil white, sash yellow, ornaments on the head-dress and gown golden; fig. 17, a Mingrelian of the lowest ranks carrying the produce of his rich vineyard to market. Overcoat green, under dress and breeches scarlet, straw hat yellow, sash striped yellow and red, shoes black, worn over short yellow boots.

The Calmucks, (pl. [10], fig. 10), who call themselves “Derben-Oret,” that is to say, the four united nations, are an offshoot of the Mongols, and form four hordes: the Choshoutes, the Soongores, the Derbets, and the Torgots. They live on the Lower Volga and in Central Asia. They formerly professed the religion of the Shamians, but afterwards embraced the doctrine of Fo: nevertheless their chief-priests (“lamas”) are independent of the highest priest (“dalai lama”), having broken off all intercourse with his residence. The “gelungi” (priests) are subordinate to the chief-priests, the “gezuli” are subordinate to the gelungi, and the “mandshikami” to the gezuli.

When the camp is broken up, the kibitkas (houses), in which the temples of the idols are kept, are likewise removed from one place to another. The priests form the tenth part of the entire nation, and as they neither pay taxes nor perform any duty necessary to the commonwealth, they must be a heavy burden upon the people. Superstition prevails to a considerable degree; astrology, for example, is much practised.

The lansuasre of the Calmucs is derived from the Mongolian, but is intermingled with many Tartar words.

Of the hordes under the Russian sovereignty, that of the Derbets is the strongest, as they have 10,000 kibitkas or families. The number of Calmucs in the Russian Empire, taken collectively, amounts to about 100,000.

The encampments of the hordes are subordinate to chiefs who pay tribute (Taishis); and the Vice-Khan, who is chosen by Russia, governs the entire people, consisting of the high-priesthood, the nobility, the inferior priests, and the common people. In some countries, Spain for instance, the nobility are distinguished according to blood, while the Calmucs are classed according to flesh and bones; the higher priesthood and the nobles (say these people) have white bones, the inferior priests and the common people black bones, and (by a classification somewhat similar) women of rank are provided with white flesh, females of the ordinary classes with black flesh.

The Calmucs possess the senses of sight, hearing, and smelling in great perfection; those of taste and touch are not so good. Their memory is excellent, and hence they quickly acquire foreign languages. They receive instruction in reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, astronomy, astrology, and medicine, each camp having its schoolmaster (bashka). They are, to be sure, not far advanced in these branches; and in the medical sciences (chiefly in regard to internal diseases) they are very deficient.

The Calmucs must be pronounced rather short than tall. They are not fleshy, but broad shouldered, have a broad flat face, a small flat nose with large nostrils, narrowly opened eyes, and a short chin, long ears that stand off from the head, and always black hair. As they sit with their lower limbs crossed under them, and ride a great deal, they are bandy-legged. Their habits are extremely uncleany, and in the choice of food they do not disdain even cattle that have died a natural death, entrails, cats, mice, grass, &c. Bread is rarely eaten by them, but a mixture of ryemeal and salt water is often used. Sour milk, whey, a spirituous liquor manufactured of mares’ milk and resembling whiskey, tea, and water are their ordinary drinks. Both sexes are passionately fond of smoking tobacco.

They are, upon the whole, lazy and averse to work. Their principal occupations consist in the rearing of their cattle, in the manufacture of their kibitkas, their household utensils, and their horse trappings. The women are more active, and prepare the furs, the felt, the clothing and boots, the whiskey and cheese; they also spin the wool of the camel sheep, weave tape, saddle girths, &c.

The herds of the hordes consist of a large number of camels and horses, as well as cows, sheep, and goats.

In their migrations, the kibitkas, utensils, and food of people of rank are loaded upon camels, those of the poorer classes upon horned cattle, and the women and children, on horseback, drive the herds. The horses of men of distinction are ornamented with small bells of different kinds, and the baggage is covered with carpets or blankets. The lord rides at the head with his people, and after him his steward, carrying a small banner in his hand. The cradles with the infants are placed on both sides of the camel saddles.

The dress of the men consists of an over garment made of cloth or cotton stuff, which reaches to the calves of the legs, and has long sleeves, very wide above and tapering to the hand. In addition to this, there are one or more under garments (of damask with the rich), which fit closely, are fastened at the breast with buttons, and girded with a belt. Over long linen breeches short boots are worn, The poor wear red leather breeches and a fur coat upon the bare hand. In winter, men of rank also wear furs. The women wear wide trowsers; their chemise fastens at the throat; their dress is similar to that of the men, only usually lighter and neater, and the upper garment is often without collar and sleeves, has variegated bordering, and is cut open behind. The head of the Calmucs is shaved, with the exception of a small space behind the crown, where they permit the hair to grow, and twist it into one or more queues. The hair of young girls is attended to with care, parted from the crown down, and twisted behind into one large plait, and into several smaller ones at the sides. At their marriage, all these tresses are loosened, and but two large plaits are made of them, which, secured in a covering of black material, hang down over the shoulder. Women wear rings in both ears, girls in but one. Females, also, wear short boots; those of a red color being most esteemed. Yellow, being considered sacred, is never selected. Both men and women wear caps, which are usually round, low, and bordered with fur. In summer, men of rank and the priests wear large, flat, round summer hats. Both women and girls rouge their cheeks.

The house of the Calmucs, called by the Russians “kybitka,” by the Calmucs themselves “gærr,” consists of a framework of lath, painted red, which may be easily set up and again taken apart, and which is overlaid with felt coverings when in use. The houses are round, with a conical roof, having an opening at top for the egress of smoke. They are a very ingenious invention for a pastoral people; strong, and fit to withstand storms; warm in winter, spacious, and fully secured against snow and rain by means of the covering of white felt which entirely envelopes them. Fuel, in winter, consists for the most part of dried dung of the camel and horned cattle, as the steppes furnish but little wood.

The great number of cattle renders a migratory mode of life on the part of the owners necessary, and in summer these changes of abode are made as often as once in six or seven days; in winter, however, they are not so frequent.

The Kirghis (pl. 15, fig. 14, and pl. 16, figs. 2 and 3, Kirghis in camp). The three great hordes of horsemen living in the territory extending from Lake Aral to the confines of China, and, in part, in the far-spreading districts of the Celestial Empire, are called by the Russians, “Kirghese,” “Kirghis-Cossacks,” or “Kirghis-Kaisacks:” they, however, call themselves “Burut.”

The great and golden horde is now the smallest. Many of their branches are called by the Russians “Wild,” or “Stone,” or “Black Kirghiz.” They are braver, more barbarous, more rapacious and revengeful, than the other hordes. Travellers through their territory must either pay a tribute, or dread being attacked, plundered, and perhaps even made slaves. The Middle Horde, which is the most numerous, is said to number about 480,000 persons of the male sex, and extends from Lake Aral to the Upper Irtish. The Little Horde, dwelling principally between and to the north of the Caspian Sea and Lake Aral, is reported to be nearly as numerous as the one last mentioned.

The Kirghis are, for the most part, tolerably large, the poorer portion being generally slender, the richer, on the contrary, frequently very corpulent. As they but seldom alight from their horses, and when off their backs are squatted upon their felt blankets, they are usually bandylegged, like the Calmucs. Their features show a mixture of the Calmuc and Tartar characters; in the east, however, approaching more to that of the former, in the west to that of the latter. Almost all have black eyes; most of them also black, seldom brown or reddish hair. The complexion of adults is tanned. Men wear their beards, but shave their heads. Women twist their hair into two plaits, girls into many.

The men wear wide coats of cotton or silk stuff, which supply at the same time the place of shirts. They sometimes put on several, one over the other, and an overcoat of cloth, nankeen, or silk; in winter of fur, and wadded, or lined with soft leather. A broad woollen or silk girdle holds the undercoats together; the overcoat is held by a leather belt, ornamented with plates of copper or brass, from which are suspended a pouch, containing the pipe and various small utensils, and a knife. The wide pantaloons are of various materials, and in riding extraordinarily wide leather over-trowsers are put on, all the coats, with the exception of the overcoat, being thrust into them. The boots are made of black, green, or red leather, with toes bent upwards and very high heels. The covering for the head consists of a tapering cap, with flaps capable of being turned up or down. In the eastern districts it is much lower than in the western. The long wide frocks of the women are left open to the girdle. Women, however, wear trowsers and boots like the men.

The habitations are tents of felt, as with the Calmucs; and thirty to fifty, or more, constitute an “Aul,” or village.

Rearing cattle, hunting, and plundering excursions, constitute the principal employment of the Kirghis; but they also trade in skins, furs, wool, felt, &c. A bartering commerce exists between the eastern Kirghis and the Chinese; the former giving their goods in exchange for silk stuffs, tobacco, tobacco pipes, a small quantity of silver, tea, and lacquered wooden wares, &c.

The Bashkirs (pl. 16, fig. 1) inhabit the southern Ural; many have fixed their abode in the villages of the southern circles of the provinces of Wiatka and Perm. These latter are peaceable, very plain both in their dwellings and their manner of living, and are distinguished for their cleanliness. Their originally Finnish stock is strongly intermixed with Turkish, Mongolian, and Russian blood, and the Turkish language has become their idiom. The Bashkirs of the province of Orenburg are warlike, rapacious, and rude in their manners. They rear cattle and bees, and are hunters and agriculturists, their herds being, however, their principal means of support. They raise little grain, and eat but little bread. Instead of paying tribute, they render Cossack service to the Russian government, and are usually added in small numbers to the Cossack regiments. They are mostly wealthy, and many of them very rich in cattle. Their limbs are strong, their hair never fair, their eyes always small.

The Turkomans (pl. 10, fig. 23) are the Turkish tribes that rove about with their herds in a portion of Northern Persia, west of the Caspian Sea, in Armenia, Southern Georgia, Shirwan, and Daghestan, and constitute the principal part of the population of these countries. It is difficult to determine their origin. They are Turkish tribes which, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, came over the Dshihun, or Oxus, to Khorasan, and from that place spread over Northern Persia, and, more westwardly, over Syria and Asia Minor; although they themselves contend that the source from which they are derived is at the north-eastern end of the Caspian Sea. The Persian word “Turkman” is said to signify “Turk-like,” as the Persians hold that the Turcomans are descended of those Turks who in Khorasan had married women of that place. As, however, the portion of the nation which did not come to Persia, and remained behind on the Dshihun, also call themselves by that name, the Persian explanation cannot be very correct. According to Burns, “Turkumân” signifies “a wanderer," and “Turk-man” “I am a Turk.” The Turkomans of the desert of Khiva are usually denominated “Truch-menes” by the Russians, and are at present chiefly under the government of the Usbeck Khans of Khiva, Khokan, and Bucharia, or, according to their own version of the thing, their allies and guests. The tribe most worthy of note is the race of Salyr, and after it that of Ata, who assert that they are descended directly from the Caliph Osman. The Turcomans have neither the firmness of character nor the love of justice that so greatly distinguish the Caucasian nations. “They are,” says Murawiew, “a nation of beggars, who, in spite of their nomadic habits, have no idea of hospitality; having no desire but for money, they will lend themselves to any baseness for lucre. Obedience is, as it were, a word unknown to them: they will, however, yield obedience to any one among themselves who proves himself more cunning and more enterprising than the rest, without questioning his authority. They are perfectly harmless to travellers, even though they be unprotected or unarmed. They will even bear with a great deal, showing a complete indifference to harsh language and even to blows. Ideas such as the state and its welfare, personal or public disgrace, and the like, are entirely beyond their comprehension.” They are an equestrian nation, and of the Mohammedan religion, following the doctrines of Omar.

The North and East Siberian inhabitants of Russia comprise the Tchouktches, Koriaks, Kamschatkians, Aleutcs, Yakoutcs, Tungouses, Burates, Ostiaks, and Samoyedes.

The Tchouktches, inhabitants of the extreme north-eastern portion of Asia, belong to the Mongolian race, and are related to the Koriaks, who live soutlnvardly from the peninsula of the Tchouktches, in the north of the peninsula of Kamschatka. Some of them are nomadic, others have fixed places of abode; and although subjects of Russia, they have preserved a considerable degree of liberty. They have stout frames, and are of medium size. Their head is small, with a dusky brown, spare, round face. Their hair is black, and is worn short by the men, whilst the women twist theirs into two pendant braids. The women tattoo two black semicircles upon each cheek, which are connected by a cross-line. The warriors, who are estimated at 4000 to 5000, ornament their arms and legs with various figures. Their dress consists of long coats of skins, doe-skin breeches, and long or short boots. The women wear wide jackets, to which the trowsera are sewed. Both these articles, as well as the boots, are made of doeskin. Their finery consists of necklaces and ear-drops of beads, and brass or iron rings. Flesh, fish, and train oil, with berries in summer, are almost their only food, bread being very expensive. The nomads have herds of reindeer, sometimes consisting; of from 1000 to 10.000 head: those having fixed places of abode are engaged in hunting and fishing. The sleighs are drawn by dogs; and for navigation they use boats made of driftwood, whalebone, and morse-skin. These boats are called “baiders,” and are prevented from upsetting by means of bladders, filled with air, fastened to the sides. Summer residences consist of a frame of slender poles or bones, covered with the skins of animals; for winter habitations, however, whale ribs are employed as beams, and are covered with grass and earth in such a manner as to give to the huts, when seen from a distance, the appearance of mounds.

The Kamschatkians live to the south of the Koriaks, in a large, inhospitable territory. In the interior, however, there are valleys favorable to vegetation, and producing even trees that furnish timber for shipbuilding. The number of the Kamschatkians is said not to exceed 6000. They have adopted the Russian customs and ceremonies, and even their disposition is essentially Russian. The dress and dwellings also are similar to those of the Russians. They belong to the Mongolian race, are short, have large heads with a flat broad face, and small sunken eyes, that are frequently inflamed by the dazzling snow. The lips are thin, and the scanty hair is black. The females are well formed, and highly respected by the men. Hunting and fishing are the chief employments of this people, who from laziness shun cattle-breeding and agriculture as being; too laborious.

The inhabitants of the Aleutian Islands, about 3000 in number, live in large caverns, are good natured, wear bones adorned with beads in the perforated ears, nose, and lips, and support themselves by hunting and fishing.

The Yakoutes are found on both sides of the Lower Lena. The wealthier among them dress in reindeer skins, the poor in horsehides. When going abroad they attach to their girdle a knife fastened to a long stick, and carry with them steel, flint, and tinder prepared from the wormwood plant. The short-stemmed pipe is placed in the hinder part of the boot. Tobacco smoking has with them become a matter of prime necessity; they usually swallow the smoke, and often continue the enjoyment till they fall down senseless. The summer “yourtes” (habitations) are conically shaped, constructed of long poles, and covered on the outside with birch bark. The winter yourtes are quadrilateral. In constructing the latter, three parallel rows of posts are first driven into the ground, the middle row being somewhat higher than the two others. Each row is topped by a beam connecting the several posts; and at each end the higher middle row is connected by a cross beam with both of the lower rows. This framework is then covered with boards reaching from the highest row to the lower ones, the side walls being likewise made of the same materials. The whole, however, is then covered with weeds, earth, and dung. In the centre, over the fire which is kindled upon the bare ground, a kind of chimney is constructed Broad benches separated by partitions, so as to serve also for beds, are fixed to the walls around the inside of the yourte. The cattle are kept in an adjoining building having its entrance in the yourte.

The Yakoutes are of medium size, but robust form; the face is somewhat broad and meagre, and of a light copper color; the eyes are small, the hair weak in growth and worn short. They are fond of eating, and consume a great deal of food; but are regardless of its nature, whether the flesh of reindeer, horses, rats, or mice, or whether it is fresh or putrid. They eat blood and fat formed into a pulpy mass, and pour down their throats tea and broth hot enough to scald the lips of a European. The Yakoutes are very hospitable. They are engaged chiefly in rearing cattle.

The Tungouses, between the Lena and the Yenesei, are of Mongolian extraction. They are divided into Forest and Prairie Tungouses. According to their occupations, however, they are further divided into fishermen, reindeer, horse, and dog owners. They are of medium size, have broad faces, small sparkling eyes, and long black hair, which they shave off, leaving only a long tuft at the crown. The complexion of older persons is yellowish, that of younger persons whiter. The dress is mostly made of leather or furs. The Tungouses congregate in tribes, some of which are considered of more consequence than others. The tribes elect their own sovereign, who is confirmed afterwards by the gorernment. Only a few of them are Christians; the greater portion worship the sun and fire. Their disposition is gay and frank,;and they are very hospitable. Their senses of hearing and sight are exquiisitely refined.

The Burates, denominated Bratski in Russia, are of Mongolian lineage, are weak bodied, and almost always look unhealthy, probably on account of their great uncleanliness. Their occupations are the rearing of cattle, fishing, and hunting. The greater part of them are adherents of Buddhaism.

The Ostiaks inhabit a large portion of Western Siberia, and the origin of those in the neighborhood of the Obi river is the same as that of the Finns. They are small and weak, have broad, inexpressive countenances, yellow hair passing into reddish, and thin legs; they are timid, good-natured, and very honest. Both sexes dress in furs.

The Samoyedes (pl. 1, fig. 12) live in North-western Asia and North-eastern Europe, and are mostly very small in stature. Their head is comparatively large, the face flat, mouth wide, eyes long and narrow, and ears very large; complexion of a brownish yellow color, and glistening with grease; hair black and bristly. The dress consists of furs. The hardest work falls to the lot of the women. Rearing live stock, especially reindeer, is the principal occupation of the Samoyedes. They worship a number of gods, and the sun and moon are adored as inferior deities.

The Inhabitants of the Turkish Empire

The Turkish Empire comprehends provinces in Europe, Asia, and Africa. European Turkey has an area of 144,000 square miles, and the population is estimated at about 1,700,000 Turks or Osmanlis. The remaining inhabitants are very numerous, consisting of Greeks, Slavonians, Wallachians, Arnauts, Jews, Armenians, Gipsies, &c. Asiatic Turkey, with an area of 337,000 square miles, is inhabited, besides Turks or Osmanlis, by Greeks, Armenians, Lasi, Georgians, Arabs, Jews, Turkomans, Kurds, Nosairs, Druses, Maronites, and Gipsies.

Mohammedanism is the established religion; other religious denominations (rayas) are tolerated, but obliged to j)ay a capitation tax (karatch). The Turkish Empire is an absolute monarchy, and the Grand Sultan Padishah) possesses the highest temporal and spiritual power. The throne is hereditary in the male line alone. The imperial court is denominated the Sublime Porte. The governors of provinces are called “beglerbegs.” “pashas of two or three horse-tails,” and “sandshaks;” the government of some districts being, however, committed to “voivodes” and “agas,” who are entirely independent of the first named functionaries. The divan is the Sultan’s cabinet council. The minister of public worship and instruction is called Grand Mufti; the prime minister of state and war, Grand Yizier; and the minister of foreign affairs, Reis-Effendi. The Grand Mufti and the higher priesthood, who are also learned in law, constitute the corps of the Ulema, and form a part of the divan.

The Turks call themselves Osmanlis, since the name Turk signifies a rude man. The Ottomans are descended not from one people, but from many. When their progenitors under Osman founded the Ottoman Empire in Asia Minor, the conquerors intermixed with the vanquished nations, who had embraced Islamism. la the south-eastern portion of European Turkey alone, do they constitute the majority of the inhabitants. Of true Tartar descent, they have not yet stripped off all traces of Tartar manners. Though wanting in taste, they can claim credit both for intelligence and heart; and though rude and unpolished, indolent and covetous, they are, on the other hand, temperate, plain, and friendly. For a long time accustomed to look upon themselves as lords of the country and superior beings, they have, as might be expected, assumed a somewhat imperious manner, which has not as yet left them. There are a few Turkomans in European Turkey, allied to the Osmanlis in language, faith, and customs. Attempts have been made to render the inhabitants of Turkey in Europe more like the people of other parts of that continent; the entire constitution has experienced many alterations, but things remain, notwithstanding, very much as they were in ancient times. Thus, even at this day, each house contains a woman’s apartment (Harem), carefully separated from the reception room of the men (Selamlik). The court of the Sultan is also strictly divided into the departments of the Serai (Seraglio), i. e. of the exterior, and that of the Harem, i. e. of the interior. The ministries of the Interior and of Foreign Affairs, and the Executive, have their offices at the entrance of the Sublime Porte. Next after these buildings, the treasury, with its different divisions, is located, in which are kept the jewels belonging to the house, the gold and silver. Further in the interior is found the hearth, held sacred by the Ottomans, as the emblem of the warlike power of the empire, and of hospitality and domesticity. The places of honor, “shadars” (sofas), belong to the Ulema, a body composed of persons enjoying the highest dignities, sacerdotal and juridical. Hence the highest offices are collectively called Shadars. To the exterior part of the Sultan’s court belong the seven apartments; the innermost, the treasury, the provision room, the linen room, the great and small chambers, and the Seraglio of Galata, where pages are educated for the Seraglio. The kitchen and stable, gardens and hunting grounds, hospital, exchequer, and the guard of the Seraglio, belong also to this part of the establishment.

The dignity of Sultan frequently, but not always, passes to the first-born son. The Empress Mother exerts a great influence at the court of her son.

The Grand Vizier manages all the affairs of the Empire, and at the same time is keeper of the great seal, the sultan possessing a duplicate. All commands issued by the Grand Vizier are looked upon as if they came from the Sultan himself Divans are held in his palace five times in the week, but he can at any time command access to the Sultan for the purpose of reporting to or conferring with him. Next below him are the ministers. The interpreters, through whom business with foreign ambassadors is transacted, are called dragomans. To the Ulema, mentioned above, belong also the Cadis, or judges; the Muftis, or men learned in the laws, who are called upon for advice; the Imaums, or ministers of religion; and the Dervises, or monks. The churches (Mosques) are divided into great or Dshami, and small or Medshed.

The Turks are lovers of the table. Pilau, that is to say, fowls or mutton with rice and spices, is a national dish. Roast meat, with the exception of pork, is frequently eaten. Few vegetables are eaten; but pastry, and especially preserved fruits, are much liked by the Turks. Their principal drink is coffee, which is taken while they are smoking tobacco, both sexes indulging in this latter practice. As food is prohibited in the day-time during the fast of Ramazan, the pleasures of the table are enjoyed the more at night. The Turk understands how to associate in his life the enjoyment of repose with everything gratifying to the senses. He is not fond of such recreations as walking and dancing, and he is not very sociable. His ignorance is a bar to rational conversation. When visits are paid, men never meet any but persons of their own sex, women not being permitted to appear in male society. Even among the lower classes they never go abroad unless veiled, the eyes alone being visible. The place in which the women reside (harem, that is to say, prohibited spot) is always separated from the portion of the house inhabited by men. Women only meet in their carefully inclosed baths, or in the interior of the harem, where their feasts also take place. At such assemblages they partake of sherbets, confectionery, &c., exhibit and admire dresses and jewelry, and converse about the male sex and female neighbors. Female dancers, who perform the most voluptuous pieces before them, are allowed to enter: a respectable woman never dances herself They are forbidden also to take part in the public prayers at the mosques. Although confined in this manner, the women are very adroit in contriving intrigues against their husbands, and for such purposes chiefly make use of milliners, who are usually Jewesses or Armenian females.

Rope dancing, Chinese magic lanterns, public dances, and ill-performed masquerades in the open fields, are the principal amusements of the Turks. They have no particular taste for the drama and music. Games of chance are strictly prohibited.

Turkish artists and artisans are divided into guilds. Among the craftsmen, the workers in leather are distinguished above the rest for their beautiful work; they furnish excellent saddles and harness. The Turkish painter produces only landscapes, flowers, birds, &c., and arabesques; the Koran forbidding him to paint the human form. The sculptor executes tombstones, but seldom any other work; and the engraver cuts seals and passages from the Koran. The physicians entertain many superstitions and prejudices, and hence Franks (Christians) are preferred as medical attendants. Commerce is in the hands of Greeks, Armenians, and foreign commercial houses; the banking and exchanging business is managed by Amenians and Jews. There are but few Turkish farmers, and they never raise a greater quantity of produce than is necessary for the subsistence of their families and the payment of their trifling imposts.

The dress of the Turks consists of long wide trowsers and a long full garment, under which a handsomely trimmed vest is worn. When out of doors, they wear fancy-colored leather slippers, which are put off before entering a mosque or a room. Boots are made use of only for riding. The head is shaved and covered with a turban. The beard is worn full, and is carefully trimmed. The military have at present the tight-fitting European dress. The men attach great value to costly pipes ornamented with gold and precious stones; gorgeous and expensive riding equipments are equally esteemed.

IV. Plate 13: Eastern Peoples and Costumes
Engraver: Henry Winkles
IV. Plate 14: Scenes from Middle Eastern Life
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Females color the edges of the eyelids with a fine black powder (Surmeh), and the nails, brown, dark, yellow or red. They wear a long, wide mantle of taffeta or satin, having very wide sleeves that reach to the elbows, with or without fur trimming, according to the season of the year. The under gown is of thinner silk, or gold and silver brocade; likewise long, open at the bosom, and with sleeves that reach to the hand. A girdle of leather, satin, or embroidered velvet, sometimes a Cashmere shawl, is loosely tied around the waist. The girdle is usually the most costly part of the dress. Wide silk trowsers reach to the ankles; precious stones and pearls are necessary requisites of ladies’ dress; rich armlets and necklaces are also frequently worn. Persons of less wealth wear sequins, or other gold coins, around the neck. Pl. 1, fig. 3, Turk in the ancient national dress. Pl. 13, fig. 1, a. Turban of the inhabitants of Lebanon; b, Turban of Armenian merchants at Damascus c, Turban of the people in the district of Smyrna; e, of the Bethlehemites f, of the people of Syria generally; g, Kaffich of the people of Beyrout h, Travelling turban; i, Head-dress for rainy weather; q, Turkish fez; s, Dervise’s cap. Fig. 2, Syrian Sheikh and his wife; Fig. 3, ancient female dress of the Smyrniotes; fig. 4, modern female dress of the Levant; fig. 5, dress of the Maronites; figs. 6–8, Maronite women; fig. 9, dress of girls of Nablous; fig. 10, costume of the Nazarenes; fig. 16, Armenian merchant; fig. 17, Armenian girl; fig. 18, Turk of Mardin. Pl. 14, fig. 1, Turkish public bath for females; fig. 2, the interior of a Turkish woman’s apartment; fig. 3, the Iftar, meal of the Grand Vizier with the other ministers of the Porte, on the third night of the Ramazan. Fig. 4, ceremonies in the presence chamber, on the day before the festival of Beiram. There are, properly speaking, two Beirams, the only religious festivals of the Mohammedans. The first, Id-fitr, i. e. breaking of the fast, comes immediately after the fast of Ramazan, and is called Beiram Kutshuck, or Kitschi-Beiram, that is, the little Beiram. As it closes the fast, and is celebrated with great manifestations of joy. it is called the Easter of the Turks, and considered their greatest festival. The second, Id-Adha, or Kurbaan-Beiram, that is to say, festival of the sacrifice, is celebrated seventy days afterwards: it is said to be a celebration of the offering of Ishmael (Isaac). As the Mohammedans calculate time by lunar years, these festivals run through all seasons in a period of thirty-three years. The first festival continues properly but one day, but it is kept up by the people for three days; the second, four days. These two festivals are the only true holidays of the nation, and are celebrated with the greatest pomp. At an early hour the Sultan receives the congratulations of the principal officers of state in solemn audience (pl. 14, fig. 4), and then goes with great parade to the mosque. After devotions, the officers of state are feasted, sixteen of them presented with sable furs, and then the changes in the government are determined upon.

Pl. 14, fig. 5, represents a religious dance of Turkish dervises, which consists of a continual whirling in a circle, causing a great puffing out of the wide dress. Fig. 6, prayer and ablution of Mohammedans, prescribed by the Koran, which ordains the fast of Ramazan, the distribution of alms, works of charity, the performance of at least one pilgrimage to Mecca, prayers offered at least five times a day, and the outward cleansing of the body, which is the object of the figure referred to. Fig. 7, a dervise doing penance; with a rosary on which are ninety-nine coral beads.

The Greeks

The Kingdom of Greece extends in a southerly direction from the mouth of the Aspro and the Gulf of Zeitoun; projects into the Ionian and the Ægean Seas, with numerous and deep indentations and many high promontories and jagged peninsulas; is surrounded by a scattered group of islands of a semi-volcanic character; and divided by the deeply cutting Gulf of Lepanto into two grand divisions, Livadia and the Morea. Since the 7th of May, 1832, after bloody struggles with the Turks, it has formed an independent kingdom. The inhabitants are Greeks and Albanians, and of foreigners chiefly French and Germans. “The Greek,” says G. Bruckner, “whose ancient classic beauty has been somewhat defaced by intermixture with Slavonians and Albanians, but who notwithstanding possesses a vigorous, well-moulded, characteristic figure, is more frivolous than the Spaniard, resembling him, however, in temperament, as well as in frugality and fondness for independence, in heroic endurance, in spirit and wit, and in perfidiousness and his fondness for civil disputes. His education, like his civilization, has, until the present time, been of no high character, as the inhabitants of the coast were corrupted whilst the mountaineers and the warlike Mainotes of the Morea were still rude.” The nation adhere to the Greek religion, and now have their own independent spiritual government. The modern Greek language is called the Romaica or Aplo-Hellenic, and the nation still denominate themselves Romai (Romans) from the Roman Empire of the East. The universal higher dialect, i. e. the more improved language of letters and the churches, and that used in conversation by educated persons, particularly in Constantinople, differs less from the classic Greek than the numerous vulgar dialects, as, for example, the modern Volo Doric, the Zagoran (a remnant of the Doric), the Cretan or Candiote, and the Epirean. In Constantinople, in the vicinity of Mount Athos, and on the Islands of Paros and Nicaria, the purest language is spoken; in Cyprus, it has still retained a great deal of the ancient Greek, but is very much deteriorated; in Corfu, the Greek has been pushed into the interior of the country by the Venetian dialect; and the Mainotes in what was formerly Sparta, from whom a colony in Corsica is descended, speak a miserable and corrupt Greek. The dress of the men (pl. 1, fig. 2) bears much resemblance to the Turkish costume; they have, however, mostly laid aside the turban, and adopted the fur cap or the fez in its stead; the soldiers, especially, wearing the latter (pl. 13, fig. 1) a cap of red felt with a large blue tassel.

Rouging, and coloring the eyebrows black, is yet a universal practice among the women. They display bad taste in their attire, overload themselves with finery, and at the same time attach but little importance to neatness or symmetrical disposition of their dress. Females, even now, live as they did in the ages of antiquity, separated from the male sex; and every Greek lady of rank is confined to her women’s apartment. Baths, here as among the Turks, are the resorts where women meet. In parts of the country, however, where the Greeks have had more intercourse with the rest of the people of Europe, for instance upon the islands and in the large towns, the manner of living has already experienced a great change, and women take part in social intercourse.

Fertile as is the soil of Greece, agriculture is yet pursued in a very slovenly manner, and the implements of husbandry are still very inferior. The Greeks, however, cultivate olive trees and rear silkworms, and the country derives great advantage from these sources. The vine thrives very well in Greece, where the finest sorts are grown; and in the Morea currants also. Much is now done for the cultivation of the intellect, although the Greek clergy strive to prevent enlightenment of the masses. Since the year 1837 Athens has possessed a university.

The Italians

In general, not much can be said with precision respecting the character of the present inhabitants of Italy, as the country is split up into so many small states with different forms of government; yet it may be asserted with justice, that they are distinguished in a manner altogether peculiar, by natural vivacity of spirit, great aptitude for poetry, music, and the plastic arts, as well as by a taste for the beautiful in every phase of its development. Want of principle, pusillanimity, deceit, and a vindictive disposition, are too frequently found amongst them. Even their piety is of a sensual nature, and more an affair of habit than of the heart. Strong excitement is requisite to arouse them from their general apathy; and their emotions, though powerful for a time, are rarely deeply seated. Owing to the great ignorance of the masses, external observation of pious forms is frequently found in connexion with a life deeply stained with vice and crime. The bandit commits murder for a trifle at the order of another; the robber frequently takes life also, but believes he can atone for everything by means of prayer, fastings, &c. Tuscany and the Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom, nevertheless, form honorable exceptions, and show that where a good government has the control of affairs, and especially where much is done for popular instruction, a people sunk even as low as the Italians, may yet be raised again.

The Italian finds less pleasure in travelling, walking, cheerful company, and hospitality, than in driving through the principal streets, in music, frequenting of public places, gambling, and especially the theatre. The most common public diversions are those of the carnival, nowhere so brilliantly and noisily celebrated as in Italy, principally in Rome, Florence, and Venice. Even priests, monks, and nuns are permitted to take part in the frolic. Almost all the people are masked, every serious employment is laid aside, and the churches and halls of justice remain empty.

National costume is no longer found among the higher classes; the cloak, however, in which the Italian wraps himself during the day, is the most important part of his dress. Should he possess no such article, he at least hangs his jacket over his shoulder in the manner of a cloak.

The inhabitants of the Sardinian Monarchy, who are a mixture composed chiefly of French, Romans, Lombards, may be divided into four principal branches: the Savoyards, Piedmontese, Genoese, and Sardes.

Among the Piedmontese, married women, widows, and girls, are sometimes distinguished by their dress, chiefly by the breadth and number of rows of red ribands upon the aprons. The dress of the women of the region of Costa is very neat; they wear a short, tightly-fitting brown petticoat, with a frill at the breast, and a small hat fastened sideways upon the head. Their hair is tastefully braided, and fastened with combs or silver pins. Older persons wear a linen veil. No attention, however, is paid to cleanliness, particularly by the lower classes. The common Genoese still wear the old Genoa cap, a cloth jacket, short breeches, with woollen stockings, and not unfrequently gaiters; the women attach their veils with address and taste. They cover the head and arms in such a manner, however, that their charms are by this means only placed in a more advantageous light.

The head-dress of the women of the maritime districts of Genoa, those for example living in the vicinity of the town of Chiavari, is odd. Their hair is neatly braided, and fastened in a thick roll upon the top of the head. Upon this they place a cloth folded together in a square form, and fasten it firmly by means of a large pin. In unfavorable weather it is unfolded and tied round the head. The country girls secure their braids of hair with five or six large silver hair pins. Women of the vicinity of Nice wear a tight bodice, adorned on holidays with ribands and bouquets of flowers. The petticoat, which is pretty long, and the apron, are without ornament. Girls wear woollen gowns, marriage only conferring the right to wear silk dresses.

The holiday attire of the men consists of a short, tightly-fastened waistcoat, reaching only to the girdle, and a very short coat, having short sleeves with narrow cuffs. Their belt is blue or red. Short breeches, and brown or blue woollen stockings, and low shoes, complete the dress. When not in full dress, both sexes wear their hair in a green net.

The inhabitants of the Island of Sardinia (Sardes) are a mixture of several nations; the Italians, however, constitute the majority. They are not tall, but of a vigorous frame; are gay, courageous, persevering, susceptible of love, but implacable in hatred. Their minds are fine and pliable; they have a particular talent for poetry; but little is done for their instruction, and they are still almost mere men of nature. The Sarde is very fond of music, games of chance, skill, or courage, and other recreations. The dress of the common people consists of a woollen jacket, mostly white or scarlet, over which is worn a wide and long smock-frock without sleeves, and made of sheepskins sewed together, resembling a vest; this is fastened around the waist by a leather belt embroidered with silk, in which a knife is placed. The breeches are very wide, made of plain wool, and open at the knee. Woollen gaiters, or black sheepskins clothe the feet. A white or black woollen cap covers the head. Women wear a full scarlet or white jacket, a bodice with whalebone, woollen petticoats, and a handkerchief of muslin wound around the head. (Pl. 9, fig. 2, threshing-floor of Sardinian farmers; fig. 3, marriage celebration of Sardinians.)

The dress of the Tuscans is the one common throughout Italy. Coats and boots are seldom seen; only in bad weather a kind of cloak is worn. A black or white straw hat, manufactured by themselves, usually covers the head. Women and girls wear bodices without sleeves, and chemises with short sleeves bound with small red ribands. The petticoat is generally scarlet like the bodice, which is laced both in front and behind; and the small apron is very neat. On week days the hair is worn in a silk net; on holidays, however, it is nicely arranged and ornamented with flowers. A neat little straw or black felt hat, frequently adorned with a nosegay, or feathers, is set almost upon one ear. In cold weather a handkerchief is tied over the hat or net.

The inhabitants of the States of the Church are distinguished for a clear understanding, an ardent fancy, and deep, easily excited feelings. Their dress does not differ from the usual costume of the Italians. Pl. 8, fig. 3, gives a representation of the illumination of the dome of St. Peter’s Church and the fireworks at the Castle of St. Angelo, that take place in Rome on the evening of St. Peter’s day.

The principal characteristic traits of the Neapolitans are, good nature, laziness, superstition, attachment to all sorts of sensual pleasures, and passions, violent, but soon cooled. The Neapolitan differs in outward appearance from other Italians only in having a browner complexion. The figures of the men are, in general, handsome and vigorous; females, among the lower classes, on the contrary, are ill-favored and grow old prematurely; their great filthiness makes them still uglier. Both sexes frequently wear their singularly long hair in nets; women dye their hair brilliantly black. Females of Mola di Gaeta wear their hair neatly braided, wound about some light substance, and fastened with a large silver pin. The shepherds of Apulia are dressed in sheepskins. The general national dance of the Neapolitans is the Tarantella. The Lazzaroni form a peculiar class among the Neapolitans, gaining their bread as fishermen, fruit and vegetable sellers, porters, &c. They are mostly of tall, vigorous growth, wear linen breeches scarcely covering half the thighs, and sometimes a shirt, though more frequently none. They often sleep under the open sky, with a stone for a pillow. They rarely work, except under the pressure of immediate want. On the one side, the Lazzaroni are good natured and faithful; on the other, however, ready again at any time to commit arson to order, and to rob. They are much to be dreaded in revolutionary times.

The Sicilians of the present day are a mixture of various nations. Their bodily form, as a rule, is handsome, strong, and well shaped; complexion olive colored; eyes fiery; features expressive. The women, with the exception, perhaps, of those of Catania, are said to be less good-looking. The Sicilian is hospitable, detests drunkenness, and is generally temperate in eating and drinking. In his character the most opposite properties are found associated together; for example, good nature and knavery, courage and a cringing disposition, sobriety and a love of pleasure. Patriotism and a thirst for independence are his principal prominent traits. The attire is poor, like the dwellings, with the women often gaudy, and in some districts similar to the Moorish. As little is done for the education of the common people, they are almost without information.

The Spaniards and Portuguese

The Spanish nation are distinguished for many good qualities; firmness, vivacity of mind, courage, perseverance, temperance, and a sentiment of individual and national honor, combined with piety, are pre-eminently proper to them. The humblest Spaniard does not demean himself, never manifests servility or slavish abjectness; his glance is firm, his bearing frank and upright; his greeting, address, and farewell simple; and he recognises and respects the human being, even in the otherwise despised beggar. If the Spaniards, as a general rule, are less industrious than the Germanic people, they are, of all Romanic or South European people, generally the most industrious. They know nothing of the sweet inaction of the Neapolitans; they are generally active, in the northern provinces particularly industrious; and this holds good of the women also, who are domestic and constantly occupied; idleness, except perhaps in the tertidias (evening parties), being esteemed a disgrace amongst them. A very praiseworthy principle, also, of the Spaniard, is that of having as few necessities as possible, and of regulating them according to his means, without even making himself entirely dependent upon the latter. In this way he secures his independence. If, in addition to the above, we take into consideration his vigorous frame and his good health, which enables him to bear with ease the greatest hardships and all changes of climate and weather, it is not surprising that the Spaniard is as good a soldier as man of business. The Spanish women are as handsome as they are lively; they have a glowing imagination, and their love is a fresh, deep, inward feeling, with no affectation or coquetry. They are, in general, very faithful and domestic. Society and custom allow no treachery, not even against the mere lover, and their revenge is certain. Love is almost like a sacrament; dissimulation is foreign to the Spanish disposition, and is never the basis of a love affair.

IV. Plate 9: Spanish and Sardinian Scenes
Engraver: Henry Winkles

People of rank in Spain have almost entirely dropped the national costume; even the cloak is worn only in winter, or when they follow an adventure in the evening, when the large hat with brim bent downwards is also sometimes put on. Officers of the court, magistrates, professors and doctors, and the priests, appear in uniform. Only the lower classes, and these principally country people, have retained the national dress. They wear, in general, dark-colored waistcoasts; short jackets, often trimmed with fancy colored ribands; a cloak over them; and on the head a net of yarn or silk, hanging down behind and inclosing the hair, which is often braided into a thick queue. Instead of the Arabian veil formerly customary, the women wear a black or white mantilla, fastened on the head, and reaching down to the sides and over the girdle behind. With ladies of rank, it is of very fine blonde or point lace; among the lower classes, of taffeta, gauze, or light woollen stuffs. Women of the highest as well as the lowest grades of society carry fans, and attach the greatest importance to beautiful shoes. The common people of New Castile wear a cloth or leather doublet, buttoned up and fastened with a strap; and, upon the head, the mantèra, i. e. a square cap, with turned up sides and a point in front. In Old Castile, the women have retained the ancient Spanish costume almost entirely. They wear a robe usually brown, and tightly fastened at the neck and wrists, and a belt around the waist. Their braided hair is hanging down behind; upon the head they wear a mantera or a black beaver. The country people of Salamanca (pl. 9, fig. 1, threshing-floor of the peasants) wear silk bodices with pockets and open sleeves, ornamented with small metal buttons, and fastened with a dark silk sash. Brown cloaks, with bright colored collars, bans: in a negligent manner over the right shoulder. Both sexes wear the net (redezilla), ornamented with a broad riband; the veil of the women is fastened to the net. The necks and breasts of the women are adorned with necklaces of pearls, or chains of precious metals. The wristbands of the shirts are richly embroidered with colored silk. The less wealthy farmer wears a dark brown doublet, ornamented with small buttons and ribands, cut out in front in such a manner as to show the red breast-cloth. A colored sash encompasses the lower part of the body. The brown cloth breeches do not reach entirely to the knee, and stockings of similar color and material reach up to them. Pl. 9, figs. 1, 4, and 5, represent various specimens of the Spanish national costume.

The Spanish national dance is the fandango, in use from the most ancient times. It consists of systematic convulsive movements hither and thither, of the entire body, expressive of the most different passions. The pair of dancers beat time to it with the castanets. The bolero (fig. 4) is an imitation, but less impassioned. Besides these, there are other dances in use, as, for example, the guaracca, the olle, and cachirulo, the egg and the staff dances.

The greatest popular amusements of the Spaniards are the bull fights (fig. 5, bull fight in the Grand Arena at Seville). The active persons in the fight are, the toreros (bull fighters); the picadores (pikemen), who keep the bull in action by pricking him with small pikes, thus raising his rage to madness; the matadores, who give the death blow to the furious bull; and the media-espada (half-swords), assistants of the matadores. Detailed descriptions of these cruel and exciting amusements are to be found in almost every account of travels in Spain. It must be hailed as a token of progress in humanity and civilization generally, that bull fights are becoming less frequent.

The Portuguese are not large, but strongly built; have black eyes and hair, strong beards, and dark complexions. They are sensual, vain, indolent, dissimulating to strangers, irritable and revengeful, proud as a nation, and implacable as a people, in their hatred of the Spaniards. On the other hand, they have the credit of fidelity in friendship, magnanimity, charity, temperance, and courtesy. Music and singing are their favorite amusements; and bull fights, with them also, rank high among the popular festivals.

The higher orders of society dress in the styles of the English and French. Women of the middle classes, however, no matter how great the heat of the weather, wrap themselves in a long cloth cloak with a broad collar, and cover their heads with a muslin cloth. When going to church, they wear a dark silk frock, and a large transparent veil. Here, also, great attention is paid to the covering of the feet, which are generally well formed. The dress of the lower ranks in the country is like that worn in the cities, only of coarser stuff. Men wear waistcoats of light colors, and short jackets over them. Short breeches, shoes, and stockings are worn all over the country. The cloaks are always brown, and furnished with a flat cowl. Many wear the hair in a net; others have high tapering caps, with sides turned up. Such caps are also worn by the female peasants, who, in addition, wear striped veils and nets. Country girls, when riding upon their donkeys to market, wear wide boots, short jackets, with long sleeves, fancy colored little caps cocked up in front, and generally carry a fan. They ornament the neck with strings of pearl and metal buttons.

The inhabitants of France, Belgium, and the Netherlands

Generally speaking, vivacity, which not unfrequently degenerates into levity and superficiality, characterize the French as a nation. The Frenchman enters with enthusiasm upon the boldest enterprises, but soon carelessly abandons them again, in order to undertake new ones. He devotes himself almost entirely to the passing hour, caring but little for the past and the future. His urbanity, his acuteness of understanding, and his hospitality, are known: he cheerfully relieves the necessities of the poor, and assists the sick in their distress. From time immemorial, on the other hand, he has been justly reproached of a national pride that causes him to look with contempt upon every thing foreign. Of late, however, he has commenced to notice and prize foreign literature, formerly overlooked by him altogether.

The French peasant is generally very frugal, and in some districts of Lorraine, subsists almost entirely upon potatoes and curdled milk. He is strongly attached to the customs of his forefathers. In the northern departments alone, where he is greatly influenced by civilization, this attachment to the old is, in a measure, disappearing. The country people of some districts on the river Loire, especially in the part which formed the ancient provinces Berry and Poitou, may be pronounced obtuse in the highest degree, indeed even void of feeling. The inhabitant of Brittany, in western France, is distinguished for violent passions and stubbornness; whilst the people of Normandy are crafty, selfish, and quarrelsome. The people living upon the banks of the Somme are plain in their habits, but of a very irritable disposition. In the northern end of France, Flemish customs prevail; many persons still have subterranean dwellings. Spirituous liquors, chiefly gin, are largely consumed, and the common people are unsociable in their habits. In the department of the Marne, and in the region of the Upper Seine, in what was formerly Champagne, the manners of the inhabitants are very plain. German blood flows in the veins of the mountaineers of Vosges; they are candid, open-hearted, and hospitable, but also phlegmatic. The inhabitants of the Jura are temperate and frugal, and free from violent passions. In the districts of the Rhone, Dordogne, the Garonne, and the Adour, the people are, in general, of very lively temper, and fond of an impassioned, figurative style of language. In Provence, these traits are associated with manners neither refined nor amiable, whilst in Languedoc directly the reverse is the case. In Guyenne and Gascony, the natural disposition of the inhabitants is not always frank. In the mountains of Auvergne and Limousin, the exterior of a portion of the population corresponds altogether with the miserable soil cultivated by them, but they are good natured and candid, charitable and hospitable. Many are compelled by poverty to leave their homes, in order, like the emigrants of Dauphiny, to seek their bread in the cities, as peddlers, porters, water carriers, &c.

The dress, in a few districts of France, has a character altogether peculiar; in general, however, it is miserable and wanting in taste. In many parts of the country, the people themselves manufacture almost all the materials for their clothes. In the marshy regions of the heaths, the inhabitants go upon stilts.

IV. Plate 8: Outdoor Celebrations
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The French have no well defined national costume; the dress of citizens and peasants differs in many points, according to the various provinces in which they are found. Upon the whole, the dress of the peasant is poor, and lacks taste. The blouse (linen or cotton smock-frock) is much in use among them, as well as among the lower ranks in cities. Wooden shoes are very common. The social pleasures of the French consist of music, dancing, the theatre, a variety of games, &c. As a rule, the French dance well and with ease, and this amusement is mingled with all their merry-makings. Great luxury is manifested in the balls, and especially at the masked balls; particularly those that take place in the principal cities, and above all at Paris. In summer, inhabitants of the large towns give dancing entertainments in the country, and the promenades in the cities are frequently visited in favorable weather. (Pl. 6, fig. 3, a great masked ball at Paris; pl. 7, fig. 1, promenade in that city; and pl. 8, fig. 2, a rural ball.)

To the popular amusements, belongs, among others, the naumachy (pl. 8, fig. 1), a kind of tournament performed in boats, during which the combatants stand at the extreme end of their long narrow vessels, and endeavor to push each other into the water with long lances with knobs at top.

The French are a mixture of the ancient Celts, Romans, and Germans, and their general traits are those of the inhabitants of the South of Europe; they form the connecting link between the people of the south and those of the north. The Bretons in the Armorican peninsula, the Basques and Gascons at the foot of the Pyrenees, the Germans in Alsace, and the Walloons near Belgium are, however, of other stocks. The French are somewhat smaller, but generally more active than the Germans, and usually well formed. Their language, derived from the Latin mixed with German and Celtic words, is simple and expressive. It has two dialects: that of the south (langue d’Oc), with a predominance of the Romanic element; and that of the north (langue d’Oui), with a greater number of Germanic elements. French is the language of conversation and of the courts of all the enlightened nations of Europe. It is, however, inferior to the German in structure and copiousness.

The Belgians, of Germano-Celtic origin, are Flemings and Walloons: the former, in the north, related to the Dutch; the latter, in the south, of the same race with the French and Spaniards. Traces of the two latter nations, although moderated by the rough climate of Belgium, are nevertheless still to be discerned in the easy elevation of their spirit, and the unconstrained movements of their bodies. The higher classes speak French or Flemish (a Dutch dialect); the people of the south-east speak the Walloon language (a mixture of French and Spanish); and in the north Flemish is spoken. The common national dress in Belgium is the blouse. The higher ranks follow the French fashions. The attire of the country girls of Flanders is very neat. (The principal city of East Flanders is Ghent, and of West Flanders, Bruges.) The dress consists of a short, tight petticoat, a pretty bodice with a stomacher, and a head-dress not unlike a helmet descending behind the ears and encompassing the neck in a kind of lace collar. Over the latter article they wear a black Veil or rain cloth, which the girls arrange in a neat manner.

The Dutch are the offspring of the ancient Batavians, to whom, upon the whole, they still bear a resemblance. They are robust, vigorous, have broad shoulders and hips, but are rather fat than muscular. Their eyes, mostly blue or grey, have usually a cold, steady stare, from under the heavy brows. The women fade more quickly than the men, who generally retain their fresh healthy complexion to an advanced age. Rectitude, candor, honesty, constancy, patience, equanimity, temperance, cleanliness carried almost to excess, plainness in their manner of living, fidelity to their word, are particularly prominent attributes of the Dutch; they are reproached, however, with avarice, greediness of gain, and inquisitiveness. Their confidence in their own powers, which has often the appearance of cold indifference, their imperturbability, and their circumspectness in answering and in judging, have brought upon them the reputation of sluggishness; although no one can deny that they possess industry, courage, and contempt of every danger, particularly in undertakings considered likely to result in profit to themselves. Their costume is plain. People of consequence dress in the English and French styles, the lower classes in cloth of a dark color; and old persons sometimes still wear the costume of their ancestors, that is to say, a triangular hat, black coat, large silver buckles to the breeches, and broad buckles on the shoes. Peasants on the coast as well as in the interior generally wear a triangular or round hat, a long wide overcoat of dark color, breeches with two large buttons at the flap, three to four breast-pieces, one over the other, adorned with silver buttons, and large shoe-buckles. The dress of females is not the same in the different provinces; the principal parts of it, however, are almost everywhere a small cambric cap, usually fastened on both sides with a round brass (also gilt) plate, stiff stays, several handkerchiefs one over the other, a jacket, two rolls on the hips on which rest a number of heavy petticoats, and hanging pouch at the side. A straw hat lined with silk frequently covers the lace cap.

The Nations of Asia

Asia, beyond doubt the cradle and first seat of mankind, differs quite as much in its climate, soil, and products, as do its inhabitants in color, physiognomy, stature, mode of life, civilization, &c. The most thickly inhabited section is the Chinese, a well watered country in the south-east; the most sparsely settled is Siberia. The elevated table-lands exhibit inhabitants distinguished above the others for vigor; the river countries, especially the rich, luxurious, southern districts of Asia, on the contrary, possess the feeblest, most effeminate occupants. Asia is estimated to have, in an area of fifteen millions of square miles, a population of upwards of 500 millions. The greater portion of the inhabitants of Asia can be associated into two groups, namely, the Caucasian, and the Old-Asiatic or Mongolian. The former extends from the west as far as the Obi, Belour, and Burrampooter (Bramaputra) rivers, and besides many small hordes, comprehends four principal stocks: the Arabs, Persians (Armenians), Turkish nations (Tartars), and Hindoos. The latter, on the other hand, includes the nations of the elevated table-land and eastern part of Asia, subdivided into the six following principal stocks: Mongols, Buchanans, Mandchoos, Japanese, Chinese, and Further-Indians. To these great families intermixed in many different ways, must still be added, as true families, those of the north-east of Siberia, viz. the Samoyedes, the Yenesei stock, the Yukaghires, Kamschatkians, Kuriles, and Tschoudes; and in the south-east, the Malays of Malacca, the neighboring islands, and Formosa, and the Papuas on some of the Indian Islands, and the Moluccas. In the south and south-west, dialects of the Sanscrit (Hindostanee), or Median (Persian), or Semitic (Syrian, Arabian), are spoken; from the Black Sea to the Japanese islands, Tartar (Turkish, Mongolian, Tungousian) and Thibetan languages prevail; in the south-east, the Chinese and Birman. Islamism is the most widely extended of all the religions of Asia (in Western Asia, and in part of Northern and Southern Asia). Buddhism, however, has a greater number of adherents; these are to be found in the elevated country and eastern part of the continent. Brahminism extends over India, and the religions of Confucius and Sintoo over South-eastern Asia. The followers of all these creeds have always, with more or less malignity, opposed the Christians and Jews; at one time entirely crushing, at another at least checking them.

A great portion of Asia is under European dominion; the whole of Northern Asia belonging to Russia, and a part of Western Asia to Turkey. We have already referred to the inhabitants of these two sections in the descriptions of the two European nations to whom they belong. The British rule over Hindostan and a few islands; and the Dutch, Portuguese, Spaniards, French, and Danes, have scattered possessions in Asia also. The remaining countries are partly states with despotic governments, partly inhabited by nomadic tribes possessing a patriarchal form of government.

The Kurds

The Kurds inhabit Kurdistan (land of the Kurds) and several provinces of Western and Northern Persia. Some live also scattered in Mesopotamia, Syria, and the eastern districts of Asia Minor. Their language, which is related to the Persian, is intermixed with many Semitic words, which they have received from the Syrians and Chaldeans. The nation is divided into two classes, having different manners of living and different customs. One of these is denominated Guran, in Persian Rajah, in Turkish Konylu, consists of agriculturists, and forms the subordinate class. The second is that of the Assireta or Sipah, and constitutes the class of warriors. The latter seldom or never cultivate the soil, whilst the Guran are never soldiers. The Sipah consider the Guran as created for their special benefit. The dialects of the two differ also. The Sipah are divided into many tribes; few of which, however, have fixed residences, being wanderers who pitch camps according to the wants of their herds.

The Kurds are a vigorous, warlike, but also barbarous, and even cruel set of robbers, who belong to the orthodox Mahommedan church, and for that reason are sworn religious enemies of the Persians. Some of them constitute a separate sect, called Jesides, but designated by orthodox Mahommedans as worshippers of the devil. The Kurds live in a state of almost constant warfare with their neighbors, are the most resolute and daring nomads of Western Asia, are continually on horseback, and are considered accomplished riders. A sabre, a pair of pistols, frequently a gun, or a long carbine also, are their weapons; and their horses are small, spare, but of extraordinary speed and endurance. The Kurds keep together in bands, consisting of from twelve to twenty horsemen, espy the routes taken by caravans, attack the stragglers or even the main body of the caravan itself if it does not appear too strong for them, and massacre indiscriminately, in contradistinction from Arabian and Turkoman robbers, who do not murder travellers that fall into their hands. Danger can only be escaped by winning the favor of the chiefs in paying them a heavy tribute. Their dress is sometimes the Turkish including the turban, sometimes consists of a long brown coat worn over wide trowsers, with a red handkerchief around the waist, and upon the head a pointed red cap, which hangs down in ends at the sides. Many also wear the Persian dress. The women wear turban-like caps, with a veil attached behind, and long petticoats with long ribands around the waist, the ends hanging down behind. (Pl. 15, fig. 13, pl. 16, fig. 7, Kurds; fig. 8, dance of Kurdish women.)

The Persians

The Persians are divided into nomads and such as have permanent residences. The majority live in cities and villages; poor people in miserable mud hovels, persons in good circumstances in brick houses, the rich in palaces generally encircled by gardens and having apartments ornamented and cooled by fountains. The present inhabitants of Persia are the descendants of various nations that successively occupied the country. The Tadshiks constitute the principal mass of the people, and are at the same time the aborigines. They are of medium size and well grown, slender, but strongly built and muscular. The face is regular, the nose arched, the mouth small; the hair and beard, which are carefully nourished, are black. The hair on the hind part of the head, a hand’s-breadth from the forehead and downwards, is shaved off, but the remainder is worn pretty long. In their dress dark colors are preferred. Their long, wide trowsers are of silk or cotton, the shirt mostly of silk, the tight waistcoat of cotton stuff; the coat long, and girded around with a broad shawl. People of rank wear an overcoat trimmed with costly furs. The poor wear jackets with the trowsers, and in winter sheepskin coats. All classes use sheepskin caps about a foot in height, which the rich and distinguished gird around with shawls. Boots are worn only for riding; at other times shoes and slippers, usually yellow or red, with men of rank green, cover the feet. Although their religion enjoins frequent bathing, they are nevertheless no friends of cleanliness, and their clothes are seldom changed. The dress of the female sex is plain but rich. Their trowsers are very wide, made of thick velvet, and come down to the heels. Over these they wear a chemise of silk, muslin, or gauze, which is open to the middle of the body, and fastened by a wide and richly ornamented girdle. In winter they wrap themselves besides in a shawl. Slipper-like shoes clothe the feet. When going abroad they envelope themselves in a veil or mantle reaching to the feet, but having a line net in front of the face, or two holes for the eyes. They ornament the ends of their hair braids with flowers, pearls, &c. The frontlets, diadems, and hoods, worn by the women, are of many different shapes, and more or less costly. The common head-dress, however, is simply a shawl, hanging loosely down in front and behind. Girls are instructed in the schools, in reading, writing, and embroidery, until their age, according to the customs of this part of the world, no longer permits them to go out unveiled. From this time forward they remain in the harem or women’s apartments, where they can only associate with their own sex. The females of the lower classes are not locked up in harems, and hence enjoy much greater liberty.

The food of the Persians is plain, yet of a tolerably diversified character. Their bread is baked of wheat flour. Two principal meals are taken: the one in the morning at about eleven o’clock, consisting of dishes of milk, fruit, and pastry; the other at sunset, when more substantial food, pilau, meat, and vegetables are eaten. At their meals the Persians sit upon carpets on the ground, with their legs turned under them. (Pl. 17, fig. 4, a Persian meal.) Wine and liquors are prohibited, but frequently partaken of in private. Coffee, tea, and sherbet are the usual drinks. Tobacco smoking is universal. The Persians are very fond of ceremonious courtesy. Their amusements consist in chess, which they play well, readings or recitals of fairy tales, music, and dancing. A warlike game of theirs is the keikadshin (pl. 11, fig. 3). Hunting, particularly the chase of the antelope, constitutes one of the principal recreations of people of rank. The baths also belong to their places of pleasurable resort. Hence baths have not only dressing apartments, but also parlors and saloons, and are generally arranged very conveniently and luxuriously.

The Persians may be divided into four classes: 1. The officers of the court, state and military; 2, Inhabitants of the cities, merchants, craftsmen, &c.; 3, Villagers; and 4, The nomadic tribes. The first class, being treated with merciless tyranny by the Shah, their lord, who tolerates no opposition, take their revenge upon their own inferiors; and in this manner tyranny is continued downwards step by step. Hence no subject is for a moment secure of his life and property. Farmers and tenants fare the worst in this respect. The nomadic tribes, the Ilauts (Illyats, Ils), constitute the main body of the army. They are brave, but undisciplined, and very rapacious. They serve the Shah as mercenary troops, for pay, and for the purpose of obtaining booty. In the spring they leave their retreats, assemble at the place to which they are ordered, engage only for a single campaign, and in winter return to their tribes. They are mostly of Turkish, Lurish, Kurdish, and Arabian stocks.

The Tadshiks and the higher classes make use of the modern Persian language, which is divided into that of the court (Deri), and that of the people (Voland). The latter has characters of its own, but the former is written with Arabic letters.

The Persians differ from many other followers of Mohammed in considering Ali, the father-in-law of Mohammed, the prophet of God. They belong to the sect of the Shiites, who are mortal enemies of the Sunnites, among whom the Turks are classed. A few only are still fire-worshippers, and are called Parsis (Parses, Persians). The chief of the followers of Ali is called Sheikh Islam, that is to say, the patriarch of the true faith Under him rank the muftis, under these the kafis and mollas (judges), the imaums (preachers and proclaimers of prayers), and the dervises (monks).

IV. Plate 17: Scenes of Persian Life
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Crime is barbarously punished among the Persians. Tearing out the eyes is one kind of punishment, administered especially to people of rank. Beheading is the usual mode of execution. For offences of triffling importance the bastinado (blows upon the soles of the feet, pl. 17, fig. 6) and the pillory are applied. The representation at fig. 7 shows the peculiar stocks which in the latter punishment are attached around the neck and to the right arm. Fines also are not unusual.

The musical instruments of the Persians consist of long straight horns of various sizes, and of kettle-drums, which are frequently beaten with. the bare hands (fig. 3).

If a Persian has several legitimate wives (as a Moslem, he is not permitted to have more than four), the one first married ranks highest according to a law, which, however, is frequently disregarded. The bride proceeds to meet her future husband entirely enveloped in a red veil, and upon a horse sent by him; the presents of the groom being often carried before her in open coffers overlaid with red silk covers. One of the conductors of the bridegroom carries a candle, the other a torch, and behind him goes a drummer. (Fig. 1, marriage ceremonies.) Women of rank travel in a closed litter, which is borne by mules and has lattice-work at the sides (fig. 2).

When a Persian is dying, a lire is kindled on the roof of his house, that every passer-by may pray for the departing soul. The last breath having been drawn, the corpse is forthwith carefully washed. After this, the body is laid out upon a bed of state (pl. 20, fig. 8), and the relatives and friends meet in order to lament their loss, the nearest relatives showing their distress by tearing their clothes and strewing their heads with ashes. The corpse is then wrapped in a cloth inscribed with passages from the Koran, and laid in a coffin on a bed of spices, lime, and salt, which is then placed in a pit furnished with a flight of stairs.

IV. Plate 15: Persian and Other Eastern Peoples
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The dress of a Persian Shah is represented in pl. 15, fig. 2; that of the Khans and officers of court in figs. 1, and 3–6; that of a lady in fig. 7; and that of common people in figs. 8 and 9. Pl. 16, fig. 9, a Persian of rank with his attendants.

The Arabs

The Arabs (South Semites), who have inhabited Arabia from time immemorial, are either herdsmen, agriculturists, or inhabitants of towns (Moors). The settled Arabs of Africa are more especially denominated Moors. The pastoral Arabs are called, in the language of the country, Ebn el Arab, i. e. Arab’s son, or also Bedauvi, which the Europeans have rendered by Bedouin. The agriculturist is called Fehla, and an inhabitant of a town Haddri. The people of the towns are blended with the Turks, and have imbibed their manners without having laid aside the principal peculiar traits of the inhabitants of the deserts. The Fehlahin (plural of Fehla) are of large strong frame, and do not possess the keen, fiery eyes of the Bedouins, nor their silky beards, being, moreover, inferior to them in intellect. The Fehlahin wear long, coarse cotton shirts, held together by a leather belt of a hand’s-breadth, and over them is worn a kind of cloak of goat’s or camel’s hair; in winter, however, a sheepskin coat. A piece of striped cloth, with fringe, covers the head. (Pl. 13, fig. 1l, head-dress of a Fehla.) The neck and feet are left bare. Rich Sheikhs sometimes, upon occasions of ceremony, wear a silk cloak, or a cloth coat, over the shirt. The women dress like the Bedouins. The Fehlahin live, in part, in the numerous large and fine ruins of the times of the ancient Greeks and Romans; in part in hovels of earth, or in mountain caves. The household furniture is of a very simple character. Wealth is computed according to the number of their yoke of cattle, or the number of acres held; and by the same rules their taxes, which are high, are adjusted. Besides the payment of these taxes, they are obliged to provide for all soldiers marching through their districts, which is the more burdensome as they are all horsemen. Extraordinary imposts and rapacious inroads of the hordes of Bedouins, reduce these people to the greatest misery. The attacks of robbers, or scarcity of water, frequently compel them to abandon entire villages. Towards strangers, the poor Fehlahin are very polite and hospitable, and never demand anything for the lodging afforded. The Sheikh of each village is, moreover, bound to keep a free tavern, in which every guest can claim food and one night’s rest. Wheaten groats and sour milk are the principal fare of the Fehlahin.

In the large towns, slaves, mostly negroes, are found in all families whose circumstances allow it. Slavery here, as in almost all Mohammedan countries, is, however, not of a rigorous character.

Arabia has never been a state, not even in the times of the mightiest Caliphs. At present, the country may contain, perhaps, several hundred independent tribes, or small states, if this term can properly be applied to them. The island-like situation of the country has always restrained foreign conquerors; the power of the Persians among them was very trifling, and even the strength of the Romans was wrecked in the deserts of Arabia. Each tribe has its chief, usually called Sherif. Chiefs of less importance are called Shechs (Sheikhs) or Emirs.

Mecca is the centre of the Arabian as of the Mohammedan world; it is a place of conflux, not only for all the tribes, but for many foreign people also; hence the population is greatly mixed. All males born in Mecca and Dshidda are tattooed on the face, by the parents, as early as the fortieth day after the birth of the child, three long incisions being made on both its cheeks and on the right temple. The Bedouins do not observe this custom, but the men of Mecca are proud of the distinction, which excludes other inhabitants of the Hedjaz, in foreign countries, from the claim to the honor of being natives of the holy city. In very few instances, girls are also tattooed. The complexion of the people of Mecca is a dull, yellowish brown, clearer or darker accordintr to the origin of the mother, who very often is an Abyssinian slave. Their physiognomy resembles very much that of the Bedouins, and this is chiefly the case with the Sherifs, or members of the oldest and noblest families, who claim direct descent from the Prophet. They have the face, eyes, and aquiline nose of the Bedouins; the countenance is very handsome, but more fleshy than that of the latter people. The lower ranks of Mecca, generally, are very strong and muscular; the higher classes, on the contrary, are of slender, fleshless figure; and similar in this respect are also the inhabitants deriving their origin from Yemen or India. The dress of the higher ranks consists, in winter, of a cloth benish, or overcoat, and a dshubbe, or under garment, likewise of cloth, and cut like those worn in all parts of the Ottoman Empire. A long, glistening, silk coat, bound with a thin Cashmere sash, a white muslin turban, and yellow slippers, constitute the remainder of the dress. In summer, a benish of India silk stuffs is worn. People of the highest ranks, who wear the Turkish costume, have red caps from Barbary under the turban. Those worn by the other classes are of linen, richly embroidered with silk, the work of the women, and usually given as presents to their lovers. The long coats of well dressed persons of the middle rank are generally of white India muslin, without lining; they are called beden, and differ from the common Levantine anteri, which is very short, without sleeves, and hence much cooler. Over the beden a dshubbe of light cloth or India silk is worn, which in hot weather is hung loosely over the shoulders. The under shirts are of India silk, or Egyptian or Arabian linen. In summer, the lower ranks wear only a shirt, and around it a piece of nankeen instead of pantaloons; in winter, a striped beden of India chintz, without a girdle. The middle and lower classes use sandals, those coming from Yemen being the best. In summer, many have mere caps, without the turban. The latter usually consists of cambric or muslin; each class having a mode of winding it round the head pecuhar to itself. The Ulema, or learned body, allow the end to fall down in a small fold to the middle of the cheeks. In some parts of the country, men of rank wear red hats, shaped like the round hats of Europeans. The women of Mecca and Dshidda are dressed in India silk frocks, and very long blue striped trowsers, reaching to the ankles, embroidered at the bottom with silver thread. Over these they wear a wide frock, called habra, of black silk stuff, customary also in Syria and Egypt, or a blue and white striped mellay. The face is concealed by a white or blue borks; upon the head covered with the mellay, they wear a cap, around which a piece of colored muslin is wound in tight folds. The head-dress is encircled and ornamented by a row of gold coins. Many wear golden necklaces and armlets, and rings of silver around the ankles. The people of Mecca are principally engaged in commerce.

The Bedouins (Bedovi, or Bedauvi, signifying in Arabic “vagrants,” or “inhabitants of the desert”) have sprung from Arabia, and are spread over the southwestern part of Asia and northern Africa. Since the earliest times they have remained almost entirely unchanged, and hence are proud of the purity of their blood and their steadfastly maintained liberty. The doctrines of Islam have made but little alteration in their customs. All of them are very indifferent professors of this faith, and those inhabiting the interior of the desert scarcely know the name of Mohammed. They mostly lead a roaming life, are divided into many tribes, each of which is commanded by an Emir, and is again separated into families, with a Sheikh at the head of each. They have no well defined laws, but follow only their customs and usages. Their camels, their horses of the noblest breed, and their cattle, the most important part of their property, constitute the entire wealth of this people; and the rearing of live stock, together with hunting and robbery, affords their only means of support. The complexion of the Bedouins is brown, but there are many women among them that resemble Europeans in fairness, in consequence of little exposure to the sun. In figure they are generally slender, and rather short. The hair is curly; the beard short and raven black; the eyes are small and fiery. Their dexterity, their activity and bodily strength, are oftentimes extraordinary. They are excellent horsemen. Among them, love of liberty and hospitality are associated with bravery, rapacity, and revenge. Caravans and single travellers are unsparingly plundered. They fall upon the former from different sides, like a swarm of bees, but seldom take life in these attacks, and fly if vigorous resistance is made. Every stranger, on the other hand, be he Christian or Mohammedan, who comes into their camp, which consists of a circle of tents, is received with the greatest hospitality; and without recompense they divide their all with him, and protect him with property and life. Even travellers just plundered are afterwards received in a friendly manner by their robbers, and obtain presents from them. The weapons of the Bedouins are the sabre and dagger, but chiefly a lance from ten to thirteen feet in length, having a long triangular head. Sometimes they have javelins, clubs, pistols, and rifles. The Emirs have but little authority over their subjects, and are equally liable to the penalties of the wild custom of bloody revenge for injuries which has prevailed from the remotest times.

Two different kinds of tradesmen only are found among the Bedouins, viz. weavers and farriers, the few household materials needed being made by each person for himself It is a difficult matter to specify the individual tribes. In the Arabian desert there are: Miseny, living poor and unknown in the peninsula of Petrea; Wuld-Ali, in Central and Northern Arabia; Beni-Khaled, Beni-Kiab, Beni-Lam, and Montesik. In the Mesopotamian desert: Tai. In the Syrian: Mavali, Beni-Szaher, Pahely, Anasse, and many others. Besides these, there are numerous tribes in North Africa.

IV. Plate 19: East Indian and Arabian Scenes
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Pl. 13, figs. 11 and 12, Arabs of Gaza and its vicinity; fig. 13, Arab of rank, with the above described red hat, white and blue striped under dress, nankeen cloth, red stockings, and yellow shoes; fig. 14, Arab merchant, with white under garment; white and red striped sash and turban; white and blue striped overcoat; red stockings, and yellow shoes. Fig. 15, Arab girl of the lower classes, with white and red striped gown, the arm and bosom left bare; a panther skin around the hips; a white cap, ornamented with red riband; the hair in long pendent plaits, and sandals on the feet. Fig. 1, k, exhibits the head-dress of Arabs of the desert. Pl. 19, fig. 1, Assemblage of nomadic Arabs around their Sheikh; fig. 2, Encampment of a Bedouin family; fig. 3, Arabian concert; fig. 4, Performance of Arab dancing girls (Almehs); pl. 20, fig. 7, Mode of salutation among men of Arabia.

The Beludshis

The Beludshis, or Beluchis, are the inhabitants of Beluchistan, a large South Persian province, formerly included in East Persia, and only explored since the year 1810. They are slender, well formed, and active, but of comparatively inferior physical strength. Their complexion is dark; their hair black. All of them are very fond of robbery, and consider the bold pillage of a foreign territory as honorable in a high degree; they fear no danger, and are brave in battle. Their mode of life, with the exception of the inhabitants of cities (who are engaged in navigation and commerce), is the patriarchal pastoral. Their dwellings are tents and huts. They inhabit the country together with the Brahus, a nomadic people; and are subjects of a Khan common to both, to whom they pay tribute and in war furnish a contingent of troops. (Pl. 15, fig. 10, a warrior in full equipment.)

The Afghans

The Afghans are a powerful nation west of the Indus. They are called by the Persians Af’gan or Aguan, by themselves Pushtan (in the plural, Pushtanneh); in India, Pitan and Patan; by the Arabs, Solimani. The Afghans are, in a great measure, a pastoral people; a small portion only being settled and pursuing agriculture. They are divided into a great multitude of tribes, differing essentially in usages, habits, and manner of living, although speaking the same language and forming one nation. The Berdurani are the tribes in the north-eastern section of Afghanistan, between the high mountains of Hindoo Khash, the Indus, the Salt range, and the Soliman mountains. The Damani inhabit the province of Daman; the Solimani, the Soliman-Kuh; the Durani live in the steppes of the table land of East Iran, between the two cities Kandahar and Herat, inhabit also the first named city, and consider themselves the noblest stock of their nation. The Ghilshi, finally, constitute the principal tribe of the Afghans, and occupy the country between Candahar, Cabul, the Paropamisus, and Hindoo Khash, east of the Durani. Pl. 15, fig. 12, represents an Afghan of the tribe of Durani wearing a red interwoven under garment, wide trowsers, a yellow cap, and a blue cloak. His weapons are a long gun and sword. The dress of the tribe of the Ghilshi is entirely white, with the exception of a scarlet sash, and consists of a long coat, wide trowsers, and turban. Many tribes also wear tight fitting pantaloons, a short shirt, and pointed cap. Pl. 19, fig. 5, shows the mode of travelling adopted by persons of distinction; and fig. 6, that customary among the lower classes of people in Afghanistan and in Lahore (India). The Afghans profess the Sunnite Islam. The provinces of the empire are divided among the men of rank, who possess unlimited authority, which passes also by inheritance. They are a well shaped, hardy race, proud and insolent, and, long accustomed only to robbery and war, are strangers to all polite education.

The Hindoos

The Hindoos (about 14 millions) are the aborigines of the East Indies. They are of medium size; of slender, regular, but not powerful build; have a brownish yellow or olive colored, shining, and very soft skin, which, however, is of a dirty appearance. Their eyes are rather soft than fiery; the brows handsomely arched; the hair soft, black, and glossy. The women are more delicately formed than the men; both, however, have small hands and feet. They are temperate, intelligent, and skilful; generally of a mild disposition, but cowardly, crafty, deceitful, and very arrogant towards their inferiors in position or strength.

The Hindoos are divided into five principal castes, the four first of which are considered noble, the fifth, ignoble; with subdivisions in all. The Brahmins form the highest and noblest caste. They are honored by all the rest as superior beings, who must be treated with the greatest respect. They are permitted neither to be under the same roof with a person of a different caste, nor to taste anything not prepared by a Brahmin. They consist mostly of priests, officers of state, and learned men; many, nevertheless, are engaged in mechanical arts, commerce, and the cultivation of fields and gardens. They are not allowed to drink wine, eat flesh, or chew betel.

Next in rank follow the Tshetries, Râdshas, or Kshatrias; to whom belong the sovereigns, princes, and warriors.

The third class, the Vaishis, Vaishias, or Vassiers, are engaged in rearing cattle, agriculture, horticulture, and commerce. They are educated, moral, and industrious, and are believers in the doctrine of transmigration of souls. Hence they kill no animal, not even a small insect, and even purchase animals about to be slaughtered in order to preserve their lives, and nurse aged or sick animals at their own expense.

The Shuders, or Sudras, constitute the last of the noble castes. They are either engaged in the arts and handicrafts, or are monks, soothsayers, magicians, and jugglers. The lowest division of this caste consists of the curriers, who are at the same time shoemakers; of the butchers, who are also executioners; and the bayaderes or public dancing women.

There are several middle classes besides, that have arisen from a mixture of the pure castes, and who are not respected, but are yet esteemed much higher than the fifth class, which contains the unfortunate Pariahs. The Pariahs are condemned, from their very birth, to pass their lives in the bitterest misery, and are universally despised and even abominated. They are obliged to perform duties of the lowest description, which would be degrading to all other castes. They neither perform the prescribed ablutions, nor abstain from forbidden food. They dwell in holes or huts, and are only admitted into the house of a Hindoo through a particular door. They are not allowed to touch a person belonging to another caste, must stand far distant from him, and hold the hand in front of the mouth when they speak to him. The Pariahs are herdsmen or menial servants among the Hindoos, and soldiers, porters, cooks, &c., among Europeans. The Poolias form a particular division of the Pariahs, living upon the west coast of the peninsula, west of the Ganges.

Rice is the principal food of the Hindoos; besides this, other kinds of grain are also eaten. Flesh diet, as has already been remarked, is not permitted to every caste. At their meals they sit squatted down; they wash themselves before and after eating. The usual drink is water, but also spirituous liquors. Spoons, knives and forks, dishes and plates, they have not; hands supply the places of the three first, and leaves of trees those of the two latter. The household furniture is very simple. They have no beds, but lie upon coverings spread upon the floor.

The dress is for the most part plain. The lower classes usually twist a piece of stuff around the hips and pass it between the legs, leaving the rest of the body bare or wearing a light garment over it. Sandals and shoes constitute the dress of the feet, and in several districts both sexes wear wide trowsers. The head-dress of both men and women consists of a fine cloth wound around the head in the manner of a turban.

IV. Plate 20: Scenes from Indian, Arabian, and Persian Life
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Nearly all the men shave their heads; some castes, however, leave a tuft of hair on the crown, and the Brahmins on the hind part of the head. The women wear their hair according to their own fancy. Only widows in their mourning, and criminals, are obliged to have their heads shaved. Most of the men wear mustachios. Women usually tattoo themselves; both sexes of all castes paint a black line around the eyes, and color the palms of the hands and soles of the feet red. The Brahmins wear as a sign of their rank a cotton cord, which is a combination of twenty-seven small cords, and hangs over the breast, shoulder, and back. Pl. 20, figs. 1–3, Indian women and girls; fig. 4, slaves of a harem of Santorin; fig. 5, Indian women in a harem.

Chess, said to have been invented in the East Indies, is the usual game of the Hindoos. Somewhat similar to it is the game of four kings, played by that number of persons. Hunting is likewise one of their principal recreations. They seek to amuse themselves besides by listening to tellers of stories and ballad-singers, by witnessing the extraordinary gymnastic feats of the jugglers, or the dances of the bayaderes. Theatrical performances and pantomimes also are exhibited in India. A number of musical instruments are used, but very inferior to our own.

The Indians have a sacred language, the Sanscrit, and a language of the people. The former is a dead language, and understood only by a few learned men, remaining entirely unknown to the masses. In Sanscrit are written most of their works esteemed classical. The Mongolo-Hindostanee is the most common dialect of the popular language, especially in the northern section. The Persian is the language of the court. The Carnata, Telinga, Tamul, Malabar, Maratta, and the Malay, are the five principal languages of the Deccan.

The decimal system and algebra are said to have originated in India The study of astronomy has been pursued in the East Indies since the earliest times; but although the Hindoos have made greater advances in this science than many other nations, they still entertain very erroneous and imperfect ideas of the planetary system. They hold, for instance, that the earth stands in the centre, and that the sun, moon, and stars revolve about it; that the planets are propelled in their orbits by currents of air; and that the stars, moved by strong whirlwinds, perform their revolutions around the earth with prodigious swiftness in twenty-four hours.

The Hindoos sacrifice bulls and horses to the gods, white being the preferred color for the victims. Human sacrifices, though not allowed, are yet said to take place secretly.

Famine, an affliction not of rare occurrence, owing to oft repeated droughts, frequently constrains parents to kill their children, or, more commonly, to sell them for provisions or money. This traffic in human flesh is, however, said to be carried on also in times of abundance. Suicide is of frequent occurrence in India, and the Brahmins even endeavor to cause and promote its commission. It is an ancient custom for the wife, after the death of her husband, to be burned alive with the corpse; and if the man has several consorts, some of them not unfrequently dispute who shall have the honor. As a rule, wives desirous of distinguishing themselves in this manner are already advanced in years, and have sad prospects for the future, in case they remain alive, since they would be a burden to their relations. Hence the latter, as well as the Brahmins, try to persuade them to sacrifice themselves. The English have attempted to abolish this cruel custom; it is said, nevertheless, to be by no means entirely extirpated. (Pl. 21, fig. 2, Burning of a Hindoo widow with the corpse of her spouse.) The sick and dying are very harshly treated in India. Funeral solemnities differ according to the castes. The dead are either burnt or thrown into a sacred stream, especially into the Ganges, or buried, the lower castes especially adopting the last manner. As the dead are considered unclean, they are removed as soon as possible; not through the usual entrance of the house, but through a particular door, Pariahs carrying them in a sitting posture. It is the same passage through which the latter enter the houses with downcast eyes.

IV. Plate 21: Hindoo Scenes
Engraver: Henry Winkles

All Hindoos look upon matrimony as a sacred state into which every one is bound to enter. Polygamy is lawful, but only distinguished and rich persons make use of the privilege. There are two modes of marriage, one by means of the pariam, the oiher by means of the kaningadanam. Sums of from twenty to thirty dollars, which the father of the bridegroom pays, before the wedding, as the purchase price to the bride’s father, are called “pariam.” “Kaningadanam,” that is to say, “present of a virgin,” is the name of the transaction, when a rich sinner gives a sufflcient sum to a poor Brahmin to enable him to marry, or yields up his daughter as a spouse to a poor relative, who is not in a condition to pay the pariam. In such a case, however, the receiver must take upon himself all the sins of the liberal benefactor, and hence marriages of this sort are rare. The settling of a marriage contract is preceded by many formalities, mostly superstitious, at which astrologers and soothsayers play no unimportant part. On the wedding day, the invited relatives and friends assemble at the house of the bridegroom, and thence go to the dwelling of the bride. In front go the porters, carrying the nuptial presents intended for the bride. In one of the baskets is found the pariekure, or sash, which, even amongst the poorest people, must be of silk, and is designed only for the adornment of the bride on the marriage day. In place of the pariam, men of rank give a costly jewel, or a rich ornament, which is laid upon the pariekure. As soon as the party have arrived at the house, the basket with the last named article is uncovered in the presence of the whole assemblage; the pariam is then presented by the father of the bridegroom to the father of the bride, with the words, “The money is thine, and the daughter is mine;” whereupon the latter answer, “The money is mine, and the daughter is thine.” Hereupon the Brahmin, amid kind congratulations, ratifies the completed union. In the place of our wedding-ring, the tali, a small gold figure, often a tiger’s tooth set in gold, is the nuptial symbol. This is consecrated at the marriage by the Brahmin, and handed to the bridegroom, who hangs it around the neck of the bride. Rich and distinguished persons have sometimes a number of additional ceremonies at their weddings; and not unfrequently the newly married couple, seated opposite to each other in a palanquin, are borne for several days through the principal streets, escorted by their relatives, friends, and servants, and surrounded by numbers of musicians and dancing women. The expense of the wedding and subsequent ceremonies falls upon the groom’s father alone; and including presents to the Brahmins, who come to the weddings of the wealthy from the vicinity, and even distances of thirty or forty miles, amounts to a very large sum. Pl. 21, fig. 4, represents a procession of an East Indian bridal party; fig. 3, exhibits the wedding ceremonies of the Zingaroos, an Indian gipsy stock. The Zigeune (or Gipsy) takes his bride by one hand, and in the other holds a jug, which he throws high in the air, by way of determining the duration of his marriage, which is done by counting the pieces into which the jug is broken when falling, the marriage being valid for as many years as there are pieces. In case the bride does not please him, however, the Zigeune, if so inclined, dissolves the connexion even at an earlier period than the time indicated by the above ceremony; neither is his young wife bound to observe strict fidelity.

The religious festivals of the Hindoos are very numerous; about a hundred of them are reckoned, and nearly every god has his own. On such holidays, the pagodas (temples) are ornamented with garlands, muslin handkerchiefs, and costly stuffs. One of the most important festivals is the tirunal, or car festival (pl. 20, fig. 6), which is annually celebrated during a period of ten days, in remembrance of the consecration of each great pagoda. Pilgrims approach from the neighborhood and from a distance, according as the pagoda is more or less renowned. Large bands of music, on the eve of the festival, march through the streets and places through which the procession is to pass on the following day. On the first day, the procession takes place only in the interior of the pagoda; from the second to the sixth day, the figure of the divinity to whom the temple is consecrated is borne through the streets in solemn array and with music. On the seventh, however, it is placed in the uppermost window of the temple tower, when all the people rush to the pagoda, in order to deposit in the hands of Brahmins rich offerings for the divinity. On the eighth and ninth days, the Brahmins themselves carry the likeness of the god about within the temple; on the tenth day, the festival is closed with the principal procession through the streets. The gong (tantam), firing of cannon, and explosions of gunpowder, are the signals for assembling. A crowd of musicians, with noisy instruments, form the head of the procession; a number of whom, gliding on their backs, keep up with the others and maintain the time of the tune, a performance considered particularly meritorious. After these follow several thousand worshippers, in two rows, with gaudy flags, parasols, banners, and a staff three feet long, on one end of which an oil lamp is fastened, the processions usually commencing towards nightfall. Then, often borne by thirty or forty men, comes the image screen, called Ter, in the form of a temple with pillars, and containing the idol ornamented with costly jewels. This small portable chapel is frequently placed upon a prodigious car resting upon four wheels, richly ornamented, furnished with a gaudy canopy and numerous flags, and drawn by a great multitude of persons. Around the idol and its car the dewadashis perform their sacred dance. Youths, overburdened with finery, go behind the car; and officers of government and the authorities generally, together with the rich and men of rank, bring up the close of the procession. From time to time it stops near small chapels erected for the purpose, in which the idol, being taken from the car, is placed for a little while. For the particular edification of the worshippers, a number of small puppets, suspended on silk strings, descend from the upper part of the chapel, paying, as it were, their respects to the divinity, and dancing and jumping around its image. During this solemn procession, the pious phrensy of the people often goes to such lengths, that some persons, either in order to wipe away their sins, or the more certainly to obtain future salvation by means of their self-immolation, place themselves in the track of the immense car to be crushed by its wheels. The plaintive cries of the dying, if indeed they utter anything of the sort, are smothered by the crashing music and the noise of the passing multitude of people.

Many different kinds of oblations, and various accompanying ceremonies, occur among the Hindoos. They are partly such as are daily offered to the gods, in order to obtain from them protection and favor; partly of a solemn, mysterious nature, which take place only at certain times. The offerings consist of all sorts of provisions, flowers, spices, and money. All are acceptable to the Brahmins, as they form a part of their subsistence. Blood, as a rule, is not shed at the oblations; in certain cases, however, living animals are the victims, and it is even said that human beings have sometimes been sacrificed. Even at the present time, something similar to this is shown at the offering tukam, when not only a number of cocks are sacrificed to Parvati (Bahvani), but a penitent has the skin of his back perforated with one or two iron hooks attached to a kind of balance gallows, on which he is elevated in the air in this inconvenient and painful situation, and then turned about amidst exultations to pray to the goddess (pl. 21, fig. 1). According to the information given by Sonnerat, this offering appertains to Mariatale, the goddess of the small-pox. It is done at the celebration of the festival Quedil (in the month Chittere, i. e. April), when persons who believe themselves pre-eminently beholden to the goddess, or wish to obtain peculiar benefits from her, cause themselves to be suspended on a long lever, by a double hook which goes through the fleshy part of the back. With a lemon in one hand, and a sword or shield in the other, a fanatic of this sort is obliged with a cheerful countenance to play the part of a combatant. In this situation, he is turned by another several times up, down, and around the pole. The sufferer, however, not only loses the entire advantage of this cruel juggling, but even forfeits the honor of his caste, if by complaints and groans he shows any dissatisfaction. As the goddess Mariatale belongs to an inferior order, this festival is celebrated only by the lowest ranks of people, chiefly by the Pariahs.

IV. Plate 18: Scenes of the English East Indies
Engraver: Henry Winkles & Lehmann

Pl. 18, fig. 1, gives us a representation of an East India expedition of soldiers, presenting the march of the Rajah of Cutch (English East Indian possessions) at the head of his vassals; and fig. 2 displays a national spectacle in the English East Indian possession Cattiawar, viz. a caravan with its escort making a pilgrimage to a temple.

The Further Indians

The population of Further India consists, in the south, of Malays; in the north-west of Caucasians; the remaining and largest portion being Mongols. The greater part of these Mongols are Buddhists, and except the monosyllabic language, have nothing in common with the Chinese. The Malays are followers of Islam. Gold and silversmiths’ work and ship-building are the principal industrial arts of the inhabitants; but the Cochin-Chinese, the neighbors of China, have, by the assistance of Europeans, made progress in ship-building and the art of war; hence they pay the greatest attention to commerce, being second only to the Birmans, Europeans, and Chinese, who carry it on with greater energy. The government is despotic.

The Usbeks

The Usbeks (pl. 15, fig. 11) are a nomadic nation of horsemen inhabiting Bucharia (Bokhara), or Usbekistan, in the south of Bucharia, but who have also spread over other parts of the country. They formerly resided in the heart of Asia, south of the Celestial Mountains, but in the latter part of the fifteenth century penetrated into Bucharia. They spring from the Turks; are strong, handsome, and tall; their faces resemble the Mongolian only in complexion. Their eyes are large and piercing.

The Usbeks are hospitable, but at the same time very niggardly, and hence live in an extremely frugal manner at home, but are insatiable where indulgence costs them nothing. In general, they possess a martial disposition, but are good only for short expeditions. Their manner of fighting wants spirit and courage; the first attack decides the battle; if this fails, the leader immediately takes to flight. If victorious, on the contrary, they pursue the enemy relentlessly, cut down in the most unmerciful manner those offering resistance, and carry away the defenceless as slaves. Sabre, bow and arrows, lance and knife, are their principal weapons. Their dress is always wadded, and frequently very expensive.

The Chinese

The Chinese are of medium stature, and their limbs, more especially at the extremities, small. The color of the skin is brownish yellow; the inhabitants of the northern provinces have a lighter complexion. Mandarins, the rich, and ladies who are shut up in their harems, are also lighter colored than the lower classes, for example, the coolies, or porters, who are always exposed to the air. The face is broad and flat, with prominent cheek bones; the nostrils are wide; the eyes stand far apart, and are obliquely set. The hair is deep black and the beard thin. The fair sex is distinguished for extremely short feet, which are, however, very broad, and almost resemble the feet of horses, receiving their form, not from nature, but by means of art, since they are confined by hard shoes worn from childhood, causing the ankles to swell up, and making it very troublesome for them to walk.

The Chinese wear a full garment, shaped like our wide dressing-gown, covering the whole of the body, fastened with buttons, and having wide sleeves tapering down towards the hand. This outer garment is of cotton or silk, and, in summer, without lining; in winter, it is lined with cotton or fur. In the former season, according as the weather is more or less cool, several such garments are worn, one over the other. Blue is the prevailing, or rather prescribed color for male dress; next in favor are violet and black. High officers of state are dressed, on days of ceremony, in satin with a red ground; none but the Emperor and princes of the blood are allowed to wear yellow. The fair sex dress principally in pink; also in grey and red. A girdle around the waist serves at times for carrying weapons, the tobacco pouch, knife and chopsticks, and, in summer, fans, even with men. A wide jerkin is the only garment of the countryman. Below the tunic, long cotton, linen, or silk under garments are worn; and under the latter, wide trowsers of nankeen or silk, covering the whole of the legs. The boots are made of silk and nankeen; for people of rank, sometimes of velvet. The shoes, which more resemble slippers, are likewise of nankeen, &c.; the soles of both consist merely of thick pasteboard. The caps of the rich are round, short, conical, of cherry-colored satin with red tassels, and frequently trimmed with costly furs. A button manufactured out of a precious stone adorns the cap of officers of state, the color and value of which differ according to the rank of the functionary. The Chinese of ordinary rank goes either without a covering for his head, or wears a short, conically shaped, wide brimmed hat, finely plaited, of bamboo cane; this is also worn in summer by people of rank. Men shave their heads, leaving a tress on the crown. Women wear the whole of their hair, secured with two large pins, and decorate it with other gold ornaments besides. It is combed straight up from the forehead, and fastened in a knot behind. The eyebrows are colored black; upon the under lip and chin is painted a round red spot, whilst the face is generally rouged and whitened very perceptibly.

IV. Plate 22: Oriental Peoples
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Pl. 22, fig. 1, represents the Emperor of China in the imperial robes; fig. 2, Empress; fig. 3, Chinese Mandarins; fig. 4, Chinese ladies of the court; fig. 5, Bonzes (priests); fig. 6, Chinese of the inferior classes; fig. 7, Corean of the lower ranks. The inhabitants of Corea (Coreans) wear short, wide, brown trowsers, long stockings, a short nankeen coat, and a black pointed hat.

The poor Chinese live principally on boiled rice or millet, with onions and garlic, made greasy with rancid oil; pure oil does not suit the taste of the Chinese. These dishes are cooked and sold in the streets (pl. 23, fig. 3, Rice dealer). Tea is the universal drink. Persons of distinction enjoy more expensive and rarer viands, which are set on the table ready carved. Instead of forks, they make use of two pointed sticks (chopsticks), about twelve inches long, which are held in one hand with the thumb and three of the fingers. The Chinese drink wine unmixed, not out of glasses, however, but out of cups. Ceremonies are not wanting at banquets, but the cheerfulness and conviviality of Europeans under similar circumstances are not witnessed. More than from two to four never sit at one table. The tables are arranged in two rows, in such a manner that a space remains in the middle for theatrical performers.

Opium smoking is very common, although strictly prohibited. Those enjoying this luxury make use of peculiar small pipes, with exceedingly diminutive bowls; and, besides opium, the smoker keeps about him some fine tobacco, which is rolled up in balls, in order to be thrust quickly into the pipe, in case of the intrusion of strangers.

The dwellings are plain, with the fronts generally turned towards the south. Even country people usually have houses built of brick, but mostly only of one story. The houses of men of rank have a second story for the chambers of women. The roofs are pavilion-like, jutting out over the house, and resting on pillars that sometimes form a colonnade. The tiles are often fancy-colored and glazed, or overlaid with varnish. The language of the Chinese does not sound agreeably; that of the common people is divided into several dialects. The learned or written language, at the same time that of the higher classes, is denominated Kuan-hua, or Mandarin dialect. In the written language each syllable has a mark for itself nnd syllables are combined into words containing from two to three syllables. There are said to be not much over three hundred of such radical words, every one of which, however, has more than fifty meanings. The language spoken by the people generally has only a limited number of monosyllabic words, many of which can be distinguished only by the enunciation. The Chinese print and read, not from the left to the right side, or the reverse, but from the top downwards. Letters are always printed, never written.

From their earhest childhood, reverence and love towards parents are instilled into the minds of the Chinese. An offence against parents is punished in the severest manner, even with death. The Chinese are industrious, patient, enterprising, and skilful in imitating. Upon the whole, they are courteous; but as tradespeople, sly and crafty. The greater portion of the Chinese pursue agriculture; the implements of husbandry, however, are still very imperfect. Besides farming, they are engaged in fishing and hunting, rearing silkworms, trade, and commerce; less attention is paid to arts and sciences. With respect to improvements in the latter, this people are now as far behind as they were formerly in advance. Several supposed modern inventions, those of gunpowder and porcelain for example, were known to the Chinese long before these articles were heard of in Europe; many, on the contrary, now long familiar to us, remain unknown to the inhabitants of the Celestial Empire, who are also very deficient in the knowledge of the heavens and the computation of time, from causes which will be made evident in the course of this sketch. The principal religion of the Chinese is that of Kon-fu-tse (Confucius), who is said to have 1500 temples in China.

The Emperor of China is looked upon as the father of his people, and hence bears the title “Great Father.” According to the belief of the Chinese, he is not of terrestrial origin, but a son of heaven, sovereign of the celestial empire, only ruler of the world. As he is father of the empire, so the governors are fathers of the provinces. The Emperor appears in public but seldom. He is assisted in his government of the country by a high council chosen from Mandchoo and Chinese, who guide the six ministers (of appointments, finances, ceremonies, war, justice, and public works). Under the ministers rank the several departments. In the provinces the highest power is in the hands of the vice-king. The Emperor, owing to his entire absolute will, enjoys such a slavish reverence, that the people are obliged to kneel down and touch the earth with the head nine times even before the mandates and documents issued by him. The pride arising from this reverence is manifested in a strange manner in the Emperor’s dispatches to the European powers, whom he appears to deem entirely dependent on him, because they send embassies to China. The power of the Emperor is entirely unlimited, and the idea of paternity makes every opposition still more culpable. It is true that historiographers are placed over him, censors as it were of his actions, who record what he does, says, and everything that happens to him, and whose business it is to warn him in case his inclinations lead him to do anything contrary to law; but they are often compelled to pay with their lives for their love of truth. The people are oppressed in the harshest manner, and are not suffered to become enlightened, a prohibition the more easily enforced as the country is kept closed against foreigners, intercourse with whom is thus rendered very difficult. It is possible that a change is at hand in China, in consequence of the greater facilities of commerce obtained by the English through their fortunate victories; for many of the weaknesses of the empire are now lai3 bare, new avenues to the people obtained by force or purchase, and thus the contact of foreign nations with the Chinese is rendered possible. Chinese civilization, which has been stationary for thousands of years, will very quickly feel foreign influence, and will not be able much longer to resist the English.

History does not show with precision how mental cultivation amongst the Chinese stopped suddenly in its glorious rise. An ancient account says: “In a large mountain range in the interior of Asia there lived once upon a time a model people very rich in experience and knowledge. When this nation could acquire no more new learning between their own mountains, they all left the country, and wandered forth towards the north and south, towards the east and west. The oldest and wisest, who stood together by a natural predilection, did not intend to wander far, and found rest in China. The aborigines approached in troops in order to acquire knowledge from them; the wise men instructed all comers, and dispensed sciences and arts with full hands until they knew nothing more to teach. The natives now departed, and for the patriarchs nothing remained but to lie down and die. But as there were no descendants of these wise men, no one was capable of making advances in the cultivation of the sciences and arts, and thus nothing new was ever added to the stock of knowledge brought by the patriarchs.”

The Chinese give another reason for their stationary condition. According to their chroniclers, China was first, and for a period of an unmeasurable number of years, ruled by gods, called Trin-Hoan-Shi. It is conceivable that these god-regents were able to instruct their subjects in many different arts, both useful and acceptable. But as feelings of tedium and discontent now frequently arise in Europe when a government has hardly seen fifty years, it cannot be made a matter of blame to the Chinese that a dynasty which had enjoyed the rule for several millions of years finally became obnoxious to the people. The nation came to a quick resolution and deposed the eternal sovereigns, who out of revenge took with them all finished and unfinished projects of reform, so that the Chinese were compelled to remain exactly where they had been standing.

History, which rejects such traditions, records no progress among the Chinese during many centuries. They have been found to be familiar with many things the proper use of which they were obliged to learn from the Europeans. Flavio Gioja of Amalfi invented his compass about four thousand years later than the Chinese. As early as 2600 years before the Christian era, the “Yellow Emperor” possessed a carriage, on the top of which was a figure which always pointed towards the south, whatever mihgt be the direction of the vehicle. Nevertheless the Chinese crept along the coasts in their clumsy junks, until the Europeans at last showed them the mode of finding their way on the open sea by the help of the magnetic needle. The Chinese invented gunpowder in the age of the birth of Christ, but cannons and guns would have been unknown to them without the Europeans. Printing was practised by them five hundred years earlier than by the Europeans, but they print even at the present time, like the first European wood cutters, by means of immovable tablets, on which the characters are cut. Their physicians base their entire art upon the miraculous harmony of the number five; in the five points where they feel the pulse, the five intestines, the five planets, and the five elements. Their astronomers know with certainty that the stars rise and set only in order to announce the elevation and fall of dynasties, and at similar levels stand the remaining: sciences.

These are only single features of Chinese civilization, to which, however, might be added others without number. Does this blighted blossom spring from a healthy stock? Can that be a vigorous, moral nation, which for centuries has produced no man of sufficient powers to enlarge the confines of science? Bœotia, after a long rest, produced a Pindar: China has neglected to exercise her powers for too great a length of time to have much vitality; her existence is only the semblance of life.

After this general description of the Chinese nation, we will now mention more particularly a few customs and usages.

IV. Plate 25: Chinese Street Scenes
Engraver: Henry Winkles

No nation attaches such importance to ceremonies and the duties of politeness as the Chinese. Among men the usual mode of saluting each other is as follows: they fold the hands upon the breast, move them in a peculiar manner, then incline the head somewhat, but not much, and at the same time say zin-zin, a courteous exclamation without settled meaning. If an individual meets a person entitled to a greater degree of respect, he claps his hands, raises them, then lowers them almost to the ground, and at the same time bends the head very low. When two acquaintances see each other again for the first time after a long separation, both fall twice or three times upon their knees, and bow to the ground. If two quang or mandarins of the same rank meet in the street, they greet each other without rising or descending from their sedan chairs, by clapping the hands and then lowering and raising them to the head; which process is repeated until they can see each other no longer. If, however, one of them ranks higher than the other, the latter is obliged to stop with his sedan, or if on horseback, to dismount, and make a low bow. On this account, officers of an inferior rank endeavor to avoid meeting their superiors. A main point of Chinese politeness consists in the payment of visits to each other. (Pl. 25, fig. 2, mandarin paying visits.) In visitinsr, it is above all requisite to deliver to the doorkeeper a portentous visiting card called “Tye-ze.” This article consists of a sheet of red paper with gilt flowers, and folds up like a screen. Upon it, the name of the visitor is printed, together with some respectful expressions, which differ according to the rank or standing of the person to whom the visit is paid. For mourning, white paper is taken. Sometimes a mandarin is satisfied with receiving the “tye-ze,” and then tells the stranger that he need not trouble himself about descending from his sedan. This, however, occurs only when mere visits of politeness are paid. The reverence manifested towards the Chinese Emperor conforms to his absolute power, and is almost equivalent to worship. No one, not even his eldest brother, is allowed to speak to him otherwise than kneeling. The grandees constituting his daily society are alone permitted to stand in his presence, and address him, merely bowing one knee. Similar testimonies of respect are due even to the things used by the Emperor, for instance the throne, the robes, &c. A peculiar right of the Emperor is the power enjoyed by him of selecting, not the firstborn of his sons or kinsmen, as his successor, but the one whom he considers best qualified; and should he deem none of his own relations capable, he is allowed to appoint the most deserving individual of his subjects heir to the throne. Hence the greatest attention is bestowed upon the nurture of the princes. It is the right of the Emperor, immediately or mediately, to appoint all public officers, from the highest to the lowest, and again to remove the same; to invest with places and titles of honor, to ennoble even the dead, and in his capacity of high-priest, to register, the latter among the number of the saints considered worthy of adoration as divinities, and to whom temples are erected. No order of any of the authorities is valid before it is approved by the Emperor; his ordinances and commands, however, are unalterable and irrevocable. Among the principal tokens of imperial power belong the seals, which are annexed to all public documents and enactments of the offices of state. These seals are about eight inches square, and are cut in very fine jasper. This stone is highly esteemed by the Chinese, and no one besides the Emperor and his officers is allowed to make use of it as a signet. No person can obtain a place in the administration of the Chinese Empire who has not prepared and qualified himself for the situation by literary studies. In case the examination which is held, shows the requisite capacity, and the applicant enters into the service of the state, he receives the title of quang (i. e. overseer), translated by the Portuguese into mandarin (from mandar, a commander). The quang or mandarins are divided into nine classes of nicely graduated rank. Besides the before mentioned buttons upon the caps, the different classes wear upon the breast as badges of distinction a piece of stuff called pud-sy, expensively worked, and containing a motto in the midst having a reference to the office. Some mandarins in the civil service have in addition a dragon with four claws, others an eagle, a sun, &c. In like manner mandarins of the army wear representations of leopards, tigers, lions, &c. Upon the pud-sy of the Emperor are found his arms, a dragon with five claws on each foot, in a blue field.

The laws have banished revelry and pomp from the private life of the Chinese, but upon public occasions they are not only permitted but even enjoined. Ceremonies and testimonies of respect, which must be paid to the mandarins by the people in the streets, vary according to their rank. No functionary goes on duty into the street without being accompanied by all his subordinate officers; and if one of the populace forgets to render proper respect to the mandarin, or is not sufficiently quick in turning aside, he is driven out of the road by blows of bamboo-canes. (Pl. 25, fig. 2.) When a zong-tu or vice-king goes abroad his retinue consists of at least one hundred men, civil officers, soldiers, police-officers, musicians, house servants, &c., all clothed in the most expensive manner. Military mandarins, upon public occasions and when making journeys, are always on horseback, and display costly riding equipage, the bridle, bit, and stirrups being manufactured of gold and silver. Nothing, however, bears any resemblance in magnificence and splendor to the public audiences given by the Emperor, or his receptions of ambassadors from nations and princes subjected or tributary to him (pl. 22, fig. 1).

The first section of the Chinese code of laws, which is written for the good of the subjects in the plainest characters the language affords, bears the title “General Laws,” and commences with a summary enumeration of the customary punishments. The mildest is moderate correction with a thin bamboo, which is scarcely considered a punishment by the Chinese, but merely a mild, at any rate not a degrading, admonition. More disgraceful is the carrying of the tsha, that is to say, a great wooden tablet, upon which the offence of the condemned is written in large characters, and which he is obliged to carry about with him for weeks and months, according to the circumstances of the case. The highest ministers, and grown sons of the Emperors, are not exempt from the punishment of blows with bamboos; the Emperor himself being the only individual not liable to correction. Death is the severest punishment; then follows perpetual banishment to a distance of from 2000 to 4000 miles from the capital, with one hundred blows with rods in addition. In many cases, punishment consists also of blows with bamboos upon the soles of the feet. (Bastinado, pl. 24, fig. 3.)

IV. Plate 23: Scenes from Chinese Life
Engraver: Henry Winkles

All the military forces of the Chinese Empire are under the ministry of war (Ping-pu), the only final authority, as soon as the Emperor has given his orders in regard to the execution of important expeditions. The command of the army is committed to the Tong-tshing-fu, or General Field Marshalate, the chief president of which is one of the most respected grandees of the Empire, and under whose immediate orders is the entire army. This is divided into five great bodies, each with a field-marshal and two aides-de-camp, who all reside in the capital of the Empire. The Mandchoo troops are the most important, numbering 678 companies of 100 men each; the second division, 211 companies, comprehends the Monoids, who came into the country with the Mandchoo at the conquest of China by the latter. The third division, 270 companies, is made up of Utsheng-Tshocha, who, at the close of the last Chinese dynasty Ming, went over to the Mandchoo, and assisted them in taking possession of the Chinese throne. These three divisions form the Mandchoo army proper, which consists of about 116,000 men, mostly cavalry, with field artillery to the number of 400 pieces, and constitutes the nucleus of the Chinese military force. The fourth and fifth divisions of the Chinese army consist of native Chinese, called Lu-ki, that is to say, troops of the green color. They comprise field troops, and city and country militia; and, except in important wars, perform almost exclusively police service. The entire military force amounts, by a moderate estimate, to 1,347,000 men. Powerful as it sounds, this host is nevertheless little to be feared, as the Chinese are poor soldiers, and even the Mandchoo and Mongol troops are no longer what they formerly were. The weapons are bows and arrows, swords, and muskets. Chinese troops are in uniform only when in service; out of service, they dress as citizens, and are engaged in civil occupations. The uniform of Chinese infantry is represented in pl. 23, fig. 3. It very much resembles the common dress of citizens; the spencer (kurma) differs, and must be of the same color with the standard to which the soldier belongs. The uniform, however, of the so-called Tiger Guard is entirely peculiar. It consists of a jacket, long trowsers, and a yellow cloth cap with dark brown stripes. The cap has two ends resembling ears, envelops the entire head, and its cape reaches down to the shoulders. A gaudily-colored shield of bamboo wicker-work, and a sabre, are their arms. The cavalry are mounted upon small horses, and make their attack in a rash and impetuous manner. Their saddles are very soft, and as high in front as behind, so that the rider cannot easily be thrown from his seat.

The Chinese manifest great industry and perseverance at their work, and in the rational pursuit of agriculture are distinguished in a manner altogether peculiar. Their land never lies fallow; and, as a general rule, the same acre yields three crops in the course of a year; first rice, then vetches, and lastly, wheat or other grain, or sometimes beans. The greatest care is bestowed upon the manuring of the fields. The Chinese direct, in particular, great attention to the cultivation of rice; and this branch of agriculture is pursued not only in the plains, but a certain variety of this grain is grown upon the slopes of the mountains, where a system of irrigation and trenching of the most ingenious character is employed. Pleasure and flower gardens, on the contrary, are seldom found, the soil being too expensive to the Chinese to be made use of for the gratification of luxurious tastes, in a country so densely populated. The Chinese pay also but little attention to the raising of fruits; the cultivation of the sugar-cane, the mulberry, and the tea shrub, on the other hand, is the more zealously followed. Great quantities of kitchen vegetables are likewise grown. The most flourishing tea plantations are in the province Fo-kieen, and the adjoining section of the province Kiang-su. Tea shrubs are planted in China, in part as inclosures for fields; partly, and chiefly, in particular grounds and gardens. In the third year the crop begins, and a single shrub frequently furnishes from three to four pounds of tea leaves. Three crops are gathered yearly, and each time the leaves are picked and assorted according to the different kinds. The leaves are pinched off with the nail; in doing which, injury to the branches and buds is solicitously avoided. In the preparation of black tea, the leaves are plucked with their pedicles, and exposed to the sun for two hours, in large bamboo baskets placed upon a scaffold, being carefully turned from time to time. They are then carried into the workhouse, and spread out upon a hurdle for half an hour, in order to cool, after which they are placed in baskets on a scaffold. Next the leaves are worked with the flat of the hands for about ten minutes, and then taken to a hurdle again, where they remain for about half an hour. This process is repeated until they become soft, and are ready to be roasted in a cast-iron basin. The basin stands upon a round brick oven, where it is brought to a red heat. The overseer of the workshop attends to the roasting: at his left hand a man holds a basket with leaves to be roasted, and at his right hand stand two others to receive the roasted leaves in small baskets. The roasted leaves are now spread upon a table, around which men, women, and children stand and roll them together in the shape of a ball. In order to free them from their moisture, they are finally exposed to heat in a basket, upon an oven, until they are half dried. They are then again placed on a hurdle, in baskets, in order to be completely dried in the air. The leaves designed for green tea are gathered without their pedicles, and immediately thrown, two or three pounds at a time, into a cauldron heated to redness, where they are turned about in all directions, at first with the hands, then with small bamboo sticks. After about three minutes, they have become so flexible that they are capable of being rolled up. They are now taken from the fire, thrown into flat baskets, and swung in the air, in order to cool. The leaves are then softened by kneading with the hands, and formed into conical balls. These balls are exposed to the sun for eight or ten minutes, or are warmed slowly in a drying room. When the leaves, by means of repeated kneading, have lost the greater portion of their moisture, they are thrown a second time into the caldron heated to redness, and again studiously turned. After this, they are poured into a basket, and then rammed, fifteen or twenty pounds at a time, into a thick linen bag, four feet long and two broad, in which they are tightly pressed together. The sack is then tied up, and trodden with the feet until it becomes as hard as stone. After the lapse of a day, the leaves are taken out of the bag, put into baskets, and placed near the fire, where they remain until they are sufficiently curled, and rolled up in a spiral form. They are now packed in chests, or bamboo baskets, and allowed to stand from two to six months. The leaves are then taken out, and spread in large baskets upon hurdles, where they remain until they have become sufficiently soft to be rolled up. They are then again thrown into a hot basin (six to seven pounds at a time), where they are rolled together with both hands alternately, after which they are passed through three sieves, standing one above another, and whose holes are of different widths, in order that the leaves may be sorted according to their various sizes. For further sorting, other peculiar contrivances are employed. After this sorting, the tea is thrown once more into a heated basin, and again rolled and sorted. During this final roasting, half a teaspoonful of a powder consisting of three parts of sulphate of lime and one part of indigo, is added to every seven pounds of tea, rolling the whole for at least an hour, in order to give it a uniform color. (Pl. 23, fig. 1, The planting and preparation of tea.)

The Chinese pay the greatest attention to the rearing of cattle, the main support of agriculture, and besides the common domestic animals they possess camels. Hunting, fowling, and fishing are frequently followed by them.

Silkworm rearing is a very ancient occupation, dating as far back as the age of the Emperor Hoang-ti, who, according to the earliest Chinese authors, ruled when the country had just been rendered habitable and man was yet dressed in skins; but when, owing to the increase in population, skins became scarce, the use of silk for clothing was invented by a consort of the Emperor. This report from a time rich in tradition and fable contains one unquestionable truth, namely, that the production of silk had its origin in China. The provinces which have obtained the greatest celebrity in raising silkworms, and in the silk manufacture, are Tshe-kiang, Kiang-su, and Ugan-hoeï; here silk stuffs are fabricated, the fineness, softness, and lustre of which European manufacturers have not yet attained, and which are distinguished also for their great variety. (Fig. 2, Sorting of silkworm cocoons in China.)

Cotton manufactures are quite as noted, of which we will mention only the well known nankeen. In the fabrication of porcelain, called in China Ze-ki, the Chinese long since arrived at a perfection not attained in Europe until within the last few years. Latterly, however, the Europeans have excelled the workmen of China in this branch of art. The Chinese, moreover, have made extraordinary progress in the manufacture of lacquered and varnished work, in dyeing and embroidery, in the fabrication of black color (known as India ink), and in paper making; but especially in fine carving in wood and ivory. In many of these branches they excel the Europeans.

With respect to the sciences, we only mention particularly the fact that imperial schools of medicine formerly existed; at present, however, the most celebrated physicians are those whose ancestors belonged to the same profession, and whose knowledge has been transmitted from father to son. The medicines, which are prepared by the physicians themselves, there being no apothecaries in China, are mostly of a very simple nature; and affusion with cold water, as well as cauterizing with red-hot pins, or fire buttons (moxa), are remedies greatly esteemed. Bleeding, emetics, clysters, and purgatives, are not in use among them, and the main cure is a strict diet. There are plenty of travelling quacks (pl. 25, fig. 3), who perform all sorts of experiments before spectators, particularly juggleries with venomous snakes.

Among the holidays kept by the Chinese, new year and the feast of lanterns are the most important. By the commencement of the new year, they understand the space of time included between the end of the twelfth and about the twenty-first day of the first month in the following year. During this period, all work, even the post-office business, is discontinued, and all transactions of the administration of the state cease, which is called the locking up of the seals, because the coffers, in which the official seals of every authority are kept, are then closed with many ceremonies. This celebration continues for a month, during which one festival follows close upon another. The last days of the year, especially, are celebrated with great pomp, and congratulations and presents are offered.

The festival of lanterns falls in the middle of the first month, commencing on the evening of the thirteenth day, and continuing until the seventeenth, during which time all China is illuminated. Fireworks, in the manufacture of which the Chinese display their great skill in the pyrotechnic art, are added to the universal illumination of the streets and interiors of buildings by means of gorgeous lanterns.

On the fifth day of the fifth month, a great festival takes place, which is celebrated on the water, and consists of games, banquets, and aquatic combats in dragon boats.

IV. Plate 24: Chinese Entertainment and Punishment
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The principal diversions are plays, puppet shows, and sleight-of-hand performances. There are no stationary theatres in China, except in Peking, where there are six in one street, and in a few other great cities; even the court being satisfied with itinerant companies. (Pl. 24, fig. 2, Chinese theatre.) The pieces are commonly taken from Chinese history, and the dialogue is generally maintained in a kind of recitative. No attention is paid to regularity, nor to unity of place and time. Female parts are played by eunuchs. Ghosts, animals, ghastly scenes of bodily punishment, &c., are usually not wanting in the scenes. Pantomimes are also performed. The conjurors execute very surprising tricks; and the feats of the rope-dancers, jugglers (fig. 1), and caperers, are said to excel those of the most skilful Europeans. The puppet manager, under a curtain of blue and white stuff, which reaches to the ankles, plays a kind of comedy with his little figures. A small box upon his head represents the theatre. Other puppet theatres are seen, however, the player standing beside the box, upon which the figures are placed and moved by means of strings, the orchestra consisting of a single performer, blowing a bamboo flute, with one foot beating a kettle-drum, and with the other striking cymbals (pl. 25, fig. 1). The bonzes also (pl. 22, fig. 5), a species of mendicant monks, priests of Fo, are frequently obliged to have recourse to sleight-of-hand tricks, in order to obtain beggarly alms. They go from door to door, and sing a kind of monotonous song, accompanied by feeble blows upon a hollow pyriform piece of wood.

In conclusion, we will make a brief statement in regard to the Tibetans and Coreans, whom we have named among the people of China.

The Tibetans, or Thibetans, are the inhabitants of the high, cold table-land of the interior of Asia, bounded on the south by the Himmalaya, and on the north by the mountain chain of Kuen-lin, and watered by the Indus and the Yaru-zangbo-tshu. They call themselves Bod-gshi and Bod-ba, and their country Bod. Besides the region mentioned above, the Tibetans inhabit the southern valleys of the south-eastern Himmalaya, in the province Bhotan, or Bootan. Under the name of Bootiyahs, they live also in the Himmalaya of Nepaul, and in the British part of the same mountains; and, under entirely different names, in the western and southern provinces of China. The Tibetans have broad, flat faces, flat noses, and eyes with narrow apertures; but besides these Mongolian, they display also Caucasian features, that especially remind observers of the Semitic physiognomy. They are well built in figure, strong, and tolerably large, but frequently suffer from the goitre, in consequence of the mountainous character of their country. In places where they are not corrupted by other nations, they are described as peaceable, mild, honest, and frank. The land is not productive, and the population therefore very small. Besides agriculture, the rearing of cattle forms a main business of the Tibetans. They raise horses and cattle, but pay particular attention to sheep and goats; and their goats are of the well known Cashmere breed, from the wool of which the expensive Cashmere shawls are woven. The industry of the Tibetans is confined principally to the weaving of wool and silk, and the manufacturing of articles of gold and silver, carved woodwork, sculpture, and turned wares. Their turned wooden vessels are, in particular, greatly esteemed. The houses of the Tibetans are built in a massive manner, of stones rough from the quarry. They are very large, and frequently several stories high, and at times capable of affording room to some hundreds of people. The dress consists of a coat, which in summer is manufactured of woollen stuff, in winter of sheepskin or fox furs, or also of thick felted wool. On the head they wear a fur cap, ornamented with teeth of wild boars, or pieces of tortoise-shell; and with the rich, with pearls. The latter sometimes wear silk clothes and handsome furs; and females, a jerkin with short sleeves and an apron of tammy or silk, and cover the neck with a small handkerchief. Both sexes adorn themselves with rings, armlets, and coral necklaces, and wear boots, often of very costly description; but although thus paying much attention to ornament, they are nevertheless said to be very uncleanly, and to wash themselves but seldom.

Their language is very harsh, but rich in combinations of rough consonants, and is spoken in a number of dialects. (Pl. 22, fig. 9, a Tibetan.)

The Coreans inhabit the peninsula of Corea, and are usually called in the Chinese Kao-li, in the Japanese language Koo-rai. They spring from a Central-Asiatic nation, long since extinct, the Sianpis, who inhabited the Ghirin mountains in Mongolia, north-west of Peking. Their euphonious language is at present interspersed with many Chinese and Japanese words. The Coreans are taller than the Chinese and Japanese; stronger, more sinewy, and vigorous; more symmetrically formed, and at the same time robust and agile. The countenance is Mongolian, but approaches the Caucasian. The Corean is serious, tranquil, frank; his gait exhibits firmness, his deportment more self-dependence and energy than is the case with the Japanese and Chinese; but in refinement of manners he is inferior to both. He is at the same time uncleanly, and rather intemperate in eating and drinking; also, according to travellers, very much addicted to lying, cheating, and stealing. He is described, likewise, as superstitious and effeminate, and fond of music and dancing. The dress consists of embroidered and colored robes and short sleeved jackets, high square fur caps, or round broad-brimmed hats, and boots made of leather, cotton, or silk. Men of distinction prefer purple silk, and like to have gold and silver embroidery on their clothes. The dress of the women is ornamented with borders and laces.

The King of Corea pays tribute to the Chinese as well as the Japanese government, but is nevertheless absolute lord in his own country. Farming, the raising of hemp, cotton and tobacco, silkworms and cattle, are the employments of the people. Rice is the principal food, and tobacco smoking is general among; both sexes from childhood. The houses of men of rank are very showy, those of the lower classes small; in the cities they are constructed of bricks, in the country of framework, the manner of building being very similar to that in use by the Chinese. (Fig. 7, a Corean.)

The Siamese

The Siams, or Siamese, have large faces, with broad foreheads, covered at the sides by the hair; great, broad, prominent cheekbones, and occiputs so flat that from the crown to the nape they form almost a straight line. Their limbs are large, the muscles lax. The complexion is blackish-brown; the teeth are stained black; the nails, especially the one on the forefinger, are worn very long; and the lips are very red in consequence of frequent chewing of betel. Their dress is of a plain character. The upper part of the body is entirely bare, or covered with a cloth merely. A similar one is wrapped around the hips and thighs. Only persons of consequence wear clothes, usually of a red color. Men dye their feet and legs as far up as the calves of a blue color. The head is usually uncovered; when travelling, a hat braided of rushes and palm leaves is worn for protection against the sun. The king, and officers of distinction, only, habitually wear pyramidal caps ornamented with gold and jewels. Priests cover their bodies carefully. The Siamese are neat in their habits, bathe frequently, and anoint themselves with perfumed waters and oils. They are distinguished also for temperance in eating and drinking. The principal food is rice, but fruits, eggs, poultry, and fish are also frequently taken; more rarely the flesh of mammiferous animals. Believing in the doctrine of a migration of souls, i. e. that the souls of the dead enter into the innoxious animals, the Siamese kill only wild and dangerous beasts. They drink water and buffalo’s milk; men of rank indulge in arrack and wine. Their respect for the dead, as well as their love for their children, is great. The corpses of men of consequence are burnt; those of the poor are committed to the water. The Siamese not unfrequently knead the ashes of the dead into paste, from which they mould, with many ceremonies, an image of Buddha, which is sometimes gilded and taken into a temple, or preserved by the survivors as a domestic idol.

The Siamese are expert in dissimulation and lying, and they are as fawning towards their superiors as they are harsh and haughty in behavior towards their inferiors. Thefts are rare, probably on account of the severity of the laws. The Siamese have a language of their own, which is written and read from the left to the right. The Pali tongue is the language of religion, and known only to the priests. Buddha, whom they adore together with many other divinities, is called by them Sommona-Kadom. The sovereign is a despot, and the subjects are his slaves, of whose lives and property he has the power of disposing at will.

The Japanese

The Japanese are in general of medium size, and brownish-yellow color, often passing into livid. Women of rank, who are less exposed to the open air and sun, are alone found to be as fair as European women. The eyes are sunken, with narrow apertures, but beautifully black; and in the female sex have a very gentle expression, and indicate inherent good nature. The eyebrows are very high, and from the corners of the eyes numerous wrinkles run out towards the temples. The nose is short and straight; the head generally large, the neck on the contrary short; and the rich black hair glistens as if oiled. Men shave their heads bare, excepting the hair on the hinder part and top of the head, which is united in a tuft upon the crown. Their beards are weak. Women permit their hair to grow long, bind it together upon the head, and secure it with several long pins. Perfect beauties are found among the females of Japan, but all are small of stature. Concerning the disposition of the Japanese it cannot be denied that they have good mental faculties, but they are deceitful and cringing towards their superiors; proud, haughty, resolute, reckless of their own lives, and consequently fearless of death. Their ordinary deportment is marked by extreme courtesy. They greet each other either by bending one knee, or in case they wish to salute in a more submissive manner, or to offer great honor to any one, they kneel down and incline the face to the ground, which, however, is done only within doors. The Japanese are very revengeful, but also very faithful in friendship, and very jealous of their honor. They deserve credit also for being temperate in eating and drinking, cleanly, industrious, and economical, honest and true; but, like the Chinese, they think themselves much above all other nations in every respect. They are usually found singing at their work, and are almost always lively and cheerful. Few nations are so fond of show as the Japanese. Their dress is subject to no changes of fashion, it has remained the same for centuries. Their long, full, silk or woollen coat, with wide sleeves, resembles the Turkish morning-grown. The men wear it of a plain color; the women of a material ornamented with large flowers, and not so wide. Men wear from three to four, women, out of vanity or for defence against the cold, ten, and sometimes even from thirty to fifty such coats, one over the other, as these garments are very light. Over them a kind of cloak is sometimes worn. Trowsers are in use only for state dress. The feet are protected by sandals, with or without stockings. The usual color of the clothes is black, white being the mourning color with the Japanese. Their hats are of straw, wood, or leather, painted and lacquered, with small crowns but large brims.

Mining, agriculture, horticulture, fishing, and rearing silkworms, are much more attended to in Japan than hunting and cattle-breeding. Their silk fabrics are by far the best in commerce. The Japanese are very skilful also in lacquered work, as well as in making hardware, and their porcelain is better and more durable than that manufactured by the Chinese. In medical science they are likewise more advanced than the Chinese; their navigation, however, is still very imperfect. The use of the compass is nevertheless understood by them, the circle being divided into twelve parts (winds). In astronomy, they are still far behind; their land and sea charts, however, are not bad, being perhaps copies of European ones. Foreign commerce rests entirely in the hands of the Chinese and Dutch. It is no longer of very great importance, as but few ships are permitted to come to Japan. Before the extirpation of Christianity, there were quite a number of religions and religious sects in Japan; at present there are only four, according to others seven, prevailing creeds. Some worship the heavenly bodies, others still cling to the ancient faith of the country, the Sinto religion, the head of which is called Kin-Reh, by the Europeans Dairi, who at the same time is the spiritual chief of all Japan. The Kubo or Ziogoen is in possession of the temporal power, and is little restrained by the Dairi, who is his apparent superior. The state or crown property constitutes more than half the empire; the Kubo receives besides considerable presents from the hereditary princes of the country; and as the taxes and duties swell his receipts still more, the Kubo may be considered as one of the richest sovereigns in the world. The army is maintained, for the greater part, by the hereditary princes. Japanese laws either depend upon the orders of the Emperors or follow ancient usages. The legal code is very short; there are few magistrates, and the penal statutes are very severe, but are as rigidly enforced towards the higher as towards the lower classes. The police are vigilant, and endeavor strictly to maintain public order. All the streets of the cities have officers of their own, who take care that the regulations are properly observed; these again have others over them.

The Japanese inhabit the Islands of Nipon, Sikok, Kiu-siu, and Lieu-Kieu or Riukiu. The name of this nation is of Chinese origin, and is made by the Europeans from Shi-pan, i. e. “sun-rise,” which in Southern China is pronounced ja-, or jat-pan. The Japanese pronounce it Nifon or Nipon; hence the Europeans denominated the largest island Nipon, although the name belongs properly to the whole group.

Between the Japanese language and those of the neighboring Kurile and Mandchoo-Tungusian tribes there is no similarity whatever. Any resemblance manifested to the Chinese and Corean has unquestionably arisen in later times, when the Japanese aborigines were civilized by Chinese colonies, and received the Buddhist religion by way of Corea. There can be no doubt that aborigines inhabited Japan since the earliest times; and it must be pronounced very unlikely that the population of Japan came from the continent of Asia.

Pl. 22, fig. 10, represents a Japanese lady; fig. 11, a Japanese man of rank in the act of drawing on his fine gloves; fig. 12, one of the same class in gala dress; fig. 13, a Japanese fisherman’s family; and fig. 14, parasol and sign-bearers. Fig. 8 represents an inhabitant of the island of Lieu-Kieu, with a blue coat reaching to the knee, a red girdle suspending the pipe and tobacco-pouch, sandals attached to the bare feet, and in his hand a feather fan.

The Nations of Africa

Africa is the hottest part of the world, owing to its position, shape, and the conformation of its soil; and although a fourth part lies within the temperate zone, it has, with the exception of the northern declivity of the Atlas, the hot climate of the rest of the continent, in consequence of the influence of the whole. The eastern coast is cooler than the western, only by reason of the trade winds, prevailing almost all over Africa. In the interior, hot days alternate with cool nights, often even with night frosts, a change in the highest degree pernicious to the human frame. Still more injurious is the alternation of the hot and rainy seasons, chiefly on the west and east coasts; having, it is true, the more beneficial effect upon nature, which, as soon as the rain, preceded by the most terrible heats, ceases, shows an indescribable luxuriance. Everything has obtained new life; it is the joyful season of hot Africa. The fruitful season, however, does not long continue; the heat increases, the rivers dry up, vegetation, with the exception of the small succulent plants, perishes, until the time of rich blessings again begins. The greatest fertility is observed on the coasts of Africa, where the large rivers and the heats exercise a joint influence.

Africa is not densely populated. In the southern part of Soudan (Nigritia) live the dusky Negro race: in the north of the same country the light colored Berbers are found as an original stock; whom, however, later immigrants and conquerors, as Moors, Jews, and Arabs, have driven into the mountains and oases. In the south of Africa dwell the Hottentots and Bushmen; in the north-east the inhabitants of Abyssinia; and round about on the coast Europeans have settled.

The Moors

IV. Plate 26: African Scenes and Peoples
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The name Moors originated in the eighth century, when the Arabs of Africa invaded southern Europe, as they were confounded with the ancient Moors of Mauritania. The name Moor was then given, not only to all non-nomadic Arabs, but even to all Mohammedans of India, little as they have in common with the Moors proper. It was applied particularly to the settled Arabs of Moghrib (West Africa), of whom it is known that they immigrated as nomads, and in the course of time took possession of fixed abodes among the Berbers, the aborigines of Moghrib, intermingling with them and other nations, but nevertheless securing to themselves the supremacy. Gräberg de Hemsö had occasion to observe these true Moors for a long time, in different countries of Africa. He describes them as rather slender, well formed, of medium size, and appearing stouter than they actually are, only on account of their full dress. It is said, however, that at a more advanced age, men as well as women, in consequence of their inactive mode of life and want of exercise, become rather corpulent. Their eyes and teeth are handsome; the complexion, however, varies greatly, owing to the different colors of the mothers, who are of various tribes, especially the blacks of Soudan. The more the color approaches to black, the handsomer and of more decided character are the men. The women, who, when young, are well formed and pretty, color their eyelids and eyelashes with antimony, and paint their fingers and toes, faces, and other parts of the body. The dress of the Moors consists of a shirt with wide sleeves, and of very wide trowsers of white linen, over which they wear the kaftan, usually of bright yellow color or sky-blue, with short sleeves buttoned at the wrist, and fastened by many with a colored sash. Over this is displayed the haick, or cloak, of reddish cotton or silk, which is worn in the manner of a Roman toga. At times a garment of blue cloth with a cowl, called burnous by them, is added, or a lighter undervest (sool-ham), usually of white casimere. The covering for the head consists of a white cap, to which is added, by such as have made a pilgrimage to Mecca, a turban of white muslin. The feet are covered with yellow leather shoes, or half boots. Women also wear the haick; indeed it is frequently their only article of dress, and often so fine as to be almost transparent. Those in easier circumstances wear a wide and handsome chemise of fine linen embroidered at the bosom with gold, and over it an ample kaftan, usually of cloth, or velvet worked with gold. Strips of a silk or gold-worked veil (a’baur) are wrapped around the head, and fastened at the neck, where its knots fall with the braided hair upon the girdle. Sometimes they add a riband ornamented with gold coins and pearls (A’zaba, or Sfifa), encompassing the forehead like a diadem. In the upper part of the ear they wear a small ring (amara) and in the lobe of the ear a larger weighty one (khersi, khorsa), both ornamented with costly stones; around the neck, rows of gold and silver coins with jewels, called tezra; on the wrists, thick gold or silver bracelets (deblis, mukis). Such bandeaux are worn on the legs also, the lower being called khelkal, that around the knee ruccus. Over the kaftan is thrown a light linen garment (mon-oria), which is fastened around the body, either by a girdle of crimson velvet embroidered with gold, and with a gold or silver buckle, or simply with a twisted sash. They wear red slippers; but like the men, no stockings. The lower classes and the poor wear, as their only garment, a kind of sack of coarse linen, called dshelabia, with a hole at the top for the head, and openings at the sides, through which to thrust the arms. (Pl. 26, fig. 2, Moor of rank; fig. 3, Moorish merchant; fig. 4, Arab chief of Algiers; fig. 6, Negro female slave of that place.)

Among the Moors, as amongst all Mohammedans, bathing is, as it were, a religious act, which must never be omitted; and the public baths are with them also places of meeting for social conversation (fig. 1, Moorish bath in Algiers). The usual and best article of food of the Moors is the sucfu or cuscusu, which consists of a fine paste of coriander seed, meat, broth, butter, eggs, saffron, cayenne pepper, &c., and is eaten with the fingers out of a large bowl. Coffee is seldom used, but tea is partaken of several times in the day. Instead of tobacco, they frequently smoke a kind of hemp (khashis-cha), or the seeds of a plant called kif.

The disposition of the Moors is described by Gräberg de Hemsö in these words: “We, who ourselves lived and had intercourse for twelve years with the Moors of several Atlantic countries, and have attentively studied their disposition, can conscientiously declare that everything mean and despicable in the extreme, to be found in the human heart, constitutes the general disposition of these Africans. They are, and will be for many years to come, the same barbarians they were in the times of Sallust and Procopius; fickle, faithless, lying, cruel, incapable of being held in check by fear or acts of kindness. Their predominant passions are sensual love, revenge, ambition, and covetousness. Of a cruel, barbarous, imperious, unfeeling disposition, the idea of kindness and sympathy is entirely foreign to them. Haughty, harsh, and arrogant to their inferiors, they are servile and submissive towards their superiors; and to the powerful, of the basest, most slavish deportment. Their covetousness is incredible, and more than makes good the adage, ‘a Moor would resign an eye, in order to put in its place a gold coin.’ They scrape together riches, feigning poverty at the same time. In addition, they are fanatical, hypocritical, and cruel; detest all foreigners, persecute the Christians, and oppress the Jews in the most unjust manner; but especially hate the Turks, because they consider them heretics and propagandists, and the Roman Catholics, because they esteem them idolaters. When sustaining bodily chastisement, pain, or suffering, they display, in general, the cold indifference of savages.” From the catalogue of sins of the Moors we have selected only the most important, since Gräberg de Hemsö enumerates many more.

Females pass lives of entire seclusion, and, like their husbands, believe that God created woman only for sensual pleasure, and for the propagation of the human species. Hence women are satisfied to be shut up in their harems, and an exposure to the eyes of a stranger by their consorts would be considered an offence.

Our readers have already become acquainted with the Bedouins, in reading the portion of this treatise devoted to Asia, and hence we only observe that on pl. 27, figs. 4 and 5, are represented Arabian caravans; at figs. 1–3, Egyptian Fellahs and Bedouins, with their tents, two of the Bedouins being in the act of performing a martial dance.

The Abyssinians

The Abyssinians (Habbesh, Habessinians) inhabit the elevated country of East Africa. They are a Semitic stock, who call thennselves by preference Agazians, or frequently also Itjopjawan (Ethiopians), since they have settled among the true Ethiopians. They spring from the Cushites of Arabia, and are called Cush in the Bible, like the people from which they are derived. Even before the time of Moses they must have passed over the narrow arm of the Red Sea, and taken possession of the territory which subsequently constituted the Kingdom of Tigre. The word “Habbesh” signifies properly “a mixed people,” and the inhabitants of the East African highlands justify the denomination by their actual mixed description. The majority of the population are handsomely formed, and of the Caucasian race, with the physiognomy of the nomads of Arabia. The face is oval; the nose finely sharpened; the mouth well proportioned, with lips properly formed, and by no means exuberant; sparkling eyes and well-set teeth; hair somewhat curled, but also straight. They are of medium size. The greater portion of the inhabitants of the high mountains of Simen and of the plains around Lake Zana, as well as the Felashah, or Jews, the heathen Gamants and the Agows, belong to the same stock, in spite of the difference in their languages and dialects. A second division of the inhabitants of Abyssinia have a less sharpened and pointed, and somewhat aquiline nose; thick lips; eyes dull, with narrow apertures; and very crisply curled, thick, almost woolly hair. This division includes a portion of the inhabitants of the Abyssinian coast, of the provinces of Hamases and the other districts along the northern confines of Abyssinia. Rüppel, the author followed by us in our characteristics of the Ahyssinians, mentions a third, the Galla, including the Shoho. The unprepossessing features of the latter tribe are found quite frequently among the inhabitants of the province of Tigre, and among the soldiery of most other districts. Negro physiognomies occur only among the Shangalla slaves imported hither from the west, and their cross-breed children. With the exception of those who are entirely black, the complexion of the remaining inhabitants of Abyssinia varies greatly, from brownish yellow to dusky blackish-brown.

The Abyssinians are described as being quite as corrupt as the Moors. Travellers depict their moral condition in the darkest colors; the ideas of truth and faith, and every other virtue, may be called unknown to them; their disposition is made up of all the vices of which the human heart is at all capable, the Christian inhabitants being in every respect as bad as the others. They have no conception of the sanctity of the marriage tie; and, consequently, immorality pervades all orders of society, and is the more dangerous for the strict observance of apparent decorum. A few good qualities are perceptible in spite of the general corruption, especially the hospitality, protection, and security afforded to strangers.

Abyssinia shows not a trace of any regular form of government. The entire country has fallen into anarchy, in which the strongest and most crafty holds the power until he is dispossessed by another. Rüppel says: “The history of the last sixty years shows a complete political dissolution of the country, and relates merely to the various chieftains who have succeeded in attaining unlimited power in the several provinces, that existed as separate states independent of each other, supplanting their rivals by stratagem or boldness; and falling in their turn by the treachery of their confederates. The natural consequence of such rivalry was continual civil wars, and subsequent general impoverishment. Landed property has hardly any value, agriculture is almost entirely neglected, and the rearing of cattle is very sensibly decreasing. On account of the great insecurity, traffic is often entirely suspended. Most of the habitations are small, filthy, thatched cots, surrounded by a high thorn hedge for the protection of the domestic animals at night. A few of the houses only have a circular stone wall, usually four feet in height, as a foundation, and a solid, conical, thatched roof, resting in the middle upon a main pillar, and supported besides by a circular row of wooden props. Daylight is admitted only through the door. In Baharnegash, in the Kingdom of Tigre, the houses have flat roofs. Some Abyssinians still live in caverns, as was customary in ancient times; or they erect walls at right angles on the steep declivities of the hills, and place thereon a turf roof in such a manner as to make it agree with the slope of the hill, and to give the whole the appearance of a cavern. There are very few towns, and these consist mostly of groups of conical thatched huts.

The dress of the Abyssinians is simple, and consists partly of skins, in part of cotton stuffs. Short trowsers, usually wide, and a cloth thrown around the shoulders, generally constitute the entire dress. Men of rank, however, wear a shirt of white Indian stuff, with tight sleeves, and very fine colored silk embroidery, and over it several cotton robes. Their ornaments for the arms, neck, and feet, are of silver. Red slippers are imported from Egypt; black ones, however, are manufactured in the country. Women are enveloped to the chin; and the sleeves fall down to the tips of the fingers. The weapons of the men are chiefly the shield and lance. A curved knife sixteen inches in length, and something under two in breadth, is placed in a cotton girdle, and upon the right side. In Abyssinia, moreover, as in all other countries, small variations in the dress and habitations are observed. (Pl. 28, fig. 1, Abyssinian men and women; fig. 2, travellers.)

The Fezzanians and Bisherin

The Fezzanians inhabit the oasis of Fezzan or Fessan, and differ as well in complexion as in physiognomy, and are, therefore, probably a mixture of several nations. The inhabitants of the north are white, like the Arabs; at Morzouk, however, a change of color begins, and a transition is perceived from this light hue to the darkness of mulattoes, and from the latter to the black of the Fezzanians living to the south, who remind observers of the Tuarik branch of the Berbers. Horneman considers the inhabitants of the province Shati, as the real or main stock of the Fezzanians. They are of medium growth, dusky brown, with short black hair, tolerably regular features, and nose less flattened than is the case with the negroes. In general the figure of the men is not handsome; the women are strikingly ugly, and both sexes are destitute of vigor and courage. They are fond of singing and music; and though they are naturally cheerful, obliging, and hospitable, the oppression of the government has made them inhospitable, covetous, faithless, and malicious. They have adopted the Arabic language, but speak it with the rough and harsh Moghrib dialect. They are nominally Mohammedans, but mingle all kinds of heathenish ideas with their religion. Their chief employment is commerce; and Morzouk, the metropolis of the country, is the rallying point and market for the caravans that keep up the trade of Kahira (Cairo), Benghafi, and Tripoli, with Soudan. A few handicrafts, agriculture, and horticulture, are also pursued in Fezzan.

The Fezzanian dress consists of a coarse linen or cotton shirt, trowsers of the same material, and sandals of camel’s skin. In the street a woollen covering, called abben or dsherid, is sometimes worn like a cloak. A turban and yellow slippers are sometimes put on on Fridays. Women have the fronts of their chemises embroidered, and consider their head-dress and the rings on the arms and feet their chief ornaments. On the feet they always wear red slippers. The houses, built of sun-dried bricks, are low and very uncomfortable.

The Bisherin (Biscarijin) live in the mountains that range along the Red Sea, north of Abyssinia, east of the Barabras and northwest of Massowa, almost the whole distance up to Suez. They seem to be the descendants of the Bega or Bedsha, who were a powerful nation in the middle ages, controlling the commerce with the whole woild from both sides of the Red Sea, and who in still earlier times appear to have ruled from the Island of Meroë over the entire valley of the Nile as far as Assouan. The Bisherin are consequently descendants from the true Ethiopians of flourishing Meroë. They are divided into three sections: the true Bisherin, the Hadharebe or Adareb, and the Ababdeh. They speak, however, the same language; and are very similar in physiognomy, as well as in their entire exterior, to the Barabras of the Nile valley, and in part to the inhabitants of Abyssinia. Their color is very dark brown, almost black, but the face does not show the negro type. The nation is rapacious and warlike, and the numerous small, isolated tribes, are always at enmity and war with each other.

The Inhabitants of Egypt

The principal divisions of the population of Egypt are the Copts, Arabs, and Turks, besides Jews, &c. The Turks constitute the smallest portion, but have pre-eminence as rulers; the Arabs are the most numerous, the Copts the most ancient tribe. The Arabs are either farmers (Fellahs) or artisans; and the numerous Arabic nomadic tribes, or Bedouins, rove through the wide expanse of the desert. They were formerly dangerous robbers in the peopled districts of Egypt, but have at present been made nearly harmless by the ruler of the country.

There may still live scattered through the whole country about 150,000 Copts. They are of medium size; stout; of dusky yellowish-brown complexion; with black hair, depressed nose, thick lips, and black, prominent, but dull eyes. They have a language of their own, but usually speak the Arabic; they are sensible, prudent, grave, persevering, and are employed by the Turks as writers, tax collectors, day laborers, &c. Copts live also in Nubia, Abyssinia, and Cyprus, &c. Their religion is the Greek Catholic, according to the principles of Eutychius. The Moslems constitute the majority of the inhabitants of Egypt. They are descendants of various Arabic tribes and families, who have established themselves at different periods in this country; but through intermixture with Copts and other stocks, as well as by reason of the manners prevailing in Egypt, the Arabic character has been in a great measure obliterated. They are of medium size, and mostly well proportioned; the men muscular and strong, the women beautifully formed. The skin is of a very clear yellow, and soft. Among the inhabitants of Central Egypt, however, it is of a more brownish yellow; in the southern provinces dusky bronze-colored, or brown; and towards Nubia, even almost black. The face is mostly handsome, oval, moderately large, yet prominent; the black, brilliant eyes lie deep in their sockets; the nose is straight and somewhat thick; the mouth well formed, with rather thick lips; the teeth exquisitely beautiful; the beard usually black, curly, but rather thin. The dress is that ordinarily worn by Mohammedans. Men who do not belong to the poorest classes wear long trowsers, and a long, full coat (shirt) of linen, calico, or woollen fabric, mostly blue or brown, which is open from the throat to the middle of the body, and sometimes fastened by a white or red woollen girdle. The turban is mostly a white, red, or yellow shawl, or a piece of coarse calico or muslin, wound around a white or red felt cap. The trowsers are wide. Many Egyptians are so poor, however, that they only wear a blue or brown coat, and neither trowsers nor turban. In cold weather cloaks are worn. The shoes are of red or yellow leather, or sheepskin. All Egyptians shave off the hair of the head, with the exception of a small tuft upon the crown. The women of the lower classes wear long trowsers, and over these a white or blue chemise with long wide sleeves, a simple handkerchief being the only head-dress. They wear their hair in pendent braids, ornamented with common metal, and pierce the lobes of their ears, and sometimes their noses, to admit rings. They envelope themselves in a large veil, covering the figure and face, except the eyes and a small portion of the forehead, which is much disfigured by black and blue markings. Among females of distinction the style of dress much resembles that of the men, only it is much finer and more showy, and over the chemise a light satin garment is worn. When going abroad, a cloak and a long black silk veil are thrown over them; the head-dress is varied.

IV. Plate 27: Arabian and Egyptian Scenes
Engraver: Henry Winkles

In eating and drinking the Egyptians are temperate, and the meals of the rich and eminent are as simple as those of the poor. Much attention is paid to the cleanliness of the person, especially by the women. Superstition and sensuality, on the other hand, prevail everywhere. The Egyptians are described also as covetous, hypocritical, treacherous, thievish, cowardly, and lazy. On the whole, their customs and usages resemble those of the Osmanlis. (Pl. 27, figs. 1 and 3, Egyptian Fellahs and Bedouins; fig. 2, dances and tents of the same; figs. 4 and 5, Arabian caravan in Egypt; pl. 13, fig. 1, m, head-dress of a Coptish patriarch; n, of a Coptish priest; o, of an Egyptian; p, of an Egyptian camel driver; d, of the people of Cairo. Pl. 26, fig. 7, woman of quality of Cairo; pl. 27, fig. 6, a wedding at Cairo.)

The Berbers

The Berbers, who call themselves, however, Amazirgh, that is to say, “Noble,” “Free,” are the true descendants of the most ancient inhabitants of Mauritania, Numidia, and Libya, or Moghrib (West), the name applied by the Arabs to northern Africa. Their territory extends from the high west bank of the Nile, and the range of oases running along the west side of Egypt, to the coast of the Atlantic Ocean; and from the shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the heights of the Atlas Mountains to the southern border of the Great Desert. They belong to the Semitic stock, but are divided into numerous tribes with different dialects: 1. Tamazirgt, including Berbers or Amazirghs proper, Shelloochees or Shillooks; 2. Showi, i. e. the Berbers of Algiers and Tunis, also called Kabyles and Zuaves; 3. the inhabitants of Wadreag and Wurgela, or Wagela, who speak the Ezegiah dialect; 4. the Beni-Mozab, including the Berber hordes of Mozahis, Bisearies, Wadreagans, and Wurgelans, dwelling within the confines of ancient Gætulia, and intermixed with Bedouin Arabs; 5. the Tuariks, inhabitants of the great Desert of Sahara, who speak the Tergia dialect.

The Negroes

The Ethiopian stock (Negro race) live in the districts extending from the southern edge of the Desert of Sahara to the Cape of Good Hope; and thus, properly speaking, inhabit the whole of central and southern Africa. They exhibit many different shadings, as well in external form as in habits. The physical attributes among the African nations, according to Prichard, have an evident relation to their moral and social condition, and to the different degrees of barbarism or civilization in which they live. Tribes in which the Negro type is developed in a very high degree, are uniformly in the lowest grade of human society; they are either ferocious savages, or present themselves to us as stupid, sensual, and indolent creatures, scarcely elevated above animal life, as for instance, the Papels, Bullous, and other rude hordes, upon the coast of West Guinea, and many tribes on the Slave Coast and the Bay of Benin, where the slave trade has been and is still carried on to the greatest extent, exercising its pernicious influence. On the other hand, wherever we hear of a negro state whose inhabitants have made considerable advances in their social condition, we invariably find that their physical character differs materially from the distinctly stamped Negro type. The Ashantees, Soulimas, and Dahomians, may serve as instances of this. The negroes of Gooba and Houssa, where a considerable degree of civilization has existed for a long time, are perhaps the handsomest race of true Negroes upon the continent, rivalled only by the Joloffes. The latter have been a comparatively civilized people since the time of their first discovery by the Portuguese.

Monotheism has gained but little ground among the Negroes. A large portion still entertain the rudest conceptions of religious matters; one third has become converted by the Moors to Mohammedanism. Islamism, though much mutilated, has been naturalized in the whole of central Africa; there the Foolahs and Mandingoes are the most zealous in religion, and at present are offering great obstacles to the propagation of Christianity from the coast. The only spot upon which the Christian faith has planted a firm foot is in South Africa, among the tribe of Beshuans, into whose highlands Islamism has not penetrated.

In sketching the principal Negro tribes, we begin with those settled in the west, upon the highlands of Soudan, where the Foolahs and the Mandingoes are the most powerful tribes.

The Foolahs inhabit a wide space, more than 700,000 square miles, extending from near the mouth of the Senegal, on the Atlantic coast, and Senegambia in the west, to the kingdom of Bornou and Mandara in the east, and from the desert of Sahara in the north to the mountains of Guinea or Kong in the south. The Foolahs are called also Foolehs, Fulbies, Fellanies, Fallatahs, Fellatahs, Peuls, &c., names that belong properly speaking to different tribes, associated, however, into one nation, by means of a language common to all. In Senegambia and the mountainous country back of Sierra Leone, the Foulahs have formed four principal states, Fouta-Toro, Fouta-Bondon, Fouta-Jallon, Foulahdon. The four are governed by an elective chief, bearing the title of Almamy (El Imam), and who may be considered as the president of an oligarchical council. In other Negro countries into which these nomadic tribes have penetrated, they pay tribute to the princes for the land which they occupy. The Foulahs differ, however, so much from the true Negroes, that many travellers are inclined to arrange them as a particular race. In turns, their complexion has been described as bronze, copper red, reddish, and sometimes even white. Mungo Park found them in the western parts of Senegambia, and Crowther on the Quorra River, mostly with tan-colored complexions, silky hair, and agreeable features. Oldendorp thus describes a Foulah: “His black hair was like that of Europeans; his color less black than that of the Negroes, the nose not so flat; the lips black, not red like those of the Negroes.” According to Vater’s conjecture, the Foulahs belong to a race intermediate between the Negroes proper and the African whites.

The Foulahs are a warlike, pastoral nation; in the course of the present century they have become politically organized, acquired dominion over a great part of Soudan, and in 1805 founded Soccotoo, the metropolis of the kingdom. The Foulahs are strict Mohammedans, and eager to make converts to their faith. They exercise a powerful influence upon the moral and social condition of the Central African, and will perhaps be the instruments to be employed in the future civilization of their vast continent.

The houses of the wealthy are constructed of cylindrical air-dried bricks, one story high, with but two rooms, flat roofs, and very brightly whitewashed. A hole in the roof serves in place of a chimney. Persons of the poorer classes live in small conically formed huts, composed of trunks of trees, and covered with straw, as represented in pl. 26, in the background between figs. 8 and 10. The mosques are also built of air-dried bricks. In both houses and huts the greatest neatness prevails, and much attention is paid to the construction and maintenance of good streets and roads.

The dress of the Foulahs consists of long full cotton trowsers, shirts, and conical straw hats. The material from which these garments are manufactured is woven and dyed a handsome blue color by the people themselves. Cloth is also made by them of the long wool of their sheep. According to Oldfield, Fellatah women adorn themselves with assiduous care, their toilet occupying several hours. They dye their toes and hands a pretty purple, and their front teeth with different colors, one blue, two others purple, and yellow, leaving the fourth white. The eyelids are marked with sulphuret of antimony, and their hair is plaited into four perpendicular bunches, four or five inches in length. Their bodies are coated with a red paint, in order to heighten the color of the skin, and to correct the odor of the perspiration. The same observer states also that the Fellatahs are very fond of dancing and other recreations; and like all negroes with whom he becanje acquainted, at the times of new and full moon, pass their nights in these diversions.

In number and power the Mandingoes rank next to the Foulahs. They are found in the western sections of Central Africa, where they inhabit the upper regions of the Senegal, the Gambia, and the Joliba Quorra. From these districts, however, they have spread over all the neighboring countries, where they constitute the wealthiest, best educated, and most influential portion of the inhabitants, although inferior in numbers. They are genuine negroes, black, with a mixture of yellow. They are laborious, industrious agriculturists, who maintain their land in a good state of cultivation, and rear a considerable stock of neat cattle, sheep, and goats, but like the Foulahs keep no swine.

The Mandingoes have schools, and learn to read and write of their priests. They are as zealous Mohammedans as the Foulahs themselves, and better educated than other negro nations. Their disposition is mild, feeling, and benevolent, probably the consequence of their predilection for trade, and the journeys which occupy much of their time. They pay attention also to fishing, and the manufacturing of leather and iron. They do not form one state, but are split into numerous societies, which not unfrequently wage war against each other, being at times limited monarchies, at other times republics. Bambouk, renowned on account of its gold mines, Satodon, and Honkadon, are the most important of these states.

In spite of their industry in the field, as well as in traffic, the Mandingoes love their comfort and repose, and are neither hunters nor fowlers, taking most pleasure in banquets and a kind of game of draughts.

The Mandingo language is split into numerous dialects: the Bamhoukee, spoken by the inhabitants of the kingdom of Bambouk; the Curanco, belonging to a tribe more resembling in their manners the rude Timmanies than the cultivated Mandingoes, and who cbmb their very woolly hair in large balls over both temples, file their teeth to a point, and tattoo their breasts and backs; the dialect of the Bamharras, part of whom are still heathens; that of the Jallonkas, in the highest section of Senegambia; the of the Sokko or Assokko, who reside east of the Jallonkas, along the Congo m.ountains, in the countries back of the Gold Coast., and who seem to be more civilized than the surrounding nations, their religion being a mixture of Christianity and Mohammedanism, owing probably much of its form to national ideas and usages; the dialect of the Serrawallies, who are also called Serakhalehs, Saracolets, or Tilubunkoes, and inhabit the kingdom of Galam or Kadshaga. It is, however, not entirely certain that the latter nation is to be included among the Mandingoes, although their language is understood in a large portion of the northern Mandingo country.

The Jalloffs (Jolofs, Jolufs, Walofs, Wolofs) live in the lowlands of Senegambia, between the Senegal and the Gambia. Less numerous than the Foulahs and Mandingoes, they have nevertheless always been distinguished as a powerful, active, and warlike nation. They are tall and slender, have regular features, somewhat rounded noses, not very thick lips, crisp woolly hair, and the skin is of a very glossy black color. They are described as the handsomest negroes of this part of Africa, and their women as particularly good-looking. They are, however, said to be proud, malicious, revengeful, lying and deceitful, gluttonous, intemperate in drinking liquors, lazy and averse to labor. Hospitality is the only good quality for which travellers give them credit. Their magicians and soothsayers are greatly respected amongst them. A small stock of cattle constitutes their only property. In former times the Jalloffs were the subjects of a single prince, at present they are divided into many small states governed by insolent despots. Among the Jalloffs are classed the Serreras, a pastoral people that live in the neighborhood of Cape Verde and upon the confines of the Jalloff country, and go entirely naked.

The hot and fertile Gold Coast of West Africa extends from the River Suciro to the Rio Volta. Besides the products of the vegetable and animal kingdoms, the country possessed at one time an abundance of pure gold, and hence the name of the coast. This rich source of the precious metal has, however, been almost exhausted by Europeans. The Negroes of the Gold Coast are not like those on the Senegal and Gambia, but are quite as well formed. Their complexion is a deep shining black, the eyes sparkling, and the teeth white. In youth these negroes endeavor to check the growth of hair upon the face; at a more advanced age, however, many wear handsome curled beards. The hair of the head is shaved off, with the exception of a tuft upon the crown. Women ornament this tuft with gay-colored feathers and gold pins, and usually paint their bodies with white figures, whilst their faces are mostly decorated with blue and green. Among both sexes, the greater part of the body is unclothed. Metal rings encircle the legs and arms. The weapons are spears, bows and arrows, guns and knives, and shields for defence against the assault of an enemy. Besides their arms, they attach to their persons a vessel in which the provisions are kept, a calabash to be used for drinking, and, when setting out for battle, a strong bast rope for tying their captives. Warriors sometimes wear on their heads the dried scalp of a slain animal, which they smear with blood.

The habitations, which are round, consist of wicker-work covered with loam, and have roofs of palm branches. A bunch of rushes projects at the top like a crest. As every house has but a single apartment, every family usually possesses several dwellings, which are inclosed by a hedge. Men of rank, accustomed to luxury, however, in consequence of intercourse with Europeans, have larger houses with several rooms.

Owing to the fertility of the soil, the cultivation of the earth gives but little trouble. The Gold Coast Negroes are not unskilful smiths, and now even manufacture guns. Neat baskets, mats, and parasols are plaited by them with considerable dexterity. They are not particular in the selection of food, and eat many animals that civilized people would not willingly touch. In their disposition they exhibit, like all the natives that associate with Europeans, the strongest mixture of good and bad. They are mild, sympathizing, hospitable, but in a high degree slaves to their sensual desires, sacrificing everything to their gratification. At the same time they are proud, and oppress wherever they are able to domineer. As enemies they are implacable, and their thirst for revenge is great. The slave trade hardens them; the desire for fire-water, the brandy of Europeans, smothers in them all delicate feelings: but notwithstanding all this, they love and take great care of their children. Like all negroes, they give themselves up to sluggish repose; and if they own slaves, the latter are obliged to perform all the work. In case they have none, the greater part of the labor falls upon the women. All negroes are exceedingly fond of dancing. At times, also, a kind of pantomimic representation is given. Games of hazard are often played with great passion; and many a man stakes his entire property and estate, and indeed even his liberty. Almost every village has its ruler or king, who, however, has no particular marks of distinction, unless intercourse with Europeans has induced him to adopt something of the sort. He governs, however, with harshness; awards punishments affecting money and property, liberty and life; but even the severest penalty may be bought off by means of presents. Justice is administered altogether according to his arbitrary will.

The religion of most of the negroes of the Gold Coast is heathenish; they are chiefly pagans; a few, however, lukewarm Mohammedans, or Christians. Among them, as among all negroes, respect for the priests prevails; and priestcraft rules, afflicts, and oppresses the ignorant poor. Judgments of God are usual among them, and through their instrumentality revenge and avarice are often gratified, and the innocent crushed.

Between the Gambia and Sierra Leone are many other small tribes; among them, 1. The Feloups (Felloops), living in villages in the thickets on the Lasamanga and the head waters of the Vintain, a river emptying on the left side of the Gambia; 2. The Banyones, and to the south of them, 3. The Papels, a savage, cruel, revengeful, and warlike tribe; 4. South of the Papels, the rude and ill-favored Balantes; 5, The large, strong, cruel, and savage Bissagoes, inhabiting the islands of the same name; 6. The Biafars, considered the handsomest nation of this coast, and living on the Geba, facing the island Bissao, and as far as Koli, where they are bordered by 7. The Basares, who are reported to be cannibals. In the same vicinity live also: 8. The Natubes, separated from the Biafars by the Rio Grande. Between the Rio Nunez and Sierra Leone, on the banks of four other navigable rivers, are, 9. The Zapes, 10. The Foolics, 11. The Cocolies, and 12. The Nalez, all idolaters. Almost all these tribes are described as repulsive savages, with large and coarse features, flat noses, and of dirty and livid complexion.

The Soosoos live in the immediate vicinity of the British settlement of Sierra Leone. Next to them reside the Booloms, in whose territory the colony alluded to is situated, and who extend to the Island of Sherbro. Then follow the Timmanies and Bagous, or Bagas. All four are handsome and strong, with prepossessing features, and less barbarous than the preceding. In the highlands back of Sierra Leone, south of Fouta Jallon, in the district of the sources of the River Mungo and of the Rochello or Sala, live the warlike, powerful Soulimas, who are among the most cultivated and handsome of the heathen nations. Close to them, beyond the sources of the Joliba-Quorra, are the Sangars, similar to the last named; and south of them, the Kissis and Limbas. Of the numerous small tribes peopling the Grain and Pepper Coasts, and the Ivory Coast, to the east and west of Cape Palmas, as well as the interior of the back country, we name only the Kroohs (Kroomen, Karoos), the Kangas, Mangries, Giens, Deys, Gorahs, Greyhos, Bassas, Fihs, Queahs (Keahs), Kassouks, Quoies, Hondos, Folgies, Gebbes, Timmes, Quilligies, and Puys. On the Ivory Coast, between Cape Palmas and Cape Three Points, and the country behind this shore, the Quaquas are esteemed the principal nation. Here belong, moreover, the Isinis or Oshin, Ghiomos, Veteres, and Esieps, who likewise live along the Ivory Coast. In the back country live the powerful Buntakuhs, bounded on the east side by the kingdom of the Ashantees (Intas). The latter are well proportioned, with handsome oval faces, sparkling eyes, small ears, and high, thick eyebrows; well proportioned mouths; good-looking, clean, white teeth; fresh red lips, neither very thick nor pendent; and not very broad noses. Their hair is long, curly, and tolerably soft. Their complexion is deep black. The religion of the Ashantees is a rude, bloody idolatry, or fetish worship, their form of government a tyrannical despotism, and their captives are tortured to death. Round about the Intas, of whom, properly speaking, the Ashantees are only the principal nation, are the Akraes, formerly powerful, but at present greatly thinned by the Ashantees. They likewise are rude heathens. The Foys, or Dahomies, are the inhabitants of the kingdom of Dahomey, or Dahomet. They are called Foys after the country Foy or Fouin, in which they formerly resided, and which lies to the north-east of their present territory. They have their own language, of which the Widah, Ardrah, Papaa, and Atshe, or Watshe, are dialects. The Foys are industrious, and in spite of their despotic government, have made the furthest advances in civilization of all the heathen negro nations; for which they are indebted to their long intercourse with Europeans, who for centuries have resided near them, in order to carry on the slave trade. The Foys are well formed and large of stature, but have not the soft features of the Akraes. The women are very ugly. The Foys display a remarkable mixture of savageness and civilization, of barbarity and lofty sentiments.

In the interior of the delta overspread by the great Niger with a network of river-channels, the most numerous nation is constituted by the Ibues (Iboes, Eboes), on both sides of the Quorra, eastwardly, as far as the River Calabar; other tribes residing there are the Igan, Evo, Bibi, Mokos (Mokko), Benines, Calbra, Camacons, Omuns, Acanucunus, and Inniong.

The inhabitants of the interior of Africa are divided, according to their languages, into six principal nations: Kissures of Timbuctoo (West Soudan); Haussans, or Gouberies (East Soudan); Bornouese; Eyeos; Mobbans; and Bergharmese.

The Kissures are a civilized negro nation, very little impressed with the negro type. Mohammedanism has spread over the whole of Soudan, but its inhabitants are not such strict professors as the Foulahs. They are tolerant, and polite and friendly to every one. Towards females also they are not so harsh as the Senegambian and Guinea negro nations. Women are permitted to go unveiled, but not to eat with their husbands, nor even with their own sons. Besides the language of the country, the Arabic is in general use, and they have also Arabic letters. The inhabitants of West Soudan are very intelligent. Their principal employment is husbandry (the cultivation of maize, millet, tobacco, &c.); but less attention is paid to rearing cattle. The labor of farming, however, is mostly consigned to slaves, the free rich devoting themselves to traffic, the poor of the cities to handicrafts. The Kissures live very well; their principal food is rice; fresh meat, however, forms a part of the meals almost daily. They sit around a large platter, out of which the food is taken with the fingers, as is customary amongst all the nations of the interior. The cities, Jinnee and Timbuctoo for instance, are like the villages of Europe, but surrounded with walls 14 feet thick and 10 or 12 feet in height. The houses are built of air-dried bricks, one story high, with flat roof, the windows opening on the court. Every house has a flight of steps leading up to the roof The streets are irregular, and often very broad.

The dress of the Kissures approaches the graceful costume of the Moors. In pl. 26, fig. 10, a girl is represented, wearing a conical cap, a short-sleeved blue jacket, richly ornamented with gold, over the wide-sleeved chemise, and a boddice fitting tight on the bosom; the jacket being encircled above the hips by a wadded white and red striped border. The frock, which reaches below the knees, is trimmed with broad gold lace. The wide scarlet mantle is only slung around the hips in fine weather. Small slippers are worn on the bare feet, and a wide ring loosely girds the ankles. In the right hand, the girl here represented carries a feather brush or fan.

Hereditary princes are at the head of the government, which is based upon the directions of the Koran, and is described as being very mild. The King of Timbuctoo has lost much of his independence by the incessant inroads of the Tuaricks, called Sorgous by the Kissures. The royal house is marked by no splendor, and the sovereign lives in a style little better than that of his subjects.

The Gouberies, or Haussans, all speak the language of Gouber. Before the last conquests of the Foulahs in Soudan, the different tribes of East Soudan, as Prichard informs us, had become the subjects of one sovereign, and were blended into a single kingdom which was called Haussa (Houssa, Hawsa), after the principal state. The inhabitants spoke a dialect of the language common to the whole nation, since then called the Houssa dialect, and which seems to have been divided into more or less varying suj3-dialects, according to the different provinces in which it formed the idiom of the people. The East Soudanians are not entirely black, have interesting physiognomies, with small, not broad noses, and their appearance is less repulsive than that of the negroes of Guinea. Their eyes are black, with a frank and noble expression. True beauties are found among the female sex, hence the women are greatly esteemed as slaves. Since the inhabitants are yet exposed to being sold as slaves, it may be presumed that they have not yet all embraced Mohammedanism. The Houssans are a subdued nation, under the dominion of the Fellatahs, who have settled in numerous colonies among them. The former, however, have retained their old customs and occupations. They pursue agriculture, rearing cattle, mechanical occupations, and traffic in the interior of the country. They live in villages and towns, the latter of which, Kashna (Kasnea) for instance, are frequently very large. The sword and bow and arrows are the weapons in use. Women often color their hair, hands, feet, thighs, and eyebrows, blue; and among both sexes, the teeth and lips are generally dyed.

The Bornouese, inhabitants of Bornou, are blacker, stouter, and have more strongly marked features than the Houssas; but handsome figures are also found, especially among the women, who not unfrequently have a complexion more inclining to brown. The Bornouese call themselves Kanowry; and the rude mountaineers, who are still heathens, Bedies. From descriptions of this nation, we learn that they, particularly the Mohammedan portion, are peaceable, quiet, timid, and polite, but revengeful withal. A certain melancholy is said to be perceptible in their looks. The cultivation of grain is the principal means of support; rearing cattle is followed to a great extent by the immigrated Arabs, who are here called Shouas. Few of the industrial arts are practised in this country, and hence the Bornouese are obliged to look to commerce with foreign lands as the means of obtaining many articles considered necessary. Tattooing and painting the body blue are still in use among the Bornouese. Bornou possesses large towns, surrounded by walls forty feet in height and twenty thick, and the houses are pretty and roomy; in the country, however, they have only straw and mud huts. Bornou is under an absolute elective prince. The chief power rests, nevertheless, in the hands of the grandees, who form the court of the Sultan. Their government is based upon the Mosaic code, and is said to be just and tolerably mild. The Bornou girls (pl. 26, fig. 8) wear petticoats reaching below the knee, and over them blue garments which leave the arms and left breast free. Their hair hangs down on both sides in short braids, ornamented with pearls, and a red frontlet girds the temples, another riband being attached to it, which lies across the crown of the head. On the feet they wear sandals.

In the southern section of the kingdom of Houssa, on both sides of the Quorra Niger, there are tribes who differ from the Gouberies in language and manners. Among them are the Eyeos (Ayos, Oyos, Okyous), whose language is the national tongue of the kingdom of Jarriba or Eyeo, and of the province of Borgou or Borgho, which is divided into many small states. Clapperton says of the natives of Jarriba, that they have less characteristic negro features than any other nation of Africa; the lips are not so thick and the nose is somewhat aquiline. He describes the King of Boussa (pl. 26, fig. 9) as a handsome man, and our representation appears to corroborate this account. His overcoat is green with red stripes, and worked with arabesques. Turban, sash, and the wide trowsers are scarlet; the boots yellow. Lander was astonished at the regularity of the features, the elegance of the form, and the great dignity in the manners of the black king of Kiama. In Wawa, the men are tall and well formed. The greater portion of these tribes are still heathens, but human sacrifices are not offered. Lizards, crocodiles, tortoises, boa constrictors, &c., are their fetishes. The Eyeos trace back their origin to Bornou, and assert that their country was formerly inhabited by the Cumbries, who, at the time of their immigration, were driven out of Bornou into the mountains and forests. On the western shore of the lower Quorra, a short distance above its junction with the Tshadda, is the district of the Ibbedos (Kahunda).

To the east of Bornou lies the country of Mobba (Bargou, Dar Eseleh, Wadai, or Wadey), whose inhabitants are not very dusky black, and among whom the negro type is in some cases more, in others less observed, Islamism is their religion, and instruction is given in reading and writing Arabic. They appear to be mild and frank, and veracious towards strangers. The metropolis is called Wara.

The Begharmese inhabit the country Begharmeh (Begharmi, Bagermi), have their own language, and are mostly Mohammedans. They are proud and warlike, but also industrious; their cotton weaving and dyeing deserve especial mention. This nation is continually at war with the Bornouese. In the neighborhood live, also, the Mandarans, and the powerful, warlike Mangowies, as well as the repulsive Biddomah.

In the southern and eastern parts of Kordofan, and Dar-Fu bordering thereon, and as far as the White Nile (Arabic Bahrel-Ahiad), and along this river, there are various Nuba or negro tribes, speaking different languages. According to Rüppel, four dialects are spoken in Kordofan by the same number of nations (Koldagi, Chabun, Takele, and Deier, or Dahera), who are all united under the name of Nuba. Besides the Nubas, we mention the Fouries, Rungas, Begos or Dageous, Zeghawas, Kullas, Fertits, Denkas, and Shillooks. The latter inhabit the mountainous country of Bertrat, rich in rivers, which borders on Fertit, south of Kordofan and Dar Fur, and to the west of Abyssinia. A portion of the last mentioned nation, in the beginning of the sixteenth century, took possession of Sennaar, and erected the city of that name the metropolis of their kingdom, as it was then constituted. Here they call themselves Fungi (signifying “conquerors” in Arabic), whilst they give the names Ahbits, Abhd, or Nuba, that is to say, negroes, to those of their tribe and language remaining at home in Bertrat. To this nation probably belong the negro tribes who live in the low swampy and forest districts at the foot of the Abyssinian highlands, and are called Shangallas by the Abyssinians. The Shangallas prefer a savage existence by hunting, fishing, and robbery, and are without social coherence, except in cases of single hordes or families. They are rude and barbarous, subsist on the flesh of wild animals and fish, are devoted to idolatry, dwell in caverns, and pay no attention to agriculture and the rearing of cattle. With the Abyssinians they live in a state of perpetual warfare. Like the Shillooks, they seem to worship the sun and moon. The Koldagi-Nuba are husbandmen, and inhabit the central and northern section of Kordofan. Pl. 26, fig. 12, represents Negroes of Central Africa worshipping a fetish. Pl. 28, fig. 3, Negroes about a slain elephant.

According to Lichtenstein, the inhabitants of the entire southern half of Africa, from the equator, and even a point beyond it on the north, as far as the confines of the Cape Land, or the territory of the Hottentots, belong to a single stock, since they are united by a common language, spoken in different dialects. The philologist Marsden has corroborated this assertion.

At present the western tribes, or Congo Negroes, are split into numerous small states, but formerly belonged to a single nation. They lived in the north-eastern section of the country, but extended their conquests so widely as to advance to that part of the coast now called Congo, and drove the tribes then dwelling there to the south. The conquerors called themselves Molua (chief). A kind of pestilence, however, forced them, with the exception of a portion, back to their own country. The colony remaining behind were usually denominated not only Memba Molua, but also Abunda (conquerors). This territory was afterwards re-conquered by a chieftain of the dispossessed natives, called Angola, and his name was finally applied to the country itself. The Bunda is the most universal language of the kingdom of Angola; it is said to be derived from Cassange, is spoken also in Mattemba and Libolo, and is very near akin to the Congo tongue. The latter is in use in the entire region of country extending from the banks of the Lifune to Cape St. Catharine, on the border of the kingdom of Loango, and is prevalent in the latter kingdom also. On the southern side of the river Coanza, another, the Benguela language, is spoken, containing, however, many words of the Bunda.

The negroes dwelling in eastern Congo, and still independent of Portugal, are very different from those under Portuguese dominion. They are more active and courageous; are expert warriors, who often quarrel with neighboring nations, in order to take from the latter their women, children, and cattle. The coast regions are more densely populated than the interior of the country.

The complexion is not equally black in all the Congo negroes, but the skin is universally very glistening, which is the more apt to be the case from the fact that they smear themselves with animal grease or palm oil. The forehead is narrow, the nose thick and flat, the chin short and bent backwards, the hair woolly and grey in old age; the jaws are long, the lips turned out, and the ears large.

We here take occasion to mention also several other peculiarities that have been observed in the negroes generally. Thus, for instance, the brain of the negro cranium is of a brown color, and weighs from two to four ounces less than that of white people. The bones of the cranium are stronger with the negroes. In fevers, discharged bile is black in color, thick and flaky; among the whites, on the contrary, it is brown or grass green. The blood of the negroes is dark brown, in death viscous, black, and so thick that it appears to unite with the flesh into one mass. New born children are bright copper-colored, but become darker after a fortnight; the aged are yellowish black. The blood is two degrees warmer on an average than that of the whites. Negroes in Africa soon grow old, so that a negro of thirty years of age is not more vigorous than a white man in Europe of from fifty to sixty. Negroes numbering over forty years are even rare. The perspiration of the negroes smells very offensively, especially after violent exercise, dancing for instance. Females grow old still sooner than the men; as early as the twenty-first year the infirmities of age begin. When at work, women have their children upon their backs; even whilst dancing they keep the latter with them, and never trust their offspring to the care of strangers. In the coast districts, the small-pox and gout very frequently occur; but at a distance of not more than 130 to 160 miles, these diseases are entirely unknown. The Congo negroes look rude, sullen, savage, and cruel, but in spite of their serious disposition engage in jokes and raillery, and laugh with a hearty good will. Their intellect is generally of a very inferior order, they comprehend with great difficulty, and reflection appears to fatigue them; they give themselves up to sensual enjoyments and pleasure without the least restraint, and their highest good fortune is inaction. The fetishes worshipped by them are either certain living animals, intrusted to the care of youths and maidens employed for the purpose; or representations of human beings and animals carved by themselves; sometimes also plants, chiefly trees. The negroes pray to these idols, not from fear, but with a view of persuading them to show them greater favor; and the sorcerers and jugglers employ every means to keep these poor creatures in their superstition. They believe in a sort of spiritual existence after death, and in a transmigration of souls; and the negroes acquainted with Europeans entertain the desire that after death their soul may go into the body of a white man; indeed, they even beseech their gods, if there is no place ready for it, to keep their soul in heaven until it can pass into a white man. Some tribes are said to be cannibals. Negroes bear bodily pain with the greatest calmness; and a sound indicative of suffering is seldom heard from them even when undergoing the most horrible torments.

IV. Plate 28: Peoples of African Tribes
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Pl. 28. fig. 6, baptized negresses of Benguela; fig. 8, armed Molua negroes guarding the king’s house; fig. 9, human sacrifice among the Cassange negroes; fig. 4, a negro chief under the Portuguese dominion surrounded by his chieftains and wives; fig. 5, solemnity in honor of the dead among the negro tribes south of the river Coango; fig. 7, negro soldier of the Portuguese possessions.

In the regions on the coast of the Indian Ocean, from the confines of the Cape Land to a point beneath the equator, there is a race differing greatly from the negroes proper. Their skull is high-arched, the entire head of an agreeable form, the nose not flat, and the teeth of dazzling whiteness; the lips nevertheless are large, and the cheekbones prominent. The men, in particular, display a vigorous and slender form, and their limbs are strong and symmetrical. Their complexion is brown, but towards the equator passes into the deepest black; the hair is black, short, and woolly.

When the Portuguese came to the coasts of Sofala and Mozambique, they found two kinds of inhabitants: Arabic colonists of mixed or pure blood, and the dark-colored natives of the country. The former, being of the Mohammedan faith, were denominated by the Portuguese, Moors; the latter, however, were called by the Arabs, Kafirs, that is to say “unbelievers.” This name was retained by the Portuguese, corrupting it by degrees into Kaffers, or Caffres, which is now applied to a tribe whose territory is not confined to the eastern coast merely, but extends over the entire elevated country of South Africa, as far as the Atlantic coast. Caffreland, or Caffraria proper, reaches from the Keiskamma (the river constituting the boundary line between Caffraria and the British Cape Colony) to an undetermined boundary which falls a little to the south of Delagoa Bay. The western border is said to be in the district of the sources of the Orange river, emptying into the Atlantic ocean, and the river Mapoula, whose mouth is in Delagoa Bay. The Caffres are divided into four great nations: Ama-Kosa, Ama-Temba, Ama-Ponda, and Ama-Zula.

The Caffres are cheerful, frank, and manly, and engaged principally in rearing cattle, less in hunting and farming; the herds constituting their chief means of support. Amongst them are found traces of a belief in a higher being, and in inferior spirits; but they have no regular worship. Circumcision is general amongst the Caffres. Their clothing consists of the skins of animals, which these people understand how to reduce to softness and pliancy. Their weapons are a spear, a broad shield of buffalo hide, and a short club; sometimes also a kind of sword. In their wars, which are not very bloody, the Caffres show respect to the female sex, and also treat European women that fall into their hands in a very humane manner. To European missionaries, merchants, and travellers, they always manifest friendship, provided they are not, met in company with a detachment of enemies. The Europeans, notwithstanding all this, show little justice or humanity towards them, but on the contrary subject them even to the most shameful cruelties.

The Hottentots (pl. 1, fig. 16), whom we have already described, inhabit the southern end of Africa.

When the Dutch (in the 17th century) set foot upon this section of South Africa, as friends of the natives, the latter gave for toys and a few bottles of gin, as much land as was required for a small settlement. This natives, at that time, were a tolerably numerous nation, living in prosperity on the produce of their herds, and divided into many tribes, each under its own chief. They called themselves Quaique; the name Hottentot was entirely unknown to them, and its origin is not ascertained. A sheepskin cloak served as a dress by day, and as a covering during the night. Cell-like huts, constructed of piles and boughs, and covered with beech mats, protected them from the effects of the weather, and could easily be carried from one spot to another, by means of their pack oxen. Their weapons consisted of a light spear, and a bow with poisoned arrows. For half a century, perhaps, the Europeans remained true to what they had promised, and manifested no hostility towards the natives. After this period, however, they broke their friendship, endeavored to enlarge their settlement, and hence waged war against the remote tribes, gradually taking possession of a great part of the Cape Land, driving back the tribes of the Namaquas, Corannas, and Bushmen, into the barren deserts, and not even permitting them to pasture their herds in the less fertile regions; so that these poor creatures were at length no longer able to keep cattle, and their herds also passed into the possession of the robbers who had seized upon their pastures. Having lost their possessions in this manner, they were constrained to become bondmen to the Dutch, and thus finally saw themselves deprived of personal liberty, and treated in the most cruel manner, by the Europeans. Hence it is not surprising that a nation, so innocuous, so gentle and quiet by nature, sometimes arm themselves in order to regain their liberty. In later times, since 1828, they have been placed in the same grade with the rest of the inhabitants of the Cape, and are no longer bought and sold; but they are always treated in the harshest manner by their masters, never receive the clothing and better food of slaves, and are employed for work for which the latter are considered too good. Thus they are sent, for instance, as keepers with the herds of their masters, into sections of the country where life is placed in jeopardy, and where they are not unfrequently torn to pieces by lions. The moral condition of the nation is, in general, improved, and they endeavor to provide a better education for their children than was formerly given. When, in the year 1829, a tract of their land was restored to a few Hottentots (about 250 men capable of bearing arms, with their families), the pursuit of agriculture was commenced by them with such zeal and attention, that many soon rose from the most pinching poverty to tolerable wealth. The neighboring tribes of the Caffres, who in the beginning manifested hostility, finally entered into friendly relations wjth them; and as more and more of their own countrymen obtained permission to join them, their number rose at last to 4000 souls, 700 of whom were armed with guns. Virtue, industry, and temperance now increased amongst the Hottentots, and at the present time they appear to be subjects of the most loyal and peaceable character.

The inhabitants of the East Coast of South Africa, from Inhambane to the equator, differ from the Caffres in external formation, but as far as language is concerned, are nevertheless to be included with them. On the coast of Mozambique are, the Maquas (Makwanos), the Madshowyin (perhaps synonymous with Mongas or Mondshus), the Mtshauva, the Mnichempani, the Mlomoi, and more in the interior the Maravis. Round about Delagoa Bay dwell the Ma-Puta (La-Puta), Mafumo, Mattoll, and Temby, nations mixed up of Caffres and Negroes. On the Zambese River, in the interior of South Africa, are the very savage Mumbos; and nearer the coast, the Zimbas or Mazimhas; both said to be nations of cannibals. Northwardly from the Maquas, upon the coast of Zanzibar, from Magadoxa to the vicinity of Mombasa, are the Mohammedan Souhaili, or Sowahili.

The tribes of the highlands of the interior, the Beshuanas or Bichuanas, are subdivided into numerous branches; and separated from them by a great desert and on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, live the Damaras. North of the Beshuanas, in the district watered by the Zambese or Cuanna, are the Macarouga; north and north-west of these the Bororas (Maravis); next follow the Mowiza; and besides those mentioned, the Mucamango, Mutshiva, Monomoezi, and Wambungo, are particular tribes.

Upon the elevated region of the interior portion of East Africa, is the savage and numerous nation of Gallas; of browner complexion, and with long black hair. Akin to them appear to be the Dankali and Sumali, living to the east of the Gallas; as also the Shohos, who inhabit the eastern declivity of the Abyssinian highlands towards Massua, and the neighboring mountain districts. The Dokos are a very savage race, scarcely four feet in height; their complexion is dark olive; and in customs and habits they stand in the lowest of all grades of civilization. They are in no way allied to the Gallas.

There are but few islands around Africa: almost all of them are small, hence without especial influence on this division of the world. Even Madagascar has, until the present time, been entirely cut off from Africa by the strong oceanic current in the Mozambique channel. Nevertheless we cannot allude to the largest African island without at least a brief statement in regard to its population.

The Island of Madagascar is inhabited, besides Negroes (on the west coast) and Caffres (in the south), by the Malpushes and Horas, both the latter being denominated Madagassees. Both have, in general, similar manners; the Horas, however, are the more warlike. On the whole, they are distinguished for a fine growth, are of more than medium size, and of a complexion similar to that of the Abyssinians; they have short, crisp, and black woolly hair, but regular and agreeable features. They are lively, and fond of sensual enjoyments. Their dress is very simple, consisting of a strip of cloth which is wound around the hips, and another similar one, which is thrown across the shoulders like a cloak. The women wear a broader piece of cloth arranged like a skirt, and a boddice without sleeves. Their ornaments are necklaces, armlets, and anklets, of metal, pearls, corals, &c.; a heavy gold chain is worn around the neck and breast, which suspends various small articles. The hair, which is also adorned with trinkets, is worn in several braids, which married women wind about the head, whilst the girl§ let them hang down free. Long hair is esteemed an essential part of beauty; and hence it is rubbed with oily substances, in order that its growth may be promoted.

The Madagassees live in large villages, surrounded by high palisades, for protection against attacks. Their huts are very simple, of a bee-hive form, and rather neat. The doors, which are made of wicker-work, are movable, and the entrance is closed by simply placing them before the opening. Sometimes a few bundles of thorns or bushes supply the place of doors. Palm trees afford the principal material for these huts. The man of consequence builds around his large hut several smaller ones, which he divides amongst the members of his family. The entire space occupied by a Madagassee village is very attractive, being like a park of cocoa-palm, orange, lemon, plantain, and fig trees, &c., offering numerous shady places, and combining the charms of coolness, fragrance, and juicy fruits. The household furniture is very simple; plaited mats are used for tables and couches; the vessels are of burnt clay or wood; palm leaves serve as table cloths, napkins, spoons, platters, and plates. The principal food is rice, which is moistened with meat broth, and seasoned with frasfrant herbs and parts of other aromatic plants. Many roots, manioc for instance, are used as a species of bread. Fruits and berries add variety to the meal. The flesh of beasts, birds, and fish, is eaten boiled or broiled. Mead, with or without water, is the favorite beverage.

The Madagassees are mostly good-natured people, benevolent towards others; only by their intercourse with Europeans have they become suspicious, and the necessity of securing their liberty sometimes makes them cruel and treacherous. They support themselves by agriculture, rearing cattle, fishing, several mechanic trades, and commerce in home produce and slaves. Their work evinces judgment. Iron and other metals are smelted by them, and manufactured into utensils; they make mats, baskets, pots, mortars, spears, arrows, knives, &c.; and these articles are mostly neat, durable, and perfectly adequate to their purposes. They have also boats, in which, however, they only venture on the rivers and along the coasts. The language of the country is akin to the Malay; the priests, however, understand and write Arabic also, using the peel of a species of bulrush, called sanga-sanga, instead of paper. A decoction of the bark of the arandraco tree supplies them with ink, and their pens are made of thin bamboo canes. All Madagassees were idolaters until their extraordinarily energetic and active prince Radama introduced among them European life (Christianity, schools, and mode of building). Unfortunately, this prince was poisoned in his twenty-seventh year, by his intriguing wife Ranavala-Manjoka. It must be mentioned, in conclusion, that the Madagassees have particular castes or families, from which the sovereigns, the overseers of districts, judges, freemen, &c., are chosen. Slavery is permitted, but in a mitigated form. The government differs according to the various sections of the country; in some provinces it is despotic, in others more liberal; the laws are not written, but established by custom; and appeals to the judgment of God, by means of the ordeal of poison, are not unusual.

The Inhabitants of America

Extending from the north nearly to the south pole, the continent of America comprehends almost every variety of climate. In consequence, however, of the height of the mountains and table lands, the latter of which are sometimes elevated 9000 feet above the level of the sea, and owing to the vicinity of the ocean, the number and magnitude of the rivers, and the direction of the prevailing winds, the warm regions are more exempt from excessive heat than other parts of the world under like degrees of latitude. On the other hand, the temperate countries are colder than those of Europe situated at the same distance towards the north. In North America, as in the old world, the heat decreases from the west to the east, on account of the prevailing atmospheric currents; the temperature, however, is lower upon the western coast of South America than upon the east coast, a difference caused by the violence of the winds on the plateaus of the Cordilleras, and the south polar current. America exhibits in its productions the greatest variety and peculiarity of forms, and a wealth and luxuriance, especially as far as the vegetable kingdom is concerned, observed in but few districts of the old world., Forms of plants, which in Europe are often small and unimportant, frequently occur here of colossal proportions. Boundless primeval forests, having truly gigantic trees, and interwoven with huge creepers, are spread over the great plains of America; and a luxuriant growth of grass decks large tracts of the level country. Hosts of animals enliven these regions; and the wealth in precious metals and stones is prodigious. In Russian America, the animal and vegetable worlds correspond with those in Siberia. The plants in the plains of Brazil, Guiana, and North America differ in their nature from those of the table lands of Peru and Mexico, and from those found in Patagonia and British North America; and, as a matter of course, the nearer the productions are to the tropics, the more massive and varied they appear.

The natives of America may be separated into two classes. The one embraces the Esquimaux of Greenland, Labrador, and Hudson’s Bay, and the inhabitants of Behring’s Strait, of Alaska, and Prince William’s Sound. They are smaller than the rest of the Americans, lively and loquacious, and belong to the Mongolian race. The second class is spread from the northern sections to the southernmost point of America. They are larger, copper colored or of a lighter complexion, warlike, and taciturn. They form the American race. They have at present either adopted the white man’s habits, or live as nomads and hunters. The former have fixed dwelling-places, and follow the industrial arts, agriculture, mining, and the rearing of cattle; the latter are hunters and herdsmen upon the wide prairies (llanos, pampas), and in the boundless primeval forests, or fishermen when dwelling on the seacoasts, the lakes, and rivers. A rude system of agriculture and a few handicrafts, are practised by those having regulated governments, but amongst no others. The tribes still free have republican patriarchal constitutions, the bravest and strongest individual in most cases being ruler. In consequence of the advantages derived from horses, some have become genuine robbers; others, possessing the largest herds of cattle to be found upon the face of the earth, have been transformed into confirmed nomads. Owing to the immigration of Europeans, the greater part of America has become a new Europe; for in no other division of the world have they exerted so deep a moral and political influence as here. European civilization advanced from the coast towards the interior of the country, and carried along with it the languages, religions, laws, customs, sciences, and arts, as well as the animals (particularly horses, not known before in America) and plants of Europe. Commercial enterprises and missions are driving back more and more the savage hordes of Indians. European civilization is nowhere displayed in a more successful and stronger manner than in the United States, which exhibit a popular life, a national vigor, and a cultivation, that vie with those of the first powers of Europe. But if we reverse the picture, and contemplate the enslavement of the negro race, we must acknowledge that in that at least they are inconsistent with the doctrines of freedom. Commerce and navigation extending over the whole world, have taken up their chief abode in America. America receives the productions of European industry, and gives for them the products of her soil.

We commence the characteristics of the nations of America with those of the people of Mongolian lineage.

The Esquimaux

The Esquimaux are a tribe of northern America, inhabiting the range of the coasts on the Arctic Sea, Greenland, and the numerous adjacent islands, but numbering probably not more than 30,000 individuals, who differ entirely in formation and habits, from the rest of the aborigines of America. The Humoky or Esquimaux proper, considered the stock from which all others are derived, live on the eastern, western, and northern coasts of Labrador. Their principal residences are in the vicinity of the coasts, and upon the numerous small islands bordering upon it; as in such situations they are best able to follow their chief business, seal-hunting. Prominent cheek-bones, broad forehead, small eyes, fiat nose, large mouth, white and naturally irregular teeth, and spotted yellow complexion, amongst the female sex somewhat lighter, characterize the Esquimaux in the main. The women only tattoo their foreheads, cheeks, and chins. They wear ringlets at the temples, and the rest of the hair is plaited as among civilized nations. Men attain a height of five feet and upwards, are broad shouldered, but do not possess so much muscular power as the Greenlanders. Adult males wear small mustachios and a diminutive beard on the chin. Like the Greenlanders, they have summer and winter residences. The former consist of tents; the latter, of caverns in the earth or hollows in the snow resembling ovens, the entrances to which are closed with blocks of ice. Raw flesh is preferred by them to cooked meat, and from this circumstance they have obtained the name Esquimaux (i. e. raw-flesh eaters). On the whole their customs and usages are similar to those of the Greenlanders, but to their relatives they appear much more hard-hearted than the latter, at least those uninfluenced by the doctrines of the Moravians. If the first-born child, for instance, dies, and its mother still survives, she is killed; and aged, infirm persons, widows and orphans, are robbed of their property and left to perish. The only domestic animal is the dog; it is, however, very ferocious, attacks strangers, is stubborn, and never fondles; but nevertheless displays fidelity towards its master. It cannot bark, but merely howls. Six of these dogs are usually attached in front of the sleigh of an Esquimaux, each having a collar of sealskin, to which a thong of strong leather, nine feet in length, is attached, and fastened by the other end to the fore part of the sleigh. As soon as the dogs hear the crack of the whip, they set off" in a run, and are easily managed without reins, either by the voice or the sounds of the lash. With sleighs of this description occupied usually by one person only, but sometimes containing even from four to six, the Esquimaux make from forty to fifty miles in a day.

The Esquimaux inhabiting the shores of Baffin’s Bay resemble those of Greenland and Labrador, but speak a different dialect, and devote greater attention to fishing and hunting. Their dress, according to Captain Ross, consists principally of fine reindeer skins. The upper garments are double, the inner skin having the hair turned inside, the outer, outside. They reach from the chin to the middle of the thigh. A hood is attached to the back part, capable of being drawn over the head; the flap hangs down in the manner of an apron, as far as the calves, and the sleeves cover the fingers. Two pairs of boots are worn, with the hairy sides of the skins turned inwardly. Over the boots the Esquimaux wear trowsers of reindeer skin that reach far down on the legs. Many wear shoes over their boots, and breeches of seal skin. In these clothes they appear stouter than they really are. The dresses are, however, neatly made, and sometimes adorned with fringes of sinew, or with strings of small bones.

The Esquimaux are cheerful and lively, and in spite of the small size of their bodies, capable of enduring the greatest fatigues. They possess some skill in the arts, but also all the faults of a people of nature. Upon the west coast of Greenland, and in Labrador, the greater portion have become Christians. Among those that are still heathens, the infinitely good Being is called Ukkowma, the bad Being, Wittike. Others call the former Torogaresook, and imagine the latter as a female without a name. (Pl. 1, fig. 13, an Esquimaux.)

Among the eastern Esquimaux, at least three dialects, or languages, allied to each other, may be distinguished: the dialect of the inhabitants of the north and west shores of Hudson’s Bay, and which extends to beyond Mackenzie’s River; the dialect of Greenland, which may embrace two different sub-dialects, as the inhabitants of the west coast maintain no intercourse with those of the east coast, and hence speak, perhaps, a different dialect; the dialect of the coast of Labrador, probably allied to the language of the Esquimaux on Hudson’s Bay. The Esquimaux constituting the western division extend along the shore of the Pacific Ocean, from Behring’s Strait southward as far as the end of the Peninsula of Alaska, in latitude 57° north, where they may be traced towards the west, over the Aleutian series of islands, and eastwardly as far as the vicinity of Behring’s Bay and Mount St. Elias, in latitude 60° north, and longitude 140° west (of Paris), where they entirely disappear. According to Captain Franklin, the division line between the eastern and western Esquimaux is found on the Arctic Sea at the northern extremity of the Rocky Mountains, in longitude about 142° west; a place where the western Esquimaux annually meet those of the east, in order to barter iron or other wares of Russian manufacture, for seal skins, train oil, and furs. This intercourse, which has not been established until recently, has shown, however, that the western Esquimaux speak a dialect so different from that of the eastern tribes, that in the beginning they had great difficulty in talking to each other. The dialects of the various western tribes differ also from one another, more than is the case with those of the eastern. To the western tribes belong the Aleutians; the Kadiacks (Koniages); the Chongaches, on the shores of Prince William’s Land, westwardly as far as the entrance of Cook’s Inlet; the Agolegmetes, at the mouths of the Rivers Nushagac and Nackneck, by whom the former inhabitants, the Ugashenzes and Sewernowzes, were driven away to the eastern part of the peninsula of Alaska; the Kiates and Kuskokwimers, the Quichpacs, Magimetes, &c. Of the eastern Esquimaux, the Greenlanders claim special notice.

The Greenlanders

The southernmost section of Greenland lies at the northern extremity of the temperate zone; the remainder, however, is situated within the polar circle: in the former, therefore, vegetables, potatoes, and oats maybe cultivated, while they cannot be raised in the latter. The east coast of Greenland, for a great distance down, is beset by perpetual ice; an extent of 300 miles of the southern part of the west coast (New Greenland), however, is free from ice for eight months in the year, and hence at this season is much frequented by Danish fishermen, on which account it is the region best known. The mountains of the interior ascend to a height of more than 4000 feet, and are covered with perpetual snow and ice. The Greenlanders belong to the most innocuous of savages; and theft, drunkenness, brawls, or homicide, are things of very rare occurrence among them; but again they have certainly little susceptibility for civilization, great as is the solicitude of the Danish government in regard to the matter. Only a hundred years ago, they lived in the deepest superstition and total ignorance. Their religious traditions were a jumble of ridiculous fables, by which their sorcerers, or Angekoks, profited in their jugglings. Members of families display great attachment towards each other. The Greenlanders inhabit only the coast and coast islands; living, in winter, in miserable huts made of stones, earth, and turf; in summer, in tents of doubled seal and reindeer skins, in which everything is arranged with a much greater regard to neatness than is shown in the winter dwellings. Wealthy persons dress in blue cloth; but as a general rule, both sexes are clad in skins of seals, reindeer, and sea birds, the last furnishing the fur shirts; the two first, the coat, trowsers, stockings, and shoes. The dress of the women differs from that of the men only in the coat, which is wider and has a hood at the back, in which they carry their children about with them perfectly naked. Older children they sometimes place in the boots, which are wide and stiffened with whalebone. They fasten their long hair in a roll on the crown; the men wear theirs short.

The principal talent of a Greenlander consists in catching seals; in which it is of the utmost importance that he should understand the art of navigating his boat (Kajak). These boats are constructed of laths and whalebone, and coated with seal skins, leaving an opening in the middle of the deck just large enough to admit the body of the fisherman; so that when he takes his seat, the edge of the hole fits tight around his body over the hips, and permits no water to penetrate. At his side he places his various javelins or harpoons, securing them between the thongs fastened across the kajak; in front of him is his roll of line, and behind him an air-buoy, made of a small seal skin, which is attached to the harpoon. His pantik, or oar, has blades about four inches wide at both ends, which are alternately dipped, the middle of the oar being grasped with both hands. With a boat of this description, he travels very rapidly, perhaps 45 or 50 miles in a day; and with the oar, not only keeps his bark in the proper position, but understands also how to right himself, in case the waves overturn the vessel. The boat used by women (umiak) is larger, and frequently contains ten or twelve persons, with all their utensils.

Hardly any attention is paid by the Greenlanders to rearing cattle. Reindeer occur generally only in a wild state, and have at present become very scarce. Dogs are the only domestic animals, and they are used for drawing sleighs. The flesh of seals, marine birds, and sea fish, best relished if half rotten and frozen, constitutes the principal food. Reindeer meat seldom falls to their lot. They are fond of whiskey and tobacco, especially snuff.

Pl. 35, fig. 1, represents the manner in which the Greenlanders kill seals, approaching them by creeping slowly forward and imitating their motions, and in this way decoying them.

We now pass on to the inhabitants of America belonging to the American Race. They are usually called Indians, and are divided into numerous tribes, whose various tongues may, nevertheless, be traced back to certain principal languages.

The Indians of North America

All the numerous native tribes of North America, not belonging to the Mongolian Race, are designated by the common name Indians; and, in general, there is really such an agreement in bodily form, disposition, customs, and usages, that even if some differences exist with respect to details, the fact that all North American Indians have the same origin, can scarcely be doubted. Their complexion is yellow or cinnamon-brown, passing more or less into lightness or duskiness; the face is broad, but not flat, with prominent cheek bones and sharply defined features; in many tribes, however, the latter are almost as regular as those of the white man. The wings of the nose are always broad, but the eyes vary considerably; the hair is straight, stiff, and black as pitch. The Indians that inhabit the extreme north are of small, insignificant growth; those of the temperate zone, of handsome and vigorous frame; those living between the tropics, however, mostly thick-set. The men of many tribes pull out the hair growing upon their faces; others, especially those of the far west, wear beards.

Although more vigorous than the inhabitants of South America, they are nevertheless deficient in perseverance, being too much accustomed to roving about and hunting, to have the power of applying for any length of time to manual labor. They can run with great swiftness, are good walkers, and have sharp sight and hearing, as well as a very fine sense of smell. Their memory, also, is very good. A lively imagination and good judgment enable them to learn easily whatever they consider useful. They are sound in their morals, good-natured, upright, modest, and polite to every one deserving such treatment; courteous towards each other, without flattery; and generally, also, circumspect and sedate, composed and grave. An injury to their honor is followed by certain vengeance; on the other hand, fidelity and good faith are innate with them, and their promises are constantly and invariably kept, if performance is possible.

In spite of the above mentioned good qualities, not proper, however, to all the tribes, these unfortunates find themselves driven more and more towards the west, and despoiled of their property by white settlers. Hence it is not surprising that they should appear stern and gloomy in the presence of strangers. Among themselves, they are frequently cheerful, and even frolicsome. They are witty also, and by their satirical and ingenious remarks not unfrequently excite laughter, without giving offence, however, by their observations. Their patience, long sufferance, and tranquillity are great, and they will bear the most frightful tortures with courage. They possess remarkable control over their passions; those, however, who have become acquainted with the white man’s manners, easily give themselves up to drinking, as spirituous liquors are used, partly that the bodily vigor may be roused by this means, and partly that a temporary oblivion of their wrongs, and of their decayed condition, may thus be brought about.

The Indians display great love and care for their children. Wives (squaws), however, are the slaves of their husbands, obliged to perform the hardest and most difficult work, and but seldom receiving thanks for what they have done. The husband is occupied the entire year in hunting; whilst the labor of the field, which is left to the women, at most continues but six weeks in a season. The principal duties of the squaws, besides tilling the fields and taking care of the crops, are, to crush the corn, in order to make of it a kind of porridge, or to bake a species of bread of the meal in hot ashes. When they travel with their husbands, and the party possess no horses, they serve as beasts of burden, being obliged to carry the necessary baggage upon their backs. In the beginning of March, the whole family set out for the places where maple sugar is boiled. The women also cook the meat or dry it in the air, lay up the tallow, prepare the skins, and make cords, &c., from the wild hemp gathered by themselves. On the other hand, the men follow the troublesome occupation of hunting, which is often attended with the greatest dangers and fatigues. Any portion of their prey not needed by themselves is bartered or sold.

IV. Plate 42: Scenes from the Lives of Various Indian Tribes
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Some of the dwellings of the Indians resemble the worst houses of civilized countries; others are similar to tents; others again being round, and according to the climate, either open, or furnished with a roof, or closed in with loam, poles, or bark of trees. The houses have roofs projecting some distance over the entrance, so that the occupants may sit in the shade. In the establishment of a village no regard is had to regularity. A village containing twenty houses is considered a large Indian town. According to the necessities of the families, interiors of houses are divided into a greater or less number of rooms or chambers. Tribes leading a wandering life have simple, easily arranged huts or tents. Sometimes the Indians have also large houses designed for public councils or meetings of the people. One of this sort, for example, is possessed by the inhabitants of Drummond’s Island in Lake Huron. Pl. 42, fig. 3, represents its interior, and a meeting of the people held under a mariapa. The Indians have few and very simple household utensils, made mostly by themselves, and with tools of an inferior kind. Almost all the tribes have obtained iron kettles for cooking and knives, by traffic. The women, among some tribes, make their mugs and other vessels of red clay. The weapons of the Indians consist of bows and arrows, a battle-axe, called by them tomahawk, a lance, a spear, a club, and a scalping-knife. Many carry also shields made of buffalo hide. Firearms have of late become very common amongst the tribes of North America, the different fur companies being in the habit of exchanging guns of an inferior character for peltry, &c.

The clothing of the inhabitants of the northern portion of the country formerly consisted of skins of animals and feather dresses; while those living in warmer latitudes covered themselves with cotton stuffs or feathers. Striking colors were their favorites even at that time. At present, skin dresses are found only in the extreme northwestern and northeastern parts. Woollen blankets and shirts are now in use. Men wear leggings, women short petticoats of blue or black broadcloth. The more wealthy take pride in adorning themselves with bright-colored ribands, girdles, silver clasps, &c. Upon the painting of the face, breast, and limbs, much time is spent, particularly when they are preparing for a dance. Indians allow their hair to grow long and twist it in plaits, or fasten it together with ribands, &c.

According to the analogy of language the Indians of North America may be divided in the following manner:

  1. The Koloshes. In this stock may be classed all the Indian tribes that inhabit the northwest coast of America, and that portion of the interior contiguous to it, between 50° and 65° north latitude. They comprise, according to the statement of the Russian Admiral Wrangel:

    1. The true Koloshes or Koliushes, having their dwelling-place, according to Wenjaminow, from Mount St. Elias to the Columbia River (including the Prince of Wales, and George III. Archipelagoes), but extending probably towards the south only as far as the Strait of Fuca.
    2. The Ougalenzes (Ugaljachmutzi), west of Mount St. Elias; in winter, on a small bay east of the island of Kadiak; in summer, on Copper River for fishing purposes.
    3. The Atnas (Atnachts, in Russian, Mjednowzi), on the Copper River or Atna.
    4. The Koltshans (Galzans) on the shores of the northern and eastern waters emptying into Copper River.
    5. The Kenais (Kenaiut), on the coast and in the country surrounding Cook’s Inlet, or on the Kenai Sound and around Lakes Illiamma and Knisshik.
    6. The Inkilichliats, on the River Choulitra and the upper tributaries of the rivers Kuskoquim and Quickpack.

    According to North American researches the Indians of the Northwest coast, between the forty-eighth and fifty-ninth degrees of latitude, are divided into twenty different tribes, and these into four different groups of languages, embracing probably only the Koloshes proper.

    1. The language of Sitcha. Here belong the Chilcart, the Sitka, the Hoodsunhoo, the Ark and Kake, the Eelikinoo, the Hennega, the Stickeen, and Tumgarse tribes.
    2. The Naass language. The Naass, the Chebaska, and the Millhank Indians.
    3. The language of the tribes upon Queen Charlotte’s Island and of some others. The Cumshewar, the Massit, the Skiddegat or Skittagete, the Kesarn, and the Kigarnee tribes.
    4. The Newettee or Newitte language, which is spoken on the northwest end of Vancouver’s Island in Lat. 56°.

    The Koloshes have a strong, bony structure, prominent cheekbones, a broad, flat nose, large mouth, thick lips, and small black eyes. Men pluck out the beard. Their complexion passes but little into reddish-brown, but the practice of rubbing themselves daily with black earth gives it a darker appearance than it would otherwise have. They paint the face crosswise, with broad, black, red, and white stripes. Men and women bore the bridge of the nose, and the ears, in order to put in all sorts of ornaments, and also pierce the under lip for the reception of a bone, and a large oval double button called kaluga. With the exception of a small leather apron, the Koloshes go entirely naked, and the wealthy alone hang around them a bearskin cloak or covering of goat’s hair; the richest, however, sometimes take pride also in wearing European clothing. Kotzebue calls them rapacious, faithless, and bloodthirsty.

  2. The Athapascas. According to Berghaus, if we draw a line from the mouth of Churchill or Mississippi River at Hudson’s Bay, upwards towards its source where it is called Beaver River, and thence continue it along the chain of mountains which divide the north branch of the Saskatchawan River from the tributaries of the Athapasca or Elk River, and finally, carry it on westwards to wathin about ninety miles of the coast of the Pacific Ocean at 52° or 53° north latitude: all the Indian tribes that dwell upon the north side of this line, and are surrounded in all other directions from Hudson’s Bay to the Great Ocean by the narrow belt of Esquimaux and Koloshes, belong, as far as known to us at present, with the only exception of the Quarrellers or Loucheux, to one family, and speak kindred languages. Gallatin has comprehended them under the arbitrary denomination of Athapascas. They embrace:

    1. The Northern Indians, the eastern branch of the family, extending to Hudson’s Bay, and separated into the following tribes: the Northern Indians proper, the Cheppeyans, the Coppermine Indians, the Dog-rib, the Strong-bow, the Mountain, the Ambawtawoot or Sheep, the Kancho or Hare Indians, the Indians of the Rocky Mountains, the Sussees or Sursees, the Nauscuddennies, and the Nagailers. Most of them speak the Cheppeyan language.
    2. The Carriers (Tacullies, on the west side of the Rocky Mountains), 300 miles from east to west, between 51° and 58° north latitude. Dialects of their language are spoken by the Sicaunies and Nateotetains.

    The Athapascas, and in particular the Chippeways, who are best known, are of medium stature, have good teeth and fine eyes, but a broad face, with prominent cheekbones and wide nostrils. They tattoo themselves, and some wear the hair long, others cut it off. They are grave, reserved, just towards each other, but deceitful and knavish towards strangers. Their dress generally consists of reindeer and other skins.

  3. The Algonkins, or Lenapes, at the time of the first settlements of the Europeans in North America, dwelt in the territory north of the Missinipi River from its source to the mouth in Hudson’s Bay, along the south and east coasts of that bay, east as far as to the boundary line of the territory of the Labrador Esquimaux, and south down to Cape Hatteras. The western boundary was the Mississippi up to its source, and the Red River to Lake Winnebago. The southern boundary ran from Cape Hatteras west to near the mouth of the Ohio. The numerous nations and tribes into which the family of Algonkins was divided, may be brought in the following manner into four divisions:

    1. Northern Algonkins. The Knistenaux, Algonkins proper, Chippeways or Ojibways, the Ottawas and Potowotomies, and the Mississagues.
    2. Northeastern Algonkins. The Skoffies and Sheshatapoosh or Mountaineers, the Micmacs, the Etchemins, and the Abenakis.
    3. Eastern or Atlantic Algonkins. The New England Indians, embracing the Pequods or Piquods, Naticks, Narragansets, Mohicans (Mohegans), Pokanokets, Pawtuckets, and Nipmucks; the Indians upon Long Island, Montauks, Unchagogs, and Shinicooks; the Delawares (Lenno-Lenape), the Nanticokes, Susquehannocks, Powhatans, and Pampticoes.
    4. Western Algonkins. The Menomonies, Miamies, and Illinois; the Sacs, who, having relinquished their district lying east of the Mississippi to the United States, have lived since that time upon the west side of the river in the State of Missouri, partially however still in Illinois, and pursue a system of agriculture (pl. 29, fig. 6, Sac Indians); the Foxes, Kickapoos, and Shawnees.

    Many of these tribes are entirely extinct, others have been divided amongst tribes that survived, but few number many individuals.

    With respect to their manners our introductory statement concerning the Indians in general will hold good.

  4. The Iroquois, who became notorious in the history of European settlements on account of their desire for conquest and destruction, as well as for their thirst for blood, formed a northern and southern division. The northern portion were surrounded by the Lenapes. The southern division extended in the States of Virginia and North Carolina of the present day, from above the falls of the large streams, as far as James River, and south at least to the River Neuse. On the east they had for neighbors the Lenape tribes dwelling on the Chesapeake and the Ocean, on the south side the Cherokees and Catawbas, and upon the north and west sides Lenape and other tribes now extinct.

    1. The Northern Iroquois consisted of the Wyandots, the Attiouandarons, the Erigas, and the Andastes, the confederacy of the Five Iroquois Nations (Maquas, Mingoes), composed of the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas. This confederacy soon obtained an ascendency over the others, for which they were indebted to their fortunate geographical position, especially, however, to their wise policy, by virtue of which they confined themselves even at the times of their greatest consequence to their original dwelling-place. Against every imminent or sudden attack they were completely fortified, in the south by the broad mountain chain of the Alleghanies, in the north by Lake Ontario. Of still greater importance, however, especially in a war of savages, was their bravery, combined, however, with cruelty, in which they surpassed all other nations. In agriculture, the manufacture of their weapons, and the few arts of Indians, they were further advanced than the tribes of the Algonkin or Lenape family. Upon all occasions they displayed a high degree of intelligence, and in nothing perhaps more than in the establishment and maintenance of their league, and the attacks which by degrees they directed against the small tribes surrounding them, and who formed no confederacy.
    2. The Southern Iroquois appear to have been known at first under the collective name of Monacans. Amongst them the most powerful nation were the Tuscaroras, dwelling in the commencement of the eighteenth century in fifteen towns on the rivers Neuse and Taw or Tar, in what is now the State of North Carolina. The remnant of the Tuscaroras were received, however, into the confederacy of the Five Nations some time after the settlement of Europeans in America. The Chowans, Tuteloes, and Nottoways, were known as particular tribes.
  5. The Florida Nations were spread to the south of the Algonkins and Iroquois, and to the east of the Lower Mississippi; and at the present time are met with in considerable numbers. They are divided into the six following nations: the Catawbas, Cherokees (Tsalakees, who have become a Christian civilized people), the Muskhogees, inhabiting the entire southern section of the United States as far as the extremity of the peninsula of Florida, consisting of the tribes of the Muskhogees proper, the Hitchittees, Seminoles, the Alabamas, Chickasaws, and Tuskigies; the Choctaws, Uchees, and the Natches, form the Creek confederacy, and hence are called Creek Indians.

    Like the Cherokees, the nations of the Creek alliance and the Choctaws are now engaged in the pursuit of agriculture; and it appears that their laws, courts, juries, schools, and even politics, are gradually becoming formed after American models. The Cherokees, as well as all the other Florida nations, with the exception of the Catawbas, have been removed by the government of the United States to the west side of the Mississippi, or at least this change of settlement has been commenced. Government bears the expense of the removal, and allows the Indians a handsome annuity.

  6. The Caddoes, and the other nations upon the west side of the Lower Mississippi, within the United States, are partly such as may be considered the aborigines of this section of country, in part Indians who have immigrated at a later period from the east side of the Mississippi.

    To the aboriginal population belong:

    1. The Caddoes, who at present are settled on a tributary of the Red River, about 140 miles above Natchitoches. A dialect of the Caddo language is spoken by the Nandakoes, Inies, or Tackles, from whom the State of Texas derives its name, and the Nabedaches;
    2. the Natchitoches, 50 miles from the place of that name on Red River, and the Yatassees, speaking a particular language;
    3. the Adaize;
    4. the Appelousas or Opelousas;
    5. the Attacapas;
    6. the Chactoos; and
    7. the Chitimachas.

    The immigrating tribes include the Apalaches, the Alabamas, and Conchattas (Conshutas), who came from the Creeks, the Taensas, the Houmas or Oumas, the Tunicas, Boluxas, Pascagoulas, and Pacanas.

IV. Plate 29: Sports of Indian Tribes
Engraver: Henry Winkles
  1. The Sioux speak a language akin to that of the Iroquois. They rove in the country watered by the Mississippi, on the west side of this stream and the Red River, from Lake Winnipago far into the interior, even to the savannahs and prairies at the eastern foot of the Rocky Mountains. We divide them into four groups.

    1. The Winnebagoes (Puans, Otchagras, Horoje, or Hochungohrah), between the Mississippi and Lake Michigan.
    2. The Sioux proper (Naudowessies, Dahcotas) are divided into seven tribes, and hence call themselves Ochente Shakoans, i. e. the seven fires. These tribes are: (a) Mendewahkantoans, the only one in which tillage receives any attention, east of the Mississippi, between 43° and 46° north latitude; (b) the Wahkpatoans; (c) the Wahkpakotoans; and (d) the Sisitoans. The three western tribes are the Yanktons, Yanktoanans, and Tetons. Since time immemorial, these tribes have carried on a war of extermination against all the other tribes on the Missouri, from the Mandans to the Osages: whilst the four eastern tribes, for as long a period, have been the inveterate enemies of the Chippeways. The Assiniboins, a Dahcota tribe, separated from the remainder of the nation, and dwelt with the Algonkins; and the Shyennes were driven from their residence on the left bank of the Red River, and settled at the sources of the Shyenne, a south-western tributary of the Missouri. (Pl. 29, fig. 1, Sioux Indians in camp; fig. 7, horse races of the Sioux.)

      The Sioux, like all other Indians, believe in the immortality of the soul. As soon as the warrior is assured of his death by the attending physician, he takes leave of his relations, and orders an entertainment to be prepared for those who are to deliver his funeral oration. Immediately after his decease, he is dressed and placed in a sitting posture, with his weapons by his side, in the midst of friends assembled around him. When the necessary ceremonies have been performed, the body is deposited on a kind of scaffold, as represented at fig. 2. The obsequies begin with lamentation and howling, in which men are not permitted to shed tears, but the women make up for all deficiencies on that score. Whilst this is going on, they sometimes lacerate their arms and legs; and the women frequently visit the graves and strew them with locks of hair cut from their heads for the purpose, often chanting, during the process, lamentations very poetical in style. Carver has communicated a funeral oration of a Naudowessie (Sioux); it runs thus: “Thou still sittest amongst us, brother; thy body retains its usual appearance, and without any perceptible exception is still similar to our own; but the power of action is wanting to it. But whither has the breath fled, which a few hours since blew smoke aloft towards the Great Spirit? Why are now silent the lips from which, a short time ago, we heard such expressive and agreeable language? Why are motionless the feet which, a few days since, were swifter than the deer upon the mountains? Wherefore hang these arms powerless, that climbed the highest trees, and bent the strongest bow? Alas! every part of the structure that we regarded with admiration and astonishment, is as inanimate as it was three hundred winters ago. Nevertheless we will not mourn as if thou wert for ever lost to us, or as if thy name should never again be heard. Thy soul still lives in the great land of spirits, with the souls of thy countrymen who have gone thither before thee. We, it is true, remain behind in order to maintain thy renown, but we too shall one day follow thee. Animated by the regard which we cherished for thee in thy lifetime, we come now to render thee the last office of kindness. In order that thy remains may not be left upon the plain, a prey to the beasts of the field or the birds of the air, we will carefully place them with the bodies of thy predecessors, in the hope that thy soul may banquet wath their spirits, and be ready to receive ours when we also arrive in the great spirit land.” The burial-place, we will add, is usually a large cave.

    3. The Minetares, who are divided into three tribes: settled Minetares, including the Annahawas, Mandans, and Crow Indians or Upsaroka nation. The two first are farmers, and dwell in villages on or in the vicinity of the Missouri, between 47° and 48° north latitude. The Crow Indians (pl. 1, figs. 19 and 20) are a wandering people south of the Missouri, between the Little Missouri and the south-eastern branches of the Yellowstone River. Among the Mandan Indians, complexions almost entirely white, and even blue eyes, occur. (Pl. 29, fig. 3, dance of Mandan women, and fig. 4, of Mandan men; fig. 5, buffalo dance of the latter.) The buffaloes (properly, bisons) wander over the plains in large herds. The Mandans are frequently deprived of the means of subsistence when these animals fail to make their appearance. As soon as this calamity occurs, the Mandans put on their disguises of buffalo skins, and then commence the buffalo dance, performed in order to induce these animals to return, and repeated until they actually make their appearance, called, according to their opinion, by the dance alone. Whilst the ceremony is going on, drums are beaten, rattles set in motion, and the air resounds with the incessant singing and yelping of spectators.

    The Southern Sioux consist of eight tribes, and their territory originally extended along the Mississippi, from a point below the mouth of the Arkansas to 41° north latitude. They lived, and still dwell, to the north of the Dahcotas, upon the west side of the Pawnees; on the south are bounded by the Washita and Red River, and on the south-west by nomadic tribes. Their hunting grounds extend westward as far as the Rocky Mountains, but all are engaged in agriculture. The three southern tribes are, the Quappas and Arkansas; the Osages (pl. 1, fig. 18), living on the sources of the Osage and Verdigris, a northern tributary of the Arkansas, and who are a numerous, powerful tribe, that waged war against all their neighbors, but who have relinquished a portion of their territory for the colonization of the Cherokees, Creeks, and Chocktaws; and the Kansas. The remaining five tribes are, the Ioways, Missouris or Neojehe, the Ottoes or Wahtootahtah, the Omahaws or Mahas, and the Puncas.

  2. The Pawnees, consisting of the Pawnees proper (on the Platte River, to the west of the Ottoes and the Omahaws), and the Ricaras or Aricaras (on the Missouri, about 650 miles below the Mandans, in latitude 46° 30′). Agriculture is one of their occupations; and they extend their hunting expeditions southwardly as far as the Arkansas, and westwardly to the head waters of the Platte River.
  3. The Saskachawins are two nomadic nations of the eastern declivity of the Rocky Mountains, viz. the Fall, Rapid, or Paunch Indians, and the Blackfeet. The former dwell the furthest towards the east; the latter are one of the most powerful Indian nations, and live in a state of constant offensive warfare with all the neighboring tribes, with the exception of the Knistineaux and Assiniboins, against whom they act defensively. The Piekans or Picanos and the Blood Indians are subdivisions of the Blackfeet. Perhaps here also belong the Sussees, dwelling near a part of the Rocky Mountains.
  4. The Oregon Nations, called after the River Oregon (Columbia), which commands a district upon the west side of the Rocky Mountains, extending from 41° to 50° north latitude. Lewis’ divided these nations, according to their languages, into three families.

    1. The Mountaineers; including the Selipsh or Flatheads, the Oatlashut, the Crow Mountain Indians, and the Tushipaw.
    2. The Uplanders; comprising the Chopunish, the Sinmithkumanaw, the Selluatpallaw, the Walla-Wallas, the Williewaw, the Wahowipums, the Echillools, the Chimnapun, the Sokulks, the Chillukkutteguaw, the Chickailish, the Ponderays, the Flatbow Indians, and many others.
    3. The Indians of the Pacific coast: including the Clackamous, the Umkwas, the Clatsops, the Quathlapotte, the Shilloots, the Chinooks (pl. 42, fig. 2, interior view of a lodge of the last mentioned), the Chilts, and many others.

    The Bonnaks are mentioned as a savage, warlike nation; the principal tribe being the Skyuse, in Oregon Territory, who once exercised unlimited power over the neighboring tribes, but at present are barely able to extend it over the Walla-Wallas and Chinooks. The Atnahs may also be ranked here (in the interior, in latitude 52°), and north of them, the Nagailers or Carrier Indians.

    The Wakash, on the Island of Nootka, speak a language distinct from the idioms of all the neighboring nations.

  5. The California Indians dwell along the coast of the whole of New or Alta California, as also on the peninsula of Old California as far as the southern extremity, Cape St. Lucas, in 23° north latitude. Whether the Old Californians are actually tribes akin to those of New California, is a fact not yet ascertained with certainty. All the Old Californians have for a long time been under the influence of Spanish missionaries, which is also the case with regard to the coast tribes of New California. But those Indians, united in missions, have been only apparently won over to the occupations of stationary and civilized life; whilst the inhabitants of the interior of California are devoted, as formerly, to a savage hunting existence. According to Chamisso, they stand much below the tribes of the north-west coast and interior of America, in point of civilization. All are of an extremely savage appearance, and very dark color. Their flat, broad faces, from which gleam large fierce eyes, are overshadowed by long, thick, even, and black hair. Modification of colors, tattooing, painting for the war dance, weapons, and customs, differ according to the various tribes. (Pl. 1, fig. 21, a California Indian.)
  6. The Shoshonees, or Camanches, fill up the entire space bounded on the one side by a line extending from the Columbia, in latitude 45°, to the Rivers Colorado and Gila, in latitude 34°. From this boundary, their territory extends eastwardly across the Rocky Mountains, and to the Gulf of Mexico, in 30° north latitude. All the tribes speak the same language and of them the Shoshonees and Camanches proper are the most numerous. The former dwell upon the west side of the Rocky Mountains, in the northwestern section of the district described above; the latter are found upon the east side of the range, in the south-eastern portion of the territory; the southern regions are inhabited by the Apaches. The Shoshonees live on fish or game; those on the Colorado keep also a large number of swine as domestic animals, and many horses. Their dwellings are portable, and consist of skin tents. They are peaceable, not cruel, and very hospitable; highly intelligent also, and good in their morals. The Camanches (Hietans, Jetans, Paducas) are at present perhaps the most powerful nation of the Indians of the continent of North America; and their matchless equestrian skill, their formidable mode of attack, their unsurpassed rapidity in loading and discharging their guns, as well as their inextinguishable hatred of the whites, make the enmity of these Indians more to be dreaded than that of any other tribe of natives. They also have portable tents for dwellings, and never remain long in one place.

    The Arrapahoes, who are allied in language to both tribes, live south of the Shoshonees.

  7. Independent Nations have concentrated themselves in the prolongation of the Sierra Madre of Mexico, in order to carry on a war of extermination against the Europeans. They have re-conquered this region from the Spaniards, and maintain a complete independence. To them belong the Piros, Xumanos, Lanos, Zuros, Moquis, Tiguos, Pecuri, Keres, Yahipais, Mecos, Carancahuas, Cuchatles (the latter in Texas). They all differ from the Shoshonees and Canianches.
  8. The Nations of the Plateau of Mexico, with the districts adjoining it on the north, and on the south, as far as the Isthmus of Panama. A. von Humboldt, whom we here follow, assumes that at present the Indians of pure blood still constitute more than two fifths of the population, and in some provinces, as for example in the states of Puebla and Oaxaca, even two thirds.

    The principal languages are the Aztec, the most widely spread of all, the Otomie, Matlazing, Tarask, Pirinda, Zapoteca, Mixteca, Popoluca, Mixe, Maya, Poconchi, Huasteca, Totonac, Cora, Huitcole, Tepehuana, Topias, Acaxee, Xixema, Sicuraba, Hina, Huimi, Tubar, Tarahumara, Zuaque, Guiama, Guazave, Zoe, Huite, Opata, Pima, Eudebe, Yaqui, Caquikil, Chontal, and the Orotina.

In general, the Mexican Indian resembles those inhabiting Canada and Florida, Peru and Brazil. He has the same dark brown and copper color, even and smooth hair, deficient beard; his stature is thick-set, the eye long and turned up towards the temple; the cheek bones are prominent, and the lips thick; but in his mouth are expressed a mildness and a gentleness that contrast strangely with the gloomy, stern expression of the eye. The Mexican Indians are, however, of darker complexion than the inhabitants of the hottest countries of South America; they have a stronger growth of beard, also, especially the Aztecs and Otomites. Almost all the Indians in the environs of the metropolis wear small mustachios. The Indians who are under European authority, as peaceable farmers, universally attain an advanced age, if the fondness for drinking, so customary amongst them, does not enfeeble their systems. Their intoxicating drinks are spirits made of sugar cane, maize, and the Yatropha root, and especially pulque, a wine prepared from the American aloe (century plant).

In the Mexican Indian have been remarked neither that variability of emotions, gestures, and features, exhibited by most of the Indians of North America, nor that activity of mind which so advantageously distinguishes the latter. He is serious, melancholy, taciturn, as long as he is not affected by spirituous liquors. He likes to be somewhat mysterious, even in his most indifferent actions; the strongest passions are never expressed upon his countenance, and it is frightful to see him suddenly change from absolute repose to violent and unbridled emotion. The Peruvian has more gentleness in his manners; the energy of the Mexican degenerates into roughness. The music and dancing of the Indians exhibit the total want of cheerfulness which characterizes them, and may be observed also in the whole of South America. Their singing breathes sadness and dejection. Women display more liveliness than men, but labor under the misfortune of subjection and of servitude, to which the female sex is doomed in all nations that have made but trifling advances in civilization. Females do not participate in the dance; they assist at this amusement of the men, only for the purpose of foretasting the spirituous drinks prepared by them. The Mexicans have preserved a peculiar taste for painting, and sculpture in wood and stone. It is astonishing to see what they carve with a blunt knife in the hardest wood. They make, principally, pictures and statues of saints; and for three hundred years have servilely copied the models brought with them by the Spaniards at the beginning of their conquests. In addition to this, they show the same taste for flowers which Cortez found among them in his time. A bouquet was the most valuable present to the ambassadors at the court of Montezuma. This monarch and his forefathers cultivated a great multitude of the rarer plants in the gardens of tstapalapan. Cortez, in his letters to the Emperor Charles V., frequently extolled the industry displayed by the Mexicans in horticulture. No Indian sells any of his products in the great market of Mexico, without having adorned his booth with flowers, which are renewed every day. Every Indian has near his house a little garden, in which he raises an abundance of flowers, besides tropical fruits. The Chinampas, or floating gardens, look particularly beautiful. They are rafts covered with earth; some floating about on the lake, others fastened to the shore.

IV. Plate 30: Peoples and Costumes of Mexico and South America
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The dwellings of the Indians are simple and neat, but differ in form. In the hot region of the coast, they are a kind of cages, built of canes, or branches of trees and boards, here and there also of sun-dried bricks, and having flat roofs. Where the Indians are associated with Spaniards, especially in the neighborhood of Mexico, their houses are very similar to those of the latter. A few earthen jugs and bottles, a stone for the preparation of maize bread, and a multitude of representations of saints, constitute the adornment of the dwellings. A mattress spread upon the earth, or a hammock fastened to the ceiling, serves instead of a bed. Their villages and hamlets are often entirely concealed in the woods. Perhaps nowhere is there such a frightful inequality in the distribution of wealth, civilization, the cultivation of the soil, and the population, as in Mexico. In the interior of the table land there are four cities, distant from each other but one or two days’ journey, and containing 35,000, 67,000, 70,000, and 135,000 inhabitants. The central plateau from Puebla to Mexico, and from thence to Salamanca and Zalaya, is covered quite as thickly with villages and hamlets as the most highly cultivated tracts of Lombardy. On the east and west of this narrow slip extend uncultivated regions, in which the population scarcely amounts to one person to the square mile. The metropolis and other cities have learned institutions, comparable to those of Europe. The style of the architecture of public and private buildings, the elegance of household furniture, the equipages, the luxury in female dress, the tone of society, in short everything, betrays a refinement strongly contrasting with the nakedness, ignorance, and rudeness of the common people. And this inequality of riches is found not merely among the whites, but amongst the Indians also. In general, the Mexican Indians present the picture of extreme poverty, and yet individuals are met with, who, in spite of the mask of indigence, have great wealth. Persons of the latter class are held in high respect by their countrymen; but, though wealthy, go barefoot, and wear the Mexican tunic of coarse, brownish stuff, like the poorest and lowest Indians. In the large towns, however, not only in Mexico, but also in Puebla, Jalapa, &c., the dress is more complete; the broad-brimmed hat and enveloping head-dress being probably copied from the Spaniards. (Pl. 30, fig. 2 and 3, male and female dress of Puebla; fig. 4, woman of Jalapa.) The new order of things brought about by the separation of the Spanish colony from the mother country, has, it is true, improved the condition of the Indians, as it was really by their assistance that the subversion of the Spanish power was effected; and this portion of the population, subjected to the greatest restrictions, and frequently treated with the most cruel severity, whilst Spain was mistress, under the constitution of the new republican states became citizens. Their rights of citizenship, however, are altogether nominal, and their moral and spiritual condition is still the same as under the predominance of the Spanish viceroys, whose policy in reference to the oppression practised by white masters and men in power upon the Indians, if abolished on paper, is still continued in fact.

If we glance at the former religion of the Mexicans, we shall find that it consisted of idolatry and sacrifices of the most cruel description. The priests of the idols were bloodthirsty, unfeeling murderers of human beings, who made the holy awe felt towards them by the people the means of gratifying their sensual lusts, their self-interests, and their fondness fbr carnage. The priest needed only to say that the god hungered, and sons and daughters had to be brought to the altar, or the prince was obliged to go to war and take prisoners. Victims obtained in either way were laid upon a black stone, and the priest with a sharp flint cut the palpitating heart out of the living body, in order to expose it reeking to the sun. (Pl. 37, fig. 1.) Their most important idol was Vitzliputzli, which was worshipped in a splendid temple, and to which offerings of the above description were made; and another renowned idol, to which they did homage, was the god of the air, or Quetzalcatl, in honor of which curious dances and games were customary. In the latter even the kings took part, and in their most magnificent costumes; whilst the common people were in the habit of disguising themselves as animals, for which purpose they had peculiar dresses of skins or feathers. The Mexicans are now converted to Christianity, it is true; but the change has produced no other effect than the substitution of new ceremonies, symbols of a mild and humane religion, for those of a bloody worship of idols. This transition from old rites to new was the work of force and not of conviction, and Christianity was thus intermixed with the Mexican mythology; a course of policy not only tolerated by the rulers and missionaries, but even favored to a certain extent, in order that in this way the introduction of Christianity might be facilitated. They persuaded the natives that the gospel had been preached in America even in very ancient times, and sought its vestiges in the rites of the Aztecs. We may account in this manner for the fact that the Mexican Indians, in spite of the obstinacy with which they cling to everything received from their fathers, easily forgot their former religious practices. They know nothing more of religion than the external forms of worship; and being fond of ceremonies, take much pleasure in the Christian service. Church festivals, the fireworks let off upon occasions of the kind, the processions, from which dancing and the quaintest disguisings are inseparable, afford a rich source of delight to the common mass of Indians. Christian worship, however, not merely in Mexico, but everywhere, has received shadings from the countries into which it has been transplanted.

With regard, finally, to the remaining population, the Europeans, but especially the pure-blooded descendants of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico, unquestionably hold the highest rank. Then follow the Africans, the negroes, who here are almost all free people, and in part marry amongst themselves. Indian women prefer negroes as husbands, not only to men of their own race, but even to Europeans, as the boisterous vivacity of the Congo negro suits them better.

Whites born in tropical countries, of European parents, or their descendants in pure lineage, are usually called Creoles; descendants of negroes, creole negroes; the offspring of whites and negroes, mulattoes; of whites and American Indians, red mestizoes; and of whites and Hindoos, yellow mestizoes. The descendants of mulattoes are called kaskes; of a white and mulatto, terzeron; of a white and a terzeron, quateron. Children sprung from Europeans and aborigines of Brazil are called mamelukos; those from a Chinese man and a Malay woman, tekos; those from a Hindoo and a negress, buganeses; and finally, those from Hottentots and whites, bastes. Pl. 30, fig. 1, represents a Spanish Creole, a Mayor of Jerez in Mexico; fig. 7, a mulatto woman of rank; and fig. 8, a Brazilian mestizo.

Inhabitants of Central America

The Republic of Central America (Guatemala), constituting the connecting link between South and North America, forms a curved, high, mountainous country, surrounded by. the two great oceans and the two declivities of the Andes (Panama and Tehuantepec). Capes Honduras and Gracios a Dios extend into the Caribbean Sea, and Cape Blanco into the Pacific Ocean. The climate is warmer here than in Mexico, the soil more luxuriant, the productions richer. Of the population, two fifths are aborigines, two fifths mestizoes, and one fifth whites; besides many independent Indian tribes upon the entire west and northwest coasts, of whom the Mosquitoes in Honduras have intercourse with the English and Americans, but are mortal enemies of the Spaniards. The settled Indians, or Indios ladinos, are baptized, and like the Mexicans have adopted all the external rites of Christianity without having any idea of its spirit. Their costume is picturesque. Persons in good circumstances wear a cotton shirt, wide trowsers, leather sandals, and a girdle of colored stuff. The common Indians do not wear cotton fabrics, but materials woven of the fibres of the agave (maguey), and other plants. Gentleness, industry, taciturnity, hospitality, and veracity, are virtues for which they are celebrated; drunkenness, on the other hand, is their greatest fault. The industrial arts, agriculture,  and civilization, are yet in their infancy among them; nevertheless, they display so much desire for knowledge that the best is to be hoped for the future. Pl. 30, fig. 5, gives a representation of the dress of males, and fig. 6, of females, of Guatemala.

The Indians and Inhabitants of South America

The indigenous nations of South America have in some instances an olive-brown, in others a yellowish-brown color, passing by divers shadings into each other, or sometimes also into copper-red; the yellow complexion, however, predominates more among the eastern nations, the brown among the western and those inhabiting the interior of South America. According to Alcide d’Orbigny, the South American Indians are separated into three great classes, each of the two first of which, conformably to the diversity of language, is subdivided into tribes or branches:

  1. The Ando-Peruvians, inhabitants of the chain of the Andes, a. the Peruvians; b. the Antisans; c. the Araucanians; and d. Indians of Cundinamarca (Republic of New Grenada).
  2. The Pampans, inhabitants of the great plain on the east side of the Cordilleras, a. The Pampans proper, so called after the large pampas or plains, that extend from Terra del Fuego to the interior of the country watered by the La Plata; b. the tribes of the Chiquitos; and c. the Moxos.
  3. The Guarani-Caribbean Stock, being the aborigines of Brazil, Guiana, and Venezuela.

The Cundinamarcans of the mountains were found by the Spanish conquerors small and thick-set, copper-red; in the plains olive-brown; their forehead little elevated and retreating; the eye horizontal and never contracted at its outer corner, at the same time without any expression; the cheekbones prominent, the lips thick, the beard not apparent till advanced age. At the present time the Indians of New Grenada have the same appearance. The ruling nation were the Muiscas, who had founded the great Kingdom of Zaque, to which all the other nations from Los Pastos to Panama and the Gulf of Maracaibo were subject. They were more civilized than all other neighboring nations belonging to the kingdom; which is still the case at this day among the many Indian nations of New Grenada, who are distinguished by language, and by a settled or nomadic life, or as hunters and fishermen. At this time they are partly civilized, converted to Christianity, and distributed in Missions; in part savage, roving in entire independence through the primeval forests.

The following tribes may with tolerable certainty be included among the Cundinamarcans. 1. The Muiscas (Muyscas or Mozcas), in the department of Cundinamarca (Bogota, Mariquita), as well as upon the greatest past of the eastern Cordilleras, and the neighboring valley provinces of the Magdalena River. Settled farmers and herdsmen, proportionably of higher civilization than the other tribes. (Pl. 30, fig. 11, girl of Bogota.) 2. The rude Fantshes, a nation surrounding the country inhabited by the tribe last named. In the coast country of the Caribbean Sea, between Rio Hacha and the Gulf of Maracaibo, the Goahiros (Guagiros, Guajires) and the Cocinas. The Muisca tongue is almost entirely extinct, and still fewer traces are found of the languages which were in use in the western districts of New Grenada, in Popayan, and as far as Darien; a region in which 52 different nations were formerly known, of which the southern and some of the eastern and northern were subdued by the sword, the remainder by missionaries. The missions known to us were among: 3. the Andakies; 4. the Citaras; 5. the Chocos, in the Province of Choco; 6. the Guanacas; 7. the Neyvas; 8. the Cacanucas; 9. the Quaquas; 10. the Paes; and 11. the Timanaes. The three last probably belong to the great nation of the Guarani-Caribs, as their names resemble those of tribes belonging to the Caribs living on the Orinoco. With still greater certainty may this be supposed of: 12. the Urabas or Idibas, the inhabitants of Darien; and 13. of the Huaimies or Guaimies, who inhabit the Province of Veragua of the Department Istmo.

The Peruvian branch, or the Ando-Peruvian nations, inhabit the greatest part of the old territory of the Incas before the Spanish conquest, that is to say, the Andes and their declivities, from the equator to Santiago del Estero in latitude 28° south. This territory embraces upon the mountains a part only of the Republic of Ecuador, the entire Republics of Peru and Bolivia, as well as a portion of the La Plata States. We may divide them into four nations:

  1. The Quichua, or Inca nation, who at the time of the Spanish conquest were the rulers. The name Quichua appears to have formerly denoted a tribe merely, and Inca was applied to the royal family alone, and signified properly king or chief. Their princes were called Capalla Inga, that is to say, sole ruler. The complexion of the Quichuas is olive-brown. They are not large, have broad shoulders, very high and long chests, tolerably large heads, and small hands and feet; foreheads slightly arched, faces broad, more round than oval; noses prominent, aquiline; mouths rather large, projecting, without the lips being thick; teeth fine; eyes small or medium sized, never contracted at the outer corner. Eyebrows narrow and much arched, hair of a handsome black color, coarse, thick, and long. The expression of the countenance indicates equanimity, seriousness, and reflection. They are mild, sociable, peaceable, obedient to servility, firm and consistent, hospitable, but even at festivals taciturn and cold. Although they seldom forget injuries, revenge is but rarely taken, and homicide is hardly ever heard of Under the old priestly reign of the Incas no trifling degree of civilization existed, to which numberless monuments, highroads, tombs, temples, and mines, testified, when Pizarro in 1525 penetrated into Peru. In the villages of the Peruvians of the present day most of the houses are round and composed entirely of stones more or less hewn, the seams of which are filled with earth and sods. The round pointed roofs are plaited of hay. The whole building consists of a single apartment, which, at the same time, is the kitchen and provision room. A hole two feet and a half high supplies the place of a door into which the occupants creep, and also serves for the exit of smoke. Cactus trunks are used for beams and spars. Thongs of lama hide are used instead of nails. Upon a small heap of earth in front of every house a cross composed of two sticks is usually erected. Crosses are affixed in the interior also, the Peruvians being now Roman Catholics. In very ancient times they were addicted to the grossest idolatry. Some were cannibals; they lived mostly scattered upon the mountains and in forests, without agriculture, and the strongest and most daring was unlimited sovereign. In the warmer districts they knew nothing of dress; in the cooler, they clothed themselves usually in skins of animals. Idolatry was afterwards exchanged for a pure worship of the sun, the nomadic mode of life for the agricultural, when, as the tradition informs us, Manco Capac, and his consort Mama Oello, came as children of the sun from some distant country to the shores of Lake Titicaca, built the city of Cusco, and civilized the inhabitants. Other traditions relate the matter differently; all agree, nevertheless, in this, that the worship of the sun and civilization were brought into the country by foreigners, and that the first among them was Manco Capac. The chief inhabitants received the name and rank of Inca; and marks of distinction in clothing, and the decoration of the hair were allowed to them. Definite dresses were also prescribed to the other nations that were afterwards gained over to the worship of the sun, more by favors than by force. The chief priest at Cusco was always a brother or uncle of the king, and the other priests at that place were of the race of the Incas. Animals and plants constituted the offerings. The clothing of these Indians now consists of a tunic which falls half way down the leg, and breeches reaching to the knee. Upon the head is worn a cap, and on the feet sandals or ojotas, all of dark color, and a fabric of alpaca wool rather coarse in texture. They wear the hair long, hanging down behind in braids. The female dress consists of a woollen chemise, over it a tunic without sleeves, which is not sewed together at top, but the two lappets are fastened by means of two tupus or silver pins, and covered with a square piece of stuff pinned upon the bosom by another tupu. Their hair falls over the shoulders likewise, and their sole ornament consists of a necklace of precious stones. The clothes of the Indian women of Quito are rather different, as is shown by the representation (pl. 30, fig. 13), the figure exhibiting also the peculiar manner in which children are carried. The Spanish women of Lima are distinguished on account of a very close-fitting frock, a kind of mantilla, and apron reaching to the knee (fig. 12).
  2. The Aimara nation, who, long before the erection of the empire of the Incas, had their residence not far from the shores of Lake Titicaca. At present they inhabit the entire plateau of the Andes, between latitudes 15° and 20° south, from the provinces Tinta and Arequipa to the basin of Paria and Oruro, between 69° and 75° of west longitude (from Paris), and their language has been so well preserved, that it is in use as the language of conversation, even in the cities, and by the descendants of the Spaniards, while the Spanish is spoken only in communicating with foreigners. Externally, however, they do not differ from the Quichuas, and in their disposition and customs also resemble the latter.
  3. The Atacama nation (Olipes, Llipi) inhabit the whole western declivity of the Andes, between 19° and 22° south latitude (the entire. provinces of Tarapaca and Atacama), and are likewise distinguished by their language.
  4. In the region of the Pacific Ocean, between 22° and 24° south latitude, principally in the environs of the port of Cobija in Bolivia, live the Chango nation. They are somewhat darker, and have more of a blackish brown color than the Quichuas, and noses almost never aquiline. In disposition, they are mild, gentle, courteous, yielding, hospitable, and submissive to the laws of the land. They are engaged in fishing.

The Pouquina and Yunka-Mochica tongues belonged likewise to the general languages of the Empire of the Incas. Yunka signifies hot plain, and by it is denoted the seat of this nation, who were settled more especially in the valley of Chincha, where their language is said to be still spoken. The Pouquina language was certainly in use in a few villages upon the small islands of Lake Chuquito or Titicaca, in the diocese of La Paz, and in some parts of the diocese of Lima.

The Antisans have extended their place of residence over the hot and damp regions of the eastern slope of the Bolivian and Peruvian Andes, from the projections of the latter at Santa Cruz de la Sierra, in 17° south latitude, in a northerly direction up to the equator. Their complexion varies, passing from olive brown to a very light color. Their forehead does not recede; the face is oval; the nose shaped in a variety of ways; the mouth medium size; the eyes do not stand obliquely. Their physiognomy expresses liveliness and gentleness, but has in it something weak. Of the different nations of this stock, the Yuraccars, Mocetenes, Tacanas, Maropas, and Apolistas, are known.

The Araucanians are brownish olive-colored, not very dark, robust; have a low forehead, round face, short, flat nose, eyes that are not oblique, medium sized mouth, thin lips, serious, cold physiognomy, and effeminate features. They dwell upon the western declivity of the Andes, from 30° south latitude to the extremity of Terra del Fuego, and from the upper valleys and plains east of the Cordilleras, between 33° and 42° south latitude, upon the mountains and their slopes. They continue in the condition of barbarism. We divide them into two groups.

  1. The Araucanians or Aucas. To them belong the Araucanians in a still narrower sense, who dwell upon the west side of the Andes and in the mountains themselves. They lead a settled life, and may be divided into the Chanos (south of Valdivia), Araucanians proper (in the province of Arauco), and Pelzuenches. Besides these are the Aucas; that is, all the tribes that wander about the pampas. They are divided into the Ronqueles, dwelling in the pampas, and the Chilenos, who have their roving place around the sources of the Rio Negro. In their disposition, the Araucanians are proud, courageous, fickle, sly, resentful, not very cheerful, frequently taciturn. Indomitable warriors, indefatigable travellers, the Aucas, like the Araucanians, are still quite as free as they were at the time of the conquest, and have never become converted to Christianity. The Aucas are constantly on the march, live under leather tents, and subsist upon food obtained by hunting or from their herds. Always on horseback, they are the best riders of South America. The Araucanians of southern Chili, on the contrary, have fixed abodes in the valleys, are engaged in the pursuit of agriculture and rearing cattle, and dwell in houses; but are quite as warlike as the nomadic tribes, and live in a state of perpetual hatred and warfare towards the Christians, to whom they have never become subjected, and also against the neighboring nations. They combine for the conflict, armed with their holas, consisting of three balls attached to the same number of thongs, two feet in length, joined to a point. With these, and their slings, and spears fifteen to eighteen feet in length, sometimes with firearms also, and in company with their wives and children, they set out upon the route, under the direction of a great orator or chieftain, approach the place designed to be attacked, send out scouts to reconnoitre, and upon the following night suddenly rush upon the enemy. The women and children rob the latter of their cattle, and make booty of everything falling in their way. After the victors have killed the men, they carry off with them the women and children.

    Their language is agreeable to the ear, and at the same time copious and very easy to learn. The domestic life and clothing of the Araucanians are very simple. The dwellings consist of wooden huts, which are covered with straw, have no partitions or windows, and are shut only by a door of ox-hide. A few benches and a table constitute the household furniture. Sheepskins are spread out instead of beds. Plates are made of wood or clay, the cups of horn. Men of consequence have better houses and furniture. The female dress consists of a long woollen undergarment without sleeves, fastened around the middle of the body. Over this hangs a small woollen cloak, joined in front by means of a broad clasp, mostly of silver. The long hair is bound in six braids, and around the head they wear bright-colored stones. Drops ornament the ears, rings the fingers, and parti-colored glass balls the arms and legs. Over the shirt men wear the pongo, a species of cloak reaching to the calves of the legs, and having at the top, in the middle, a mere opening, through which the head is thrust. With the ulmenes (princes), the dress is of better material. They wear hats with tufts of feathers and heavy silver spurs, and carry rods with knobs of this metal. With all this, they go barefoot like the rest. Their martial attire consists of a tabard and a helmet hood of strong ox-hide, frequently ornamented with handsome feathers. In Chili itself the Roman Catholic is the established religion. In the cities, as in every place in which Europeans have settled in America, European manners have been introduced. (Pl. 30, fig. 15, men and women of La Conception; fig. 16, girl of that place; fig. 17, a Chilian of the lower ranks.)

  2. The people of Tetra del Fuego inhabit all the coasts of Terra del Fuego and both sides of the Strait of Magellan, from Elizabeth Island and Port Famine in the east to the archipelago that fills up all the western parts of the north and south sides of the Strait. From the Patagonians they are separated partly by the ocean, in part by the mountain chain on the isthmus connecting the peninsula of Brunswick with the mainland. Their mode of life and the glaciers of their mountain country constrain them to remain upon the coasts exclusively.

    They are called Pesherays, and are described as being cold, poor, and wretched, like the nature of this region. Forster relates of them: “All other nations of the South Sea usually met us with a loud huzza or joyful exclamation, but the inhabitants of Terra del Fuego kept up a profound silence, even when close to the ship, where we expected at least an address; they uttered no other sound than ‘pesheray.’ When, after many signs, some of them were brought on board the vessel, they showed not the slightest indications of pleasure, and appeared also to be entirely without curiosity. They were short of stature, none over five feet six inches in height; had thick, large heads, broad faces, very flat noses, and the cheek bones under the eyes were very prominent. The eyes themselves were of a brown color, but small and dull; the hair black, entirely straight, anointed with train oil, and hanging wild and shaggy around the head. Instead of a beard, a few isolated bristles stood upon the chin. Their mouth was ugly and always open; shoulders and chest broad and strong; the lower part of the body, however, so meagre and shrivelled up, that one could scarcely imagine it belonged to the upper portion. The legs were thin and crooked, and the knees much too large. Their single miserable article of clothing consisted of an old sealskin, which was fastened around the neck by means of a cord. For the rest, they went entirely naked. Their complexion is olive brown with a copper colored tinge, and by many the hue is heightened by means of stripes of red and white ochre. The women were formed almost like the men, but were somewhat smaller and less ugly. Besides the word pesheray, at one time uttered in a complaining, at another in a caressing tone, some of them spoke a few other words.” So far Forster’s account. Later travellers have witnessed a rather greater display of interest in European ships, wares, and the like; they have also seen the Pesherays dance and heard them sing, and found them somewhat more conversible. Their food consisted of seals’ flesh, frequently already spoiled, and greasy and disgusting blubber was their most esteemed article of diet. Their weapons, which consisted of bow, arrows, and a lance, gave the only proof of any reflection and of some industry. The Pesharays appear to pass in their canoes or rafts from one island to another, but nevertheless have their fixed places of abode. Their villages consist of a few huts of the rudest construction. A pair of poles being set upright, are bent towards each other somewhat in the form of a beehive, and covered on the weather side with grass, boughs, seal and other skins; the other side having an opening of about the eighth part of the circle as a door. Here also is the place for the fire, around which the family, in midsummer, sit trembling with the cold.

IV. Plate 35: Scenes from Greenland, Brazil, and Patagonia
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The Pampans are the inhabitants of the great plains or pampas. Their places of residence commence at the Strait of Magellan, in 53° south latitude, upon the arid and cold soil of Patagonia, extend across the north-western pampas, and along the temperate, hot, and in part shaded plains of the River Gran Chaco, as far as the first hills of the province of Chiquitos, in 19° south latitude.

In general, these nations are brownish, olive-colored, or chestnut-brown; their medium size is five feet, two or three inches; their forms, however, are herculean; the forehead is arched, the face broad and flat, the nose broad and depressed, with wide, open nostrils; the mouth, at the same time, very large; the lips thick, very projecting; the eyes horizontal, yet sometimes contracted at the outer corner; the eye-bones projecting; the features manly and expressive, but cold, and frequently fierce. In almost every instance they are roving, martial, and often cruel tribes. We divide them into the following nations:

  1. The Patagonians (Tehuelches). They inhabit the southernmost part of America, from 40° south latitude to the southern extremity of this division of the world: a rough, barren country, in the southern half of which the weather is even more constantly and penetratingly cold than is the case in the most frigid regions of the north. But little is known of them; and that little—at least what has been mentioned of their extraordinary bodily size—appears to be undeserving of full belief. For centuries the Patagonians were the more important objects of curiosity, the more fabulous the notices of them given us by travellers. The first circumnavigators of the globe described them as true giants, of nine, indeed even twelve feet in height, colossally formed. Other travellers, on the contrary, asserted that they were persons of the usual size; indeed, even small. The Patagonians call themselves Tehulhets, and by the Spaniards have been denominated Sierranes (Mountaineers). They are likewise split into numerous tribes. By recent travellers they are described as persons of from five feet six to ten inches (Paris measure) in height, and with their vigorous, broad-shouldered frame, the size of the head, and the thickness of their limbs, of course appear still larger. They are strong and corpulent, of dense muscle and firm flesh. At the same time, their figures are not disagreeable. Their face is round; the eyes are sparkling; the teeth very white. Their long black hair is worn fastened firmly upon the crown. Some men wear long, but thin mustachios. Their complexion is copper-brown. In point of size, the women bear a proportion to the men. Their complexion, however, is lighter. The attire of the men consists of a sleeveless coat, made of the skins of animals, thrown over the body, and bound around the waist by means of a girdle. A broad piece of leather is worn also around the middle of the body. Horse-hide boots cover the feet. They paint the face and body with bright colored lines, and ornament themselves besides with rings, bracelets, and strings of imitation coral beads. The dress of the women is much the same. In general, the Patagonians are described as good-natured. Their principal weapon is the ball-sling, which consists of two round stones connected by thongs, and inclosed by the latter in a net-like manner; but lances, bows, and clubs are also used by them. They are a wandering nation of hunters; pay no attention to agriculture, and live upon the flesh of wild lamas, horses, ostriches (rheas), and other animals. The horse is everything to them; and their dwellings consist at the most of light tents of skins or rushes. (Pl. 35, fig. 6, huts and graves of the southern Patagonians; pl. 33, fig. 7, Patagonians in their camp.)
  2. The Puelches dwell between the Rio Negro and the Rio Colorado; especially on the banks of the latter.
  3. The Charruas east of Urucruay, north of latitude 31° south.
  4. The Mbocobis or Tobas fill the greatest part of Chaco, in latitudes 21° to 32° south.
  5. The Mataguayos from 22° to 28° south latitude.
  6. The Abipones.
  7. The Lenguas.
  8. The Payaguas.
  9. The Mbayos, and
  10. the Guaycouros. (Pl. 35, fig. 3, charge of horse by the Guaycouros.) The latter are a tribe now almost unknown, who used to live on the banks of the Gran Chacos.

The Chiquitos, the American aborigines of the province of Chiquito, are light brownish olive-colored. Their medium height is 5 feet 1\(\frac{1}{2}\)inches; the figure moderately robust; the face full and round; the forehead arched; the nose short, and little flattened; the mouth moderate, with thin, small, projecting lips; the eyes are horizontal, sometimes moderately slit at the outer side; the cheek-bones not prominent; the features effeminate, and the physiognomy indicating vigilance, vivacity, and cheerfulness. We divide them into the following nations: The Chiquitos, Samucus, Curaves, Tapiis, Corabecas, Saravecas, Otuquis or Otukes, Curuminacas, Covarecas, Curucanecas, and Paiconecas.

The Moxos inhabit the province of Moxos; are olive-brown in complexion, but not very dark; their medium height is five feet, one inch, and eight lines; the limbs are robust; the forehead is slightly arched; the mouth of moderate size; the lips are somewhat projecting; the eyes horizontal and not slit; the cheek-bones not very prominent, and the physiognomy is mild. They are divided into the following nations: The Moxos, Chapacuras, Cayuvavas, Pacaguaras, Itenes, Itonamas, Canichanas, and Movimas.

The Guaranis or Caribs. This great stock displays in general a yellow complexion, intermixed with very pale red; the medium height is five feet; the forms are very massive; the forehead is not retreating; the face full and circular; the nose short and narrow; the nostrils are narrow; the mouth moderate-sized, not projecting, with small lips; the eyes frequently stand obliquely, and are always elevated at the exterior angle; the cheek-bones are not very prominent, and the features are mostly soft and delicate. The Guaranis, who might be called the Brazilian stock, after the country in which they more especially dwell, occupy the entire eastern moiety of South America, from the Antilles to the vicinity of the Plata river. The nations belonging here are so numerous, that we can select only a few of them. The principal nation are the Guaranis proper (Tupi, Caribs, Caraïbs), who in large numbers inhabit the entire eastern part of the southern half of the New World. Martius divides this great nation (that is, the part of it found extended over Brazil and over the borders of Bolivia, Paraguay, and Montevideo or Uruguay) into five groups and thirty-one nations, to which nine others may still be added.

IV. Plate 37: Rites and Ceremonies of Mexican and South American Indians
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The Guaranis are good natured, gentle, frank, hospitable, easily persuaded, and blindly follow a principle once embraced. Theft and adultery are so greatly detested as to be punished with death. They are as good fathers as they are husbands, and unacquainted with envy and malevolence. But it cannot be denied that they are cruel and bloodthirsty towards their enemies, and even kill and eat their prisoners of war. It is said, however, that cannibalism is not practised by all the tribes, and that it ceased with the conquest. The Guaranis are serious, but fond of games and festivals. Divided into small tribes and families, they always settle down on the shores of a brook, a lake, on the border of a wood; sometimes upon plains, at others in the thick of the forest. Usually they have fixed abodes, being at the same time farmers, hunters, fishermen, and sailors. The Guaranis take a second wife when the first grows old, but keep the latter in their house, and honor her as the most worthy. The weapons of the Guaranis consisted formerly of bow and arrows and a club; the latter in some cases round, and in others having cutting edges. Besides the manufacture of these articles, their industrial arts were confined to the building of huts and pirogues, as well as the weaving of their mats and parts of female dress. Much attention was paid to the fabrication of feather decorations, armlets, and leg-bands of different forms. The women made vessels for keeping drinks, and coffins for the dead, of clay. The same industrial arts, and the same usages, exist now also among the uncivilized Guaranis. At the present day (as they did formerly) the Guaranis go naked; or, when travelling, make use of a very scanty covering. Women sometimes WTap a piece of stuff around the hips. At the same time the Guaranis cover the body with black, red, and yellow daubings of paint, in such a manner that the half of the person is uniform in color. Only those who have become civilized are accustomed to dress themselves in light, loose garments. The chiefs of the numerous small tribes often obtain their rank by inheritance, but have no other rights than those of giving advice in peace, and heading the attack in time of war. Religion among the uncivilized Guaranis, like their manners, was and is simple, and quite as mild in its character as the disposition of some of the tribes. (Pl. 37, fig. 2, Guaranis in the forests of Paraguay as cannibals; fig. 3, the preparation of the cacuin drink among the same; fig. 4, war dance of the eastern Guaranis (Tupinambas); fig. 5, captives of the same, led to death; and fig. 6, funeral among the same; pl. 32, figs. 6, [7], civilized Guaranis of Paraguay and the province of Rio Grande.) The tribe of eastern Guaranis, Tupinambas, dwell principally along the sea-coast of St. Catharine’s Island, to the mouth of the river Amazon.

IV. Plate 36: Sports and Duels of Various South American Indians
Engraver: Henry Winkles

Other nations of Brazil and Guiana, not belonging to the Guaranis, are:

The Puris, who formerly constituted one nation with the Coroados, but afterwards separated from them; hence, their customs are very similar to those of the latter. The Coropos and Macuanis belong to them also. The greatest part of the Puris have not been subjugated by the European settlers, but are at peace with them. They dwell on the upper course of the Paraiba, and in the interior of the province of Espirito Santo, between the river of the same name and the Paraiba, and with the Guianas on Rio Iguassu and Rio Xipoto. (Pl. 36, fig. 1, dance of the Puris; fig. 6, duel of the sanne.)

The Coroados are still living in the forests of Rio Xipoto in the province of Minas Geraës, and as yet in a condition of semi-barbarism. The most civilized of those found between the rivers Macahe and Cabapuana are the tribe called Goitacas. (Fig. 2, drinking frolic of Coroados.) The Coropos dwell beside the Coroados, along the Rio Xipoto, in the Presidio de San Joao Baptista. The Macuanis are at present settled in part on the coast at Caravellas, partly in the neighborhood of the Quartel of Alto dos Boys, in Minas Novas.

The Botocudos or Aymoris, who call themselves Engecrakenong, dwelt in the sixteenth century in the Captaincy of Ilheos, extending as far as Porto Seguro, where they carried on a cruel war with the Portuguese colonists; but are now found in the interior, upon a section of country running parallel to the Atlantic coast, and between the Rio Doce and the Rio Pardo, lying between 18° and 20° south latitude, mainly upon the Sierra dos Aimores. Their number amounts to about 4,000.

The Botocudos received their name from the Portuguese, from the fact of their wearing in the under lip and lobe of the ear pieces of wood resembling the bung of a cask (Portuguese, botoque or batoque). They live by hunting and fishing. A singular custom is the one just alluded to, that of piercing the under lip and ear lobe, and placing in the openings thick, round disks of wood. From time to time, when the apertures have become enlarged, the blocks are replaced by larger pieces, as it is considered a great beauty among them in case the wooden stoppers are very large. At last the under lip projects so far horizontally that it can no longer be moved upwards, nor the mouth closed. The ear lobes hang down so much that when the wooden stoppers are removed they almost touch the shoulders. In their native country, the complexion of the Botocudos is brown; it probably becomes darker by reason of the rubbing with oil and clay practised amongst them. The Botocudos appear to be even tempered, and at the same time timid. They have remained independent even until the present time, and are divided into different tribes, some of which evince a desire of cultivating friendly relations with the whites, and do not eat human flesh; whilst the principal tribe, which is addicted to this barbarous custom, is distinguished for cruelty and implacable hatred towards the European settlers; and, rendered sufficiently sagacious by misfortune, has, in spite of exertions and sacrifices on the part of the government, known how to maintain its freedom in the forests, and keep its original ground. How shamefully Indians are dealt with, is shown in the treatment of the Botocudos. The whites were not satisfied with shooting them down wherever they met them, but employed also the most disgraceful means in order to surprise them in their dwellings, and massacre them without mercy. Under assurances of friendship they enticed them to draw near, gave them food, and murdered them whilst they were eating. Indeed, they went so far as to hang up in the forests clothes of persons ill with the small pox, so that they might be found and put on by the Botocudos, and thus communicate the disease to their fellows; which soon effectually swept off countless numbers. Truly, under such circumstances it is not surprising that the Botocudos do not act less cruelly towards the whites.

All Botocudos are of medium size, thick-set, broad shouldered, and strongly built. In war, they steal upon their enemies in the manner employed by them when hunting game. Their weapons consist of a bow seven feet long, with arrows five feet in length. Their leaders are distinguished more by prudence in the arrangement of the battle, than by valor; they do not even take part in the combat. Their prisoners are killed in order that the flesh may be eaten; the flesh of negroes, however, is preferred to that of whites. The Botocudos appear to be particularly fond of the blood of the slain. On the whole, we have but few accounts of their customs and usages. (Pl. 36, fig. 5, a, single combat of Botocudos; fig. 5, b, battle of women of this nation.)

Besides the above are the Canarins, Machakans, Malalis, Patachos, Camacans, Paniames, &c., as well as the Capoxos (Capochos, Caposfios), a nomadic tribe in the rocky mountain forests, upon the boundary between Minas Geraës and Porto Seguro (pl. 35, fig. 2, Capoxos shooting birds), the Sabujos, &c.

IV. Plate 32: Various South American Peoples
Engraver: Henry Winkles

The Camacans have gradually accustomed themselves to fixed residences. Their skin has a handsome brown, often tolerably dark color. Their huts are constructed of laths, and covered with pieces of bark of trees. Around them they plant bananas, maize, manioc (the roots of which they eat roasted), and sweet potatoes; honey is one of their most esteemed articles of food. Some skill in the arts is displayed by them. The women in particular are very dexterous in manufacturing cotton, the threads of which they understand how to twist in a very neat manner, so as to be able to make of them an apron, their only article of clothing. On festive occasions they wear besides a cap, called sharo, which consists of a cotton-thread net, trimmed with parrot feathers. Very neat vessels are made by them of clay. In case the spoils of hunting have been good, the Camacans are very much inclined to get up feasts, with dancing and singing, at which they go by turns to a cask and drink cam, a liquor prepared from maize and manioc by the women. (Pl. 32, fig. 1, Camacans in the forest; fig. 2, the dancing and drinking feast just mentioned.)

In the province of Mato Grosso live the Caupeses, Guajis, Cabijis, Parecis, &c.; upon the west side, in the eastern part of Campos dos Parecis, however, and upon the northern declivity of this table land, the Maturares, Mambares, Ujapas, Mambriacas, and many others.

In the province of Goyaz, and the neighboring countries, dwell the Cayapos (Caipos), Aroes, Tapirakes, Chavantes, Cherentes, Puchetys, Carayas, Tapacoas, &c.; and especially the Ges or Gez, a great nation, of whom many populous hordes and tribes are known. They reside in the country between the Tocantins and Araguya, to within 140 miles south of San Pedro de Alcantara, and extend their excursions frequently as far northwards as Para. Until the present time they have remained unsubdued, but isolated hordes have commercial intercourse with travellers. On account of their savage, rapacious attacks, they are dangerous to the settlers. They are divided into Norogua-, Apina-, Canacata-, Manacoh-, Poncata-, Païcab-, Ao-, Cran-, and Cricata-Gez; the last called also Falcon Indians. The Crans (Tumbias, Imbiras) are unquestionably a branch of the Gez, and divided into ten tribes, whose hostile inroads are extended far into the provinces of Para and Maranhao.

In the provinces of Piahu and Maranhao, and in the interior of Bahia, dwell the Acroas, the Masacaras, Jaicos, Pimenteiras, Chocos or Chucurus, &c.

In Para, along the Rio dos Amazonas (Amazon river), live, upon the south side of the stream, the Coyacas, Ammarious, Tacuhunos, Jacundas, Pirikitas, Muras, and others; upon the north side, the Amicuanos, Armabutos, Tucujus, Wayapis, Aracujus, &